A Species Flock Driven by Predation? Secondary Metabolites Support Diversification of Slugs in Antarctica
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{"title"=>"A species flock driven by predation? Secondary metabolites support diversification of slugs in Antarctica", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Nerida G.", "last_name"=>"Wilson", "scopus_author_id"=>"7402218505"}, {"first_name"=>"J. Alan", "last_name"=>"Maschek", "scopus_author_id"=>"55353057300"}, {"first_name"=>"Bill J.", "last_name"=>"Baker", "scopus_author_id"=>"7401449480"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"24303002", "issn"=>"19326203", "sgr"=>"84896731347", "pui"=>"372438560", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84896731347", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0080277"}, "id"=>"8206c86e-d47f-3760-917b-72ee7269404f", "abstract"=>"Antarctica’s rich marine animal biodiversity has been substantially influenced by a complex glacial history, but it is unclear why some taxa responded with diversification while others did not. Despite being considered a single endemic sea slug species in the Southern Ocean, mitochondrial DNA sequencing of Doris kerguelenensis (Bergh, 1884) revealed a multitude of highly divergent lineages. But because of the uniparental inheritance of mitochondria, it was unclear whether those lineages represented a radiation of cryptic species or simply stochastic sorting patterns of populations that rarely reach equilibrium. Here we demonstrate that the mitochondrial groups in D. kerguelenensis also correlate with nuclear DNA. Additionally, by extracting secondary metabolites from the same individuals we sequenced, we were also able to directly link the secondary metabolome to a mitochondrial lineage. These metabolites are not derived from the diet, but instead are synthesized de novo and implicated in an anti-predatory role. The strong linkage between these metabolites and the mitochondrial lineages strongly suggests that these lineages represent cryptic species in an adaptive radiation. Over millions of years, episodic glacial cycles reduced the distribution of a formerly widespread slug into a series of small vicariant refuges, vulnerable to genetic drift and predation pressure. The recognition of this marine invertebrate species flock implicates a strongly synergistic role for selection and allopatry driving speciation in this system. Citation:", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/species-flock-driven-predation-secondary-metabolites-support-diversification-slugs-antarctica", "reader_count"=>30, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Researcher"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>8, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>8, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Researcher"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>8, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>8, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Environmental Science"=>3, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>21, "Chemistry"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>21}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>3}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>3, "Brazil"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Australia"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1295856"], "description"=>"<p>(<b>a</b>) Multivariate dendrogram (similarity metric  =  correlation coefficient) for 54 individuals of <i>Doris ‘kerguelenensis’</i> based on extracted total chromatogram mass (TCM) spectra for <i>m/z</i> values with a retention time of 2.5–17 min. The correlation is not size dependent, but rather takes the baseline corrected average mass spectrum of a sample so that comparisons of shapes are more important. Groups with similar chemistry are designated and coloured based on an arbitrarily designated cut-off threshold of 0.3 similarity. Letters below the dendrogram refer to individual slugs. Numbers in coloured blocks below dendrogram give the corresponding phylogroups derived from molecular data. (<b>b</b>) Maximum-likelihood (ML) topology for 193 individuals of <i>D. ‘kerguelenensis’</i> based on combined mitochondrial COI, 16S and nuclear ANT data. *indicates bootstrap support of 95 or above <i>and</i> posterior probability of 0.98 or above. Support values less than 60 or 0.90 are not shown. Terminals are coloured to show the distribution and designation of individuals with corresponding chemical data. Scale bar, 0.07 expected changes per site, ML.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>[], "article_id"=>862621, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Nerida G. Wilson", "J. Alan Maschek", "Bill J. Baker"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080277.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Group_membership_based_on_chemical_and_genetic_data_/862621", "title"=>"Group membership based on chemical and genetic data.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-26 03:35:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1295865", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1295866", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1295867", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1295868", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1295869"], "description"=>"<div><p>Antarctica's rich marine animal biodiversity has been substantially influenced by a complex glacial history, but it is unclear why some taxa responded with diversification while others did not. Despite being considered a single endemic sea slug species in the Southern Ocean, mitochondrial DNA sequencing of <i>Doris kerguelenensis</i> (Bergh, 1884) revealed a multitude of highly divergent lineages. But because of the uniparental inheritance of mitochondria, it was unclear whether those lineages represented a radiation of cryptic species or simply stochastic sorting patterns of populations that rarely reach equilibrium. Here we demonstrate that the mitochondrial groups in <i>D. kerguelenensis</i> also correlate with nuclear DNA. Additionally, by extracting secondary metabolites from the same individuals we sequenced, we were also able to directly link the secondary metabolome to a mitochondrial lineage. These metabolites are not derived from the diet, but instead are synthesized de novo and implicated in an anti-predatory role. The strong linkage between these metabolites and the mitochondrial lineages strongly suggests that these lineages represent cryptic species in an adaptive radiation. Over millions of years, episodic glacial cycles reduced the distribution of a formerly widespread slug into a series of small vicariant refuges, vulnerable to genetic drift and predation pressure. The recognition of this marine invertebrate species flock implicates a strongly synergistic role for selection and allopatry driving speciation in this system.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["flock", "driven", "metabolites", "diversification", "slugs"], "article_id"=>862630, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Nerida G. Wilson", "J. Alan Maschek", "Bill J. Baker"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080277.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080277.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080277.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080277.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080277.s005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>12, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_A_Species_Flock_Driven_by_Predation_Secondary_Metabolites_Support_Diversification_of_Slugs_in_Antarctica_/862630", "title"=>"A Species Flock Driven by Predation? Secondary Metabolites Support Diversification of Slugs in Antarctica", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-11-26 03:35:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1295853"], "description"=>"<p>Individual slugs are identified with alphabetic characters; <i>m/z</i> values show a retention time of 2.5–17 min.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ion", "chromatogram", "spectra"], "article_id"=>862619, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Nerida G. Wilson", "J. Alan Maschek", "Bill J. Baker"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080277.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Examples_of_total_ion_current_TIC_chromatogram_mass_spectra_for_selected_phylogroups_/862619", "title"=>"Examples of total ion current (TIC) chromatogram mass spectra for selected phylogroups.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-26 03:35:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1295858"], "description"=>"<p>Data based on extracted total chromatogram mass (TCM) spectra for <i>m/z</i> values with a retention time of 2.5–17 min. Each dot represents an individual slug coloured according to its chemo-group designation from the dendrogram in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0080277#pone-0080277-g002\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 2</a>. The genetic phylogroup designations are overlaid for select groups, and demonstrate that some putative chemical differences within a phylogroup identified by similarity analyses are not corroborated by PCA (e.g. phylogroup 29). It also shows that different phylogroups with similar chemical profiles can de differentiated by PCA (e.g. phylogroups 24 and 29).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["tcm", "pc1versus", "pc2", "centering"], "article_id"=>862623, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Nerida G. Wilson", "J. Alan Maschek", "Bill J. Baker"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080277.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Principal_component_analysis_of_TCM_spectra_PC1versus_PC2_x_y_centering_applied_for_selected_phylogroups_/862623", "title"=>"Principal component analysis of TCM spectra, PC1versus PC2 (x,y; centering applied) for selected phylogroups.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-26 03:35:39"}

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Relative Metric

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