Dog Behavior Co-Varies with Height, Bodyweight and Skull Shape
Publication Date
December 16, 2013
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Paul D. Mc Greevy, Dana Georgevsky, Johanna Carrasco, Michael Valenzuela, et al
Volume
8
Issue
12
Pages
e80529
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080529
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0080529
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24358107
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3864788
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/24358107
Web of Science
000328735700003
Scopus
84892938887
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/dog-behavior-covaries-height-bodyweight-skull-shape
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Dog behavior co-varies with height, bodyweight and skull shape", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Paul D.", "last_name"=>"McGreevy", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004867504"}, {"first_name"=>"Dana", "last_name"=>"Georgevsky", "scopus_author_id"=>"57194898657"}, {"first_name"=>"Johanna", "last_name"=>"Carrasco", "scopus_author_id"=>"55914765300"}, {"first_name"=>"Michael", "last_name"=>"Valenzuela", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102612008"}, {"first_name"=>"Deborah L.", "last_name"=>"Duffy", "scopus_author_id"=>"7101657968"}, {"first_name"=>"James A.", "last_name"=>"Serpell", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003792027"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84892938887", "sgr"=>"84892938887", "pui"=>"372190739", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pmid"=>"24358107", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0080529"}, "id"=>"73b21712-c5f1-3628-af25-49d46375fe56", "abstract"=>"Dogs offer unique opportunities to study correlations between morphology and behavior because skull shapes and body shape are so diverse among breeds. Several studies have shown relationships between canine cephalic index (CI: the ratio of skull width to skull length) and neural architecture. Data on the CI of adult, show-quality dogs (six males and six females) were sourced in Australia along with existing data on the breeds' height, bodyweight and related to data on 36 behavioral traits of companion dogs (n = 8,301) of various common breeds (n = 49) collected internationally using the Canine Behavioral Assessment and Research Questionnaire (C-BARQ). Stepwise backward elimination regressions revealed that, across the breeds, 33 behavioral traits all but one of which are undesirable in companion animals correlated with either height alone (n = 14), bodyweight alone (n = 5), CI alone (n = 3), bodyweight-and-skull shape combined (n = 2), height-and-skull shape combined (n = 3) or height-and-bodyweight combined (n = 6). For example, breed average height showed strongly significant inverse relationships (p<0.001) with mounting persons or objects, touch sensitivity, urination when left alone, dog-directed fear, separation-related problems, non-social fear, defecation when left alone, owner-directed aggression, begging for food, urine marking and attachment/attention-seeking, while bodyweight showed strongly significant inverse relationships (p<0.001) with excitability and being reported as hyperactive. Apart from trainability, all regression coefficients with height were negative indicating that, across the breeds, behavior becomes more problematic as height decreases. Allogrooming increased strongly (p<0.001) with CI and inversely with height. CI alone showed a strong significant positive relationship with self-grooming (p<0.001) but a negative relationship with chasing (p = 0.020). The current study demonstrates how aspects of CI (and therefore brain shape), bodyweight and height co-vary with behavior. The biological basis for, and significance of, these associations remain to be determined.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/dog-behavior-covaries-height-bodyweight-skull-shape", "reader_count"=>123, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>15, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>16, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Other"=>12, "Student > Master"=>22, "Student > Bachelor"=>23, "Lecturer"=>8, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>9}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>15, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>16, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Other"=>12, "Student > Master"=>22, "Student > Bachelor"=>23, "Lecturer"=>8, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>9}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>7, "Environmental Science"=>2, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>53, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>8, "Arts and Humanities"=>2, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>16, "Psychology"=>22, "Chemistry"=>2, "Social Sciences"=>4, "Computer Science"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>8}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>2}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>4}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>22}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>53}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>4}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>7}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>2}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>2}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>16}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Austria"=>1, "Romania"=>1, "Hungary"=>2, "United States"=>4, "Luxembourg"=>1, "Poland"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>2, "Indonesia"=>1}, "group_count"=>4}

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Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1315935"], "description"=>"*<p>Although there are two Akita breeds: The American and the Inu; C-BARQ offers only one choice: Akita.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["49", "breeds", "included", "preferred", "ci", "bodyweights", "c-barq"], "article_id"=>878512, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Paul D. McGreevy", "Dana Georgevsky", "Johanna Carrasco", "Michael Valenzuela", "Deborah L. Duffy", "James A. Serpell"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080529.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_49_breeds_included_in_the_current_study_and_their_preferred_heights_mean_CI_and_mean_bodyweights_as_reported_within_the_C_BARQ_survey_/878512", "title"=>"The 49 breeds included in the current study and their preferred heights, mean CI and mean bodyweights as reported within the C-BARQ survey.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-12-16 02:48:32"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1315932"], "description"=>"a<p>Regression coefficients with CI were positive, apart from those with chasing, stranger-directed fear, persistent barking, and stealing food.</p>b<p>All regression coefficients with height were negative, apart from the correlations of height with trainability.</p>c<p>All regression coefficients with weight were negative, apart from the correlations of weight with other stereotypic behaviors, emotional urination, tail-chasing/spinning, snapping at flies, stranger-directed aggression and being nervous on stairs.</p><p>Empty cells denote the absence of any significant regression coefficients. The <i>adjusted</i> R<sup>2</sup> value is a more reliable estimate of the amount of variation explained by an explanatory regression model.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["marginally", "p-values", "adjusted", "stepwise", "backward", "elimination", "regressions", "revealed", "relationships", "bodyweight", "reports", "33", "dogs", "breeds"], "article_id"=>878509, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Paul D. McGreevy", "Dana Georgevsky", "Johanna Carrasco", "Michael Valenzuela", "Deborah L. Duffy", "James A. Serpell"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080529.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_of_significant_and_marginally_significant_p_values_and_adjusted_R_2_values_emerging_from_three_stepwise_backward_elimination_regressions_that_revealed_relationships_between_CI_height_bodyweight_and_owner_reports_of_33_behavioral_traits_of_compani/878509", "title"=>"Summary of significant (and marginally significant*) p-values and adjusted R<sup>2</sup> values emerging from three stepwise backward elimination regressions that revealed relationships between CI, height, bodyweight and owner reports of 33 behavioral traits of companion dogs (n = 8,301) of various common breeds (n = 49).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-12-16 02:48:32"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1315930"], "description"=>"<p>Trend lines represent the linear regression from the backward stepwise regression procedure.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["relationships", "cephalic", "self-grooming", "chasing"], "article_id"=>878507, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Paul D. McGreevy", "Dana Georgevsky", "Johanna Carrasco", "Michael Valenzuela", "Deborah L. Duffy", "James A. Serpell"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080529.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Plots_of_relationships_between_cephalic_index_CI_expressed_as_a_percentage_and_self_grooming_a_and_chasing_b_/878507", "title"=>"Plots of relationships between cephalic index (CI, expressed as a percentage) and self-grooming (a) and chasing (b).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-12-16 02:48:32"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1315928"], "description"=>"<p>The length was measured from the fingertip to the tip of the nose, and the width was measured from each zygomatic arch, which was displayed by the tape placed around the widest part of the dog's head.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["taken", "held", "allowed"], "article_id"=>878505, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Paul D. McGreevy", "Dana Georgevsky", "Johanna Carrasco", "Michael Valenzuela", "Deborah L. Duffy", "James A. Serpell"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080529.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_For_the_current_study_each_photograph_was_taken_with_the_camera_held_horizontally_which_allowed_measurements_to_be_obtained_for_each_dog_s_skull_length_and_width_/878505", "title"=>"For the current study, each photograph was taken with the camera held horizontally, which allowed measurements to be obtained for each dog's skull length and width.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-12-16 02:48:32"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"108", "full-text"=>"128", "pdf"=>"23", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"4"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"34", "full-text"=>"36", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"7"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"44", "full-text"=>"61", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"26", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"12"}
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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2013-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2013-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences", "average_usage"=>[269, 466, 588, 697, 800, 896, 988, 1076, 1165, 1254, 1340, 1417]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Veterinary science", "average_usage"=>[313, 571, 709, 825, 944, 1048, 1145, 1261, 1354, 1434, 1524, 1599, 1684]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Physiology", "average_usage"=>[258, 449, 572, 679, 775, 866, 956, 1041, 1124, 1211, 1291, 1371, 1437]}]}
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