Cell Walls and the Developmental Anatomy of the Brachypodium distachyon Stem Internode
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{"title"=>"Cell walls and the developmental anatomy of the Brachypodium distachyon stem internode", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Dominick A.", "last_name"=>"Matos", "scopus_author_id"=>"55807340600"}, {"first_name"=>"Ian P.", "last_name"=>"Whitney", "scopus_author_id"=>"56043990100"}, {"first_name"=>"Michael J.", "last_name"=>"Harrington", "scopus_author_id"=>"23485444900"}, {"first_name"=>"Samuel P.", "last_name"=>"Hazen", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006933477"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "pui"=>"372437286", "sgr"=>"84892485187", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0080640", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84892485187", "pmid"=>"24278300"}, "id"=>"d903ff94-a095-310f-bb6c-831153c9bf53", "abstract"=>"While many aspects of plant cell wall polymer structure are known, their spatial and temporal distribution within the stem are not well understood. Here, we studied vascular system and fiber development, which has implication for both biofuel feedstock conversion efficiency and crop yield. The subject of this study, Brachypodium distachyon, has emerged as a grass model for food and energy crop research. Here, we conducted our investigation using B. distachyon by applying various histological approaches and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to the stem internode from three key developmental stages. While vascular bundle size and number did not change over time, the size of the interfascicular region increased dramatically, as did cell wall thickness. We also describe internal stem internode anatomy and demonstrate that lignin deposition continues after crystalline cellulose and xylan accumulation ceases. The vascular bundle anatomy of B. distachyon appears to be highly similar to domesticated grasses. While the arrangement of bundles within the stem is highly variable across grasses, B. distachyon appears to be a suitable model for the rind of large C4 grass crops. A better understanding of growth and various anatomical and cell wall features of B. distachyon will further our understanding of plant biomass accumulation processes.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/cell-walls-developmental-anatomy-brachypodium-distachyon-stem-internode", "reader_count"=>40, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>9, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>11, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>9, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>11, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>1, "Unspecified"=>2, "Environmental Science"=>2, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>5, "Materials Science"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>28, "Chemistry"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>1}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>28}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>5}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Belgium"=>2, "United States"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1292167"], "description"=>"<p>(<b>A, C, E</b>) Intact and (<b>B, D, F</b>) dissected plants when (<b>A-B</b>) the first internode was elongating, (<b>C-D</b>) the first inflorescence was emerging, and (<b>E-F</b>) the first internode was senesced. FI, first internode; S, spike inflorescence. Scale bars (in red)  =  5 cm. Distal internodes are marked with an asterisk.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["stages", "internode", "characterization"], "article_id"=>859732, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Dominick A. Matos", "Ian P. Whitney", "Michael J. Harrington", "Samuel P. Hazen"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080640.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Three_developmental_stages_selected_for_internode_characterization_in_Brachypodium_distachyon_/859732", "title"=>"Three developmental stages selected for internode characterization in <i>Brachypodium distachyon</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-21 04:09:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1292168"], "description"=>"<p>(<b>A</b>) Stem and vascular bundle count. (<b>B</b>) Stem height (black) and stem fresh weight (gray). (<b>C</b>) Internode length (black) and stem area (gray). (<b>D</b>) Inner (black circle) and outer (black square) vascular bundle area, and interfascicular region area (gray diamond). (<b>E</b>) Cell wall thickness of xylem vessel and adjacent bundle fibers of inner (black circle) and outer (black square) vascular bundles, sclerenchyma nearest (gray diamond) and second nearest (gray triangle) to the bundle sheath. Growth stages correspond to elongation (E), inflorescence emergence (F), and senescence (S). Data are means ± standard deviation. Points annotated with the same letter are not significantly different at <i>P</i> < 0.05.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["internode"], "article_id"=>859733, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Dominick A. Matos", "Ian P. Whitney", "Michael J. Harrington", "Samuel P. Hazen"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080640.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Analysis_of_Brachypodium_distachyon_stem_internode_development_/859733", "title"=>"Analysis of <i>Brachypodium distachyon</i> stem internode development.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-21 04:09:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1292170"], "description"=>"<p>(<b>A</b>) Cross section of whole stem and (<b>B</b>) higher magnification of the first stem internode. Red, inner vascular bundles; pink, outer vascular bundles; cyan, interfascicular region compromised mostly of sclerenchyma fibers; gray, pith; lime green, chlorenchyma and sclerenchyma cells comprise the cortex; brown, epidermis. (<b>C</b>) Vascular bundle illustration at high magnification. Green, bundle sheath (BS); purple, phloem (P); vermilion, companion cells; tan, xylem vessels (XV); red, xylem tracheids (XT); white, lacuna (Lc); orange, xylem parenchyma cells (XP); gray, parenchyma cells (Py); blue, sclerenchyma fibers (SF). (<b>A-B</b>) Bar  =  0.1 mm, (<b>C</b>) bar  =  0.01 mm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["internode", "anatomy"], "article_id"=>859735, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Dominick A. Matos", "Ian P. Whitney", "Michael J. Harrington", "Samuel P. Hazen"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080640.g003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Brachypodium_distachyon_internal_stem_internode_anatomy_with_emphasis_on_vasculature_/859735", "title"=>"<i>Brachypodium distachyon</i> internal stem internode anatomy with emphasis on vasculature.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-21 04:09:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1292174"], "description"=>"<p>Whole stem (<b>A, C, E, G, I, K</b>) and higher magnification (<b>B, D, F, H, J, L</b>) of <i>Brachypodium distachyon</i> cross-sections stained with toluidine-blue (<b>A-F</b>) or the Wiesner reagent (<b>G-L</b>). (<b>A-B, G-H</b>) Elongating, (<b>C-D, I-J</b>) inflorescence emergence, and (<b>E-F, K-L</b>) senesced stem internode transverse cross-sections. Images were taken using brightfield microscopy. Scale bars  =  0.1 mm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["thickness", "lignin", "detection", "internode"], "article_id"=>859739, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Dominick A. Matos", "Ian P. Whitney", "Michael J. Harrington", "Samuel P. Hazen"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080640.g004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Cell_wall_thickness_and_lignin_detection_increases_following_stem_internode_elongation_/859739", "title"=>"Cell wall thickness and lignin detection increases following stem internode elongation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-21 04:09:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1292175"], "description"=>"<p>Whole stem (<b>A, C, E, G, I, K, M, O, Q</b>) and higher magnification (<b>B, D, F, H, J, L, N, P, R</b>) of <i>Brachypodium distachyon</i> cross sections observing lignin autofluorescence (<b>A-F</b>) and immunolabeled CBM3a probe (<b>G-L</b>) and LM10 antibody (<b>M-R</b>). (<b>A, B, G, H, M, N</b>) Elongating, (<b>C, D, I, J, O, P</b>) inflorescence emergence, and (<b>E, F, K, L, Q, R</b>) senesced stem internode transverse cross-sections. Images were taken using wide field epifluorescence microscopy. Scale bars  =  0.1 mm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["detection", "lignin", "indirect", "immunodetection", "crystalline", "cellulose", "xylan"], "article_id"=>859740, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Dominick A. Matos", "Ian P. Whitney", "Michael J. Harrington", "Samuel P. Hazen"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080640.g005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Florescent_detection_of_lignin_and_indirect_immunodetection_of_crystalline_cellulose_and_xylan_in_stem_internode_/859740", "title"=>"Florescent detection of lignin and indirect immunodetection of crystalline cellulose and xylan in stem internode.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-21 04:09:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1292176"], "description"=>"<p>Corrected (<b>A</b>) total autofluorescence, (<b>B</b>) CBM3a indirect immunofluorescence, and (<b>C</b>) LM10 immunofluorescence of whole stem (back circle), inner (gray diamond) and outer (black square) vascular bundles, and interfascicular region (gray triangle). Data are means ± standard deviation. Points annotated with the same letter are not significantly different at <i>P</i> < 0.05.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["florescence", "detection", "lignin", "indirect", "immunodetection", "crystalline", "cellulose", "xylan"], "article_id"=>859741, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Dominick A. Matos", "Ian P. Whitney", "Michael J. Harrington", "Samuel P. Hazen"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080640.g006"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Quantification_of_florescence_detection_of_lignin_and_indirect_immunodetection_of_crystalline_cellulose_and_xylan_in_stem_internode_/859741", "title"=>"Quantification of florescence detection of lignin and indirect immunodetection of crystalline cellulose and xylan in stem internode.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-21 04:09:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1292177"], "description"=>"<p>Average line spectra of stem tissue sampled from elongating (green), flowering (orange), and senesced (blue) stages of development. Wavenumbers corresponding to absorbance peaks associated with cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin are noted. Letters indicate significant differences at <i>P</i> < 0.05.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ftir"], "article_id"=>859742, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Dominick A. Matos", "Ian P. Whitney", "Michael J. Harrington", "Samuel P. Hazen"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080640.g007"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Characterization_of_wall_composition_changes_associated_with_growth_using_FTIR_spectroscopy_/859742", "title"=>"Characterization of wall composition changes associated with growth using FTIR spectroscopy.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-21 04:09:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1292178"], "description"=>"<div><p>While many aspects of plant cell wall polymer structure are known, their spatial and temporal distribution within the stem are not well understood. Here, we studied vascular system and fiber development, which has implication for both biofuel feedstock conversion efficiency and crop yield. The subject of this study, <i>Brachypodium distachyon</i>, has emerged as a grass model for food and energy crop research. Here, we conducted our investigation using <i>B. distachyon</i> by applying various histological approaches and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to the stem internode from three key developmental stages. While vascular bundle size and number did not change over time, the size of the interfascicular region increased dramatically, as did cell wall thickness. We also describe internal stem internode anatomy and demonstrate that lignin deposition continues after crystalline cellulose and xylan accumulation ceases. The vascular bundle anatomy of <i>B. distachyon</i> appears to be highly similar to domesticated grasses. While the arrangement of bundles within the stem is highly variable across grasses, <i>B. distachyon</i> appears to be a suitable model for the rind of large C<sub>4</sub> grass crops. A better understanding of growth and various anatomical and cell wall features of <i>B. distachyon</i> will further our understanding of plant biomass accumulation processes.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["walls", "anatomy", "internode"], "article_id"=>859743, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Dominick A. Matos", "Ian P. Whitney", "Michael J. Harrington", "Samuel P. Hazen"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080640"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Cell_Walls_and_the_Developmental_Anatomy_of_the_Brachypodium_distachyon_Stem_Internode/859743", "title"=>"Cell Walls and the Developmental Anatomy of the <i>Brachypodium distachyon</i> Stem Internode", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-21 04:09:56"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2013-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2013-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences", "average_usage"=>[269, 466, 588, 697, 800, 896, 988, 1076, 1165, 1254, 1340, 1417]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Organisms", "average_usage"=>[281, 484, 611, 728, 835, 934, 1030, 1123, 1214, 1299, 1383, 1464]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Plant science", "average_usage"=>[269, 451, 577, 699, 812, 922, 1019, 1126, 1225, 1309, 1404, 1493, 1563]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Physical sciences", "average_usage"=>[254, 431, 547, 651, 748, 842, 932, 1017, 1098, 1178, 1259, 1336, 1404]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Physical sciences/Chemistry", "average_usage"=>[247, 429, 544, 647, 747, 842, 929, 1012, 1099, 1179, 1263, 1339, 1409]}]}
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