Tracking Transmission of Apicomplexan Symbionts in Diverse Caribbean Corals
Publication Date
November 19, 2013
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Nathan L. Kirk, Raphael Ritson Williams, Mary Alice Coffroth, Margaret W. Miller, et al
Volume
8
Issue
11
Pages
e80618
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080618
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0080618
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24260438
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3833926
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/24260438
Web of Science
000327311900079
Scopus
84894152723
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/tracking-transmission-apicomplexan-symbionts-diverse-caribbean-corals
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Tracking transmission of apicomplexan symbionts in diverse Caribbean corals", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Nathan L.", "last_name"=>"Kirk", "scopus_author_id"=>"11140386800"}, {"first_name"=>"Raphael", "last_name"=>"Ritson-Williams", "scopus_author_id"=>"55990345300"}, {"first_name"=>"Mary Alice", "last_name"=>"Coffroth", "scopus_author_id"=>"6604045602"}, {"first_name"=>"Margaret W.", "last_name"=>"Miller", "scopus_author_id"=>"24281761400"}, {"first_name"=>"Nicole D.", "last_name"=>"Fogarty", "scopus_author_id"=>"13204387600"}, {"first_name"=>"Scott R.", "last_name"=>"Santos", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102756393"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "pmid"=>"24260438", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0080618", "pui"=>"372407425", "issn"=>"19326203", "sgr"=>"84894152723", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84894152723"}, "id"=>"be23a184-d6ec-3a3d-bc7f-ffdb8e7fed47", "abstract"=>"Symbionts in each generation are transmitted to new host individuals either vertically (parent to offspring), horizontally (from exogenous sources), or a combination of both. Scleractinian corals make an excellent study system for understanding patterns of symbiont transmission since they harbor diverse symbionts and possess distinct reproductive modes of either internal brooding or external broadcast spawning that generally correlate with vertical or horizontal transmission, respectively. Here, we focused on the under-recognized, but apparently widespread, coral-associated apicomplexans (Protista: Alveolata) to determine if symbiont transmission depends on host reproductive mode. Specifically, a PCR-based assay was utilized towards identifying whether planula larvae and reproductive adults from brooding and broadcast spawning scleractinian coral species in Florida and Belize harbored apicomplexan DNA. Nearly all (85.5%; n = 85/89) examined planulae of five brooding species (Porites astreoides, Agaricia tenuifolia, Agaricia agaricites, Favia fragum, Mycetophyllia ferox) and adults of P. astreoides were positive for apicomplexan DNA. In contrast, no (n = 0/10) apicomplexan DNA was detected from planulae of four broadcast spawning species (Acropora cervicornis, Acropora palmata, Pseudodiploria strigosa, and Orbicella faveolata) and rarely in gametes (8.9%; n = 5/56) of these species sampled from the same geographical range as the brooding species. In contrast, tissue samples from nearly all (92.0%; n = 81/88) adults of the broadcast spawning species A. cervicornis, A. palmata and O. faveolata harbored apicomplexan DNA, including colonies whose gametes and planulae tested negative for these symbionts. Taken together, these data suggest apicomplexans are transmitted vertically in these brooding scleractinian coral species while the broadcast spawning scleractinian species examined here acquire these symbionts horizontally. Notably, these transmission patterns are consistent with those of other scleractinian coral symbionts. While this study furthers knowledge regarding these symbionts, numerous questions remain to be addressed, particularly in regard to the specific interaction(s) between these apicomplexans and their hosts.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/tracking-transmission-apicomplexan-symbionts-diverse-caribbean-corals", "reader_count"=>28, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Researcher"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>10, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>4, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Researcher"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>10, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>4, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Materials Science"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>19, "Chemistry"=>1, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>1}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>19}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "Malaysia"=>1, "Switzerland"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1287055"], "description"=>"<p>Error bars represent 95% confidence intervals. Statistical significance via Fisher’s exact tests is noted at <i>P</i> > 0.001. Species that were included in each of the categories are as follows: Brooding adults: <i>Porites astreoides</i>. Brooding planulae: <i>Agaricia agaricites</i>, <i>Agaricia tenuifolia</i>, <i>Favia fragum</i>, <i>Mycetophyllia ferox</i>, <i>P. astreoides</i>. Broadcast spawning adults: <i>Acropora cervicornis</i>, <i>Acropora palmata</i>, <i>Orbicella faveolata</i>. Broadcast spawning planulae: <i>A. cervicornis</i>, <i>A. palmata</i>, <i>O. faveolata</i>, <i>Pseudodiploria strigosa</i>. Broadcast spawning sperm: <i>A. cervicornis</i>, <i>A. palmata</i>, <i>O. faveolata</i>, <i>Orbicella franksi</i>. Broadcast spawning eggs: <i>A. cervicornis</i>, <i>A. palmata</i>, <i>O. faveolata</i>, <i>O. franksi</i>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["apicomplexan", "prevalence", "brooding", "spawning", "corals"], "article_id"=>855677, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Nathan L. Kirk", "Raphael Ritson-Williams", "Mary Alice Coffroth", "Margaret W. Miller", "Nicole D. Fogarty", "Scott R. Santos"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080618.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Total_apicomplexan_prevalence_among_brooding_grey_bars_and_broadcast_spawning_corals_white_bars_/855677", "title"=>"Total apicomplexan prevalence among brooding (grey bars) and broadcast spawning corals (white bars).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-19 02:46:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1287056", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1287057", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1287058", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1287059"], "description"=>"<div><p>Symbionts in each generation are transmitted to new host individuals either vertically (parent to offspring), horizontally (from exogenous sources), or a combination of both. Scleractinian corals make an excellent study system for understanding patterns of symbiont transmission since they harbor diverse symbionts and possess distinct reproductive modes of either internal brooding or external broadcast spawning that generally correlate with vertical or horizontal transmission, respectively. Here, we focused on the under-recognized, but apparently widespread, coral-associated apicomplexans (Protista: Alveolata) to determine if symbiont transmission depends on host reproductive mode. Specifically, a PCR-based assay was utilized towards identifying whether planula larvae and reproductive adults from brooding and broadcast spawning scleractinian coral species in Florida and Belize harbored apicomplexan DNA. Nearly all (85.5%; <i>n</i> = 85/89) examined planulae of five brooding species (<i>Porites astreoides, Agaricia tenuifolia, Agaricia agaricites, Favia fragum, Mycetophyllia ferox</i>) and adults of <i>P. astreoides</i> were positive for apicomplexan DNA. In contrast, no (<i>n</i> = 0/10) apicomplexan DNA was detected from planulae of four broadcast spawning species (<i>Acropora cervicornis</i>, <i>Acropora palmata</i>, <i>Pseudodiploria strigosa</i>, and <i>Orbicella faveolata</i>) and rarely in gametes (8.9%; <i>n</i> = 5/56) of these species sampled from the same geographical range as the brooding species. In contrast, tissue samples from nearly all (92.0%; <i>n</i> = 81/88) adults of the broadcast spawning species <i>A. cervicornis</i>, <i>A. palmata</i> and <i>O. faveolata</i> harbored apicomplexan DNA, including colonies whose gametes and planulae tested negative for these symbionts. Taken together, these data suggest apicomplexans are transmitted vertically in these brooding scleractinian coral species while the broadcast spawning scleractinian species examined here acquire these symbionts horizontally. Notably, these transmission patterns are consistent with those of other scleractinian coral symbionts. While this study furthers knowledge regarding these symbionts, numerous questions remain to be addressed, particularly in regard to the specific interaction(s) between these apicomplexans and their hosts.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["apicomplexan", "symbionts", "caribbean"], "article_id"=>855678, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Nathan L. Kirk", "Raphael Ritson-Williams", "Mary Alice Coffroth", "Margaret W. Miller", "Nicole D. Fogarty", "Scott R. Santos"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080618.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080618.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080618.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080618.s004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>12, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Tracking_Transmission_of_Apicomplexan_Symbionts_in_Diverse_Caribbean_Corals_/855678", "title"=>"Tracking Transmission of Apicomplexan Symbionts in Diverse Caribbean Corals", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-11-19 02:46:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1287053"], "description"=>"<p>Inset provides finer scale regional resolution for reefs in the Florida Keys. Brooding scleractinian coral species were collected at reefs indicated in red while broadcast spawning species were collected at reefs indicated in black. Reefs denoted in blue represent sites where species from both reproductive modes were collected. Elbow Reef=EB, Horseshoe Reef=HR, Alligator Reef=AR, Rubble Piles=RP, Looe Key=LK, Wonderland Reef=WR. See <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0080618#pone-0080618-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Tables 1</a> and <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0080618#pone-0080618-t002\" target=\"_blank\">2</a> for more detail. </p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["coral", "reefs", "sampled"], "article_id"=>855675, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Nathan L. Kirk", "Raphael Ritson-Williams", "Mary Alice Coffroth", "Margaret W. Miller", "Nicole D. Fogarty", "Scott R. Santos"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080618.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Map_of_coral_reefs_sampled_in_this_study_/855675", "title"=>"Map of coral reefs sampled in this study.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-19 02:46:56"}

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Relative Metric

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