Low Birth Weight, Small for Gestational Age and Preterm Births before and after the Economic Collapse in Iceland: A Population Based Cohort Study
Publication Date
December 04, 2013
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Védís Helga Eiríksdóttir, Tinna Laufey Ásgeirsdóttir, Ragnheiður Ingibjörg Bjarnadóttir, Robert Kaestner, et al
Volume
8
Issue
12
Pages
e80499
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080499
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0080499
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24324602
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3851132
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/24324602
Web of Science
000327949300023
Scopus
84891876671
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/low-birth-weight-small-gestational-age-preterm-births-before-after-economic-collapse-iceland-populat-7
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Low Birth Weight, Small for Gestational Age and Preterm Births before and after the Economic Collapse in Iceland: A Population Based Cohort Study", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Védís Helga", "last_name"=>"Eiríksdóttir"}, {"first_name"=>"Tinna Laufey", "last_name"=>"Ásgeirsdóttir"}, {"first_name"=>"Ragnheiður Ingibjörg", "last_name"=>"Bjarnadóttir"}, {"first_name"=>"Robert", "last_name"=>"Kaestner"}, {"first_name"=>"Sven", "last_name"=>"Cnattingius"}, {"first_name"=>"Unnur Anna", "last_name"=>"Valdimarsdóttir"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"1932-6203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0080499", "pmid"=>"24324602", "isbn"=>"1932-6203"}, "id"=>"36e646d4-6512-335e-b901-c49e52b7036b", "abstract"=>"OBJECTIVE: Infants born small for gestational age (SGA) or preterm have increased rates of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Stressful events have been suggested as potential contributors to preterm birth (PB) and low birth weight (LBW). We studied the effect of the 2008 economic collapse in Iceland on the risks of adverse birth outcomes.\\r\\n\\r\\nSTUDY DESIGN: The study population constituted all Icelandic women giving birth to live-born singletons from January 1(st) 2006 to December 31(st) 2009. LBW infants were defined as those weighing <2500 grams at birth, PB infants as those born before 37 weeks of gestation and SGA as those with a birth weight for gestational age more than 2 standard deviations (SD's) below the mean according to the Swedish fetal growth curve. We used logistic regression analysis to estimate odds ratios [OR] and corresponding 95 percent confidence intervals [95% CI] of adverse birth outcomes by exposure to calendar time of the economic collapse, i.e. after October 6(th) 2008.\\r\\n\\r\\nRESULTS: Compared to the preceding period, we observed an increased adjusted odds in LBW-deliveries following the collapse (aOR = 1.24, 95% CI [1.02, 1.52]), particularly among infants born to mothers younger than 25 years (aOR = 1.85, 95% CI [1.25, 2.72]) and not working mothers (aOR = 1.61, 95% CI [1.10, 2.35]). Similarly, we found a tendency towards higher incidence of SGA-births (aOR = 1.14, 95% CI [0.86, 1.51]) particularly among children born to mothers younger than 25 years (aOR = 1.87, 95% CI [1.09, 3.23]) and not working mothers (aOR = 1.86, 95% CI [1.09, 3.17]). No change in risk of PB was observed. The increase of LBW was most distinct 6-9 months after the collapse.\\r\\n\\r\\nCONCLUSION: The results suggest an increase in risk of LBW shortly after the collapse of the Icelandic national economy. The increase in LBW seems to be driven by reduced fetal growth rate rather than shorter gestation.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/low-birth-weight-small-gestational-age-preterm-births-before-after-economic-collapse-iceland-populat-7", "reader_count"=>20, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>3, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>3, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>3, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>3, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>11, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>2, "Psychology"=>2, "Social Sciences"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>11}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>2}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Iceland"=>1, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>4}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1303306"], "description"=>"£<p>Missing values n = 396 were excluded from analysis.</p>¥<p>Missing values n = 116 were excluded from analysis.</p>β<p>Missing values n = 229 were excluded from analysis.</p>*<p><i>p</i>-values are based on Chi-square test, except for maternal age where independent sample t-test was used.</p>**<p>Difference is statistically significant within p = 0.05.</p>***<p>Difference is statistically significant equal to or within p = 0.001.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["oct"], "article_id"=>868411, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Védís Helga Eiríksdóttir", "Tinna Laufey Ásgeirsdóttir", "Ragnheiður Ingibjörg Bjarnadóttir", "Robert Kaestner", "Sven Cnattingius", "Unnur Anna Valdimarsdóttir"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080499.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Maternal_characteristics_during_the_study_period_before_and_after_Oct_6_th_2008_/868411", "title"=>"Maternal characteristics during the study period, before and after Oct 6<sup>th</sup> 2008.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-12-04 04:00:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1303305"], "description"=>"α<p>SGA is inherently adjusted for infant's sex.</p>*<p>Odds ratio adjusted for seasonal variation, maternal age and parity.</p>**<p>Odds ratio adjusted for seasonal variation, maternal age, parity, sex, diabetes and hypertension.</p>***<p>Odds ratio adjusted for seasonal variation, maternal age, parity, sex, diabetes, hypertension, relationship status, place of residency and employment status.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["covariates", "gestational", "preterm", "october"], "article_id"=>868410, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Védís Helga Eiríksdóttir", "Tinna Laufey Ásgeirsdóttir", "Ragnheiður Ingibjörg Bjarnadóttir", "Robert Kaestner", "Sven Cnattingius", "Unnur Anna Valdimarsdóttir"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080499.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_separate_and_combined_effect_of_covariates_on_the_odds_ratio_of_low_birth_weight_small_for_gestational_age_and_preterm_birth_during_the_two_study_periods_before_and_after_October_6_th_2008_/868410", "title"=>"The separate and combined effect of covariates on the odds ratio of low birth weight, small for gestational age and preterm birth during the two study periods, before and after October 6<sup>th</sup> 2008.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-12-04 04:00:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1303308", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1303309"], "description"=>"<div><p>Objective</p><p>Infants born small for gestational age (SGA) or preterm have increased rates of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Stressful events have been suggested as potential contributors to preterm birth (PB) and low birth weight (LBW). We studied the effect of the 2008 economic collapse in Iceland on the risks of adverse birth outcomes.</p><p>Study design</p><p>The study population constituted all Icelandic women giving birth to live-born singletons from January 1<sup>st</sup> 2006 to December 31<sup>st</sup> 2009. LBW infants were defined as those weighing <2500 grams at birth, PB infants as those born before 37 weeks of gestation and SGA as those with a birth weight for gestational age more than 2 standard deviations (SD's) below the mean according to the Swedish fetal growth curve. We used logistic regression analysis to estimate odds ratios [OR] and corresponding 95 percent confidence intervals [95% CI] of adverse birth outcomes by exposure to calendar time of the economic collapse, i.e. after October 6<sup>th</sup> 2008.</p><p>Results</p><p>Compared to the preceding period, we observed an increased adjusted odds in LBW-deliveries following the collapse (aOR = 1.24, 95% CI [1.02, 1.52]), particularly among infants born to mothers younger than 25 years (aOR = 1.85, 95% CI [1.25, 2.72]) and not working mothers (aOR = 1.61, 95% CI [1.10, 2.35]). Similarly, we found a tendency towards higher incidence of SGA-births (aOR = 1.14, 95% CI [0.86, 1.51]) particularly among children born to mothers younger than 25 years (aOR = 1.87, 95% CI [1.09, 3.23]) and not working mothers (aOR = 1.86, 95% CI [1.09, 3.17]). No change in risk of PB was observed. The increase of LBW was most distinct 6–9 months after the collapse.</p><p>Conclusion</p><p>The results suggest an increase in risk of LBW shortly after the collapse of the Icelandic national economy. The increase in LBW seems to be driven by reduced fetal growth rate rather than shorter gestation.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["gestational", "preterm", "births", "cohort"], "article_id"=>868413, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Védís Helga Eiríksdóttir", "Tinna Laufey Ásgeirsdóttir", "Ragnheiður Ingibjörg Bjarnadóttir", "Robert Kaestner", "Sven Cnattingius", "Unnur Anna Valdimarsdóttir"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080499.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080499.s002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>12, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Low_Birth_Weight_Small_for_Gestational_Age_and_Preterm_Births_before_and_after_the_Economic_Collapse_in_Iceland_A_Population_Based_Cohort_Study_/868413", "title"=>"Low Birth Weight, Small for Gestational Age and Preterm Births before and after the Economic Collapse in Iceland: A Population Based Cohort Study", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-12-04 04:00:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1303307"], "description"=>"*<p>OR adjusted for maternal age; parity and seasonal variation.</p>**<p>Statistically significant difference between the time periods.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["small-for-gestational", "preterm", "oct", "stratified", "maternal"], "article_id"=>868412, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Védís Helga Eiríksdóttir", "Tinna Laufey Ásgeirsdóttir", "Ragnheiður Ingibjörg Bjarnadóttir", "Robert Kaestner", "Sven Cnattingius", "Unnur Anna Valdimarsdóttir"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080499.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Adjusted_odds_ratio_of_low_birth_weight_small_for_gestational_age_and_preterm_birth_during_the_study_period_before_and_after_Oct_6_th_2008_stratified_by_maternal_characteristics_/868412", "title"=>"Adjusted odds ratio of low birth weight, small-for-gestational age and preterm birth during the study period, before and after Oct 6<sup>th</sup> 2008, stratified by maternal characteristics.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-12-04 04:00:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1303304"], "description"=>"Φ<p>Missing values n = 8.</p>€<p>Missing values n = 2.</p>*<p><i>p</i>-values are based on Chi-square test, except for birth weight and gestational length where linear regression analysis, adjusted for maternal age, parity and seasonality was used. Significance level is 0.05.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["oct"], "article_id"=>868409, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Védís Helga Eiríksdóttir", "Tinna Laufey Ásgeirsdóttir", "Ragnheiður Ingibjörg Bjarnadóttir", "Robert Kaestner", "Sven Cnattingius", "Unnur Anna Valdimarsdóttir"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080499.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Obstetric_characteristics_during_the_study_period_before_and_after_Oct_6_th_2008_/868409", "title"=>"Obstetric characteristics during the study period, before and after Oct 6<sup>th</sup> 2008.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-12-04 04:00:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1303303"], "description"=>"<p>Odds ratio and 95% CI for (a) low birth weight, (b) small-for-gestational age and (c) preterm birth infants in Iceland for 8 three months intervals, prior to and after the economic collapse compared with the same intervals from each of two years before.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ci", "small-for-gestational", "preterm", "infants", "iceland", "months", "compared", "intervals", "years"], "article_id"=>868408, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Védís Helga Eiríksdóttir", "Tinna Laufey Ásgeirsdóttir", "Ragnheiður Ingibjörg Bjarnadóttir", "Robert Kaestner", "Sven Cnattingius", "Unnur Anna Valdimarsdóttir"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080499.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Odds_ratio_and_95_CI_for_a_low_birth_weight_b_small_for_gestational_age_and_c_preterm_birth_infants_in_Iceland_for_8_three_months_intervals_prior_to_and_after_the_economic_collapse_compared_with_the_same_intervals_from_each_of_two_years_before_/868408", "title"=>"Odds ratio and 95% CI for (a) low birth weight, (b) small-for-gestational age and (c) preterm birth infants in Iceland for 8 three months intervals, prior to and after the economic collapse compared with the same intervals from each of two years before.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-12-04 04:00:11"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"80", "full-text"=>"85", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"108", "full-text"=>"116", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"167", "full-text"=>"188", "pdf"=>"9", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"144", "full-text"=>"160", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"151", "full-text"=>"182", "pdf"=>"8", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"151", "full-text"=>"174", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2013-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2013-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Health care", "average_usage"=>[278, 463, 587, 692, 804, 897, 984, 1068, 1165, 1254, 1339, 1429, 1490]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Physiology", "average_usage"=>[258, 449, 572, 679, 775, 866, 956, 1041, 1124, 1211, 1291, 1371, 1437]}, {"subject_area"=>"/People and places/Population groupings", "average_usage"=>[265, 456, 578, 682, 782, 881, 965, 1053, 1133, 1223, 1310, 1391, 1457]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Social sciences/Economics", "average_usage"=>[283, 468, 592, 699, 799, 907, 980, 1079, 1187, 1282, 1376, 1479, 1547]}]}
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