Defining the Range of Pathogens Susceptible to Ifitm3 Restriction Using a Knockout Mouse Model
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{"title"=>"Defining the range of pathogens susceptible to ifitm3 restriction using a knockout mouse model", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Aaron R.", "last_name"=>"Everitt", "scopus_author_id"=>"54972643200"}, {"first_name"=>"Simon", "last_name"=>"Clare", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003342119"}, {"first_name"=>"Jacqueline U.", "last_name"=>"McDonald", "scopus_author_id"=>"24779782100"}, {"first_name"=>"Leanne", "last_name"=>"Kane", "scopus_author_id"=>"55262203600"}, {"first_name"=>"Katherine", "last_name"=>"Harcourt", "scopus_author_id"=>"55024935300"}, {"first_name"=>"Malika", "last_name"=>"Ahras", "scopus_author_id"=>"24764505900"}, {"first_name"=>"Amar", "last_name"=>"Lall", "scopus_author_id"=>"55949264800"}, {"first_name"=>"Christine", "last_name"=>"Hale", "scopus_author_id"=>"7103366532"}, {"first_name"=>"Angela", "last_name"=>"Rodgers", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102805145"}, {"first_name"=>"Douglas B.", "last_name"=>"Young", "scopus_author_id"=>"57198925459"}, {"first_name"=>"Ashraful", "last_name"=>"Haque", "scopus_author_id"=>"9734348600"}, {"first_name"=>"Oliver", "last_name"=>"Billker", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602301142"}, {"first_name"=>"John S.", "last_name"=>"Tregoning", "scopus_author_id"=>"6506262444"}, {"first_name"=>"Gordon", "last_name"=>"Dougan", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102366949"}, {"first_name"=>"Paul", "last_name"=>"Kellam", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003979574"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"372425738", "sgr"=>"84894247386", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"24278312", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84894247386", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0080723", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\n1932-6203 (Linking)"}, "id"=>"716e15e7-72be-3601-b500-6db8e5e81656", "abstract"=>"The interferon-inducible transmembrane (IFITM) family of proteins has been shown to restrict a broad range of viruses in vitro and in vivo by halting progress through the late endosomal pathway. Further, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in its sequence have been linked with risk of developing severe influenza virus infections in humans. The number of viruses restricted by this host protein has continued to grow since it was first demonstrated as playing an antiviral role; all of which enter cells via the endosomal pathway. We therefore sought to test the limits of antimicrobial restriction by Ifitm3 using a knockout mouse model. We showed that Ifitm3 does not impact on the restriction or pathogenesis of bacterial (Salmonella typhimurium, Citrobacter rodentium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis) or protozoan (Plasmodium berghei) pathogens, despite in vitro evidence. However, Ifitm3 is capable of restricting respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in vivo either through directly restricting RSV cell infection, or by exerting a previously uncharacterised function controlling disease pathogenesis. This represents the first demonstration of a virus that enters directly through the plasma membrane, without the need for the endosomal pathway, being restricted by the IFITM family; therefore further defining the role of these antiviral proteins.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/defining-range-pathogens-susceptible-ifitm3-restriction-using-knockout-mouse-model", "reader_count"=>48, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>14, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>12, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Other"=>2, "Student > Master"=>7, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>14, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>12, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Other"=>2, "Student > Master"=>7, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>6, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Materials Science"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>6, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>23, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1, "Chemistry"=>1, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>7}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>6}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>7}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>23}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>6}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Netherlands"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>2, "Russia"=>1}, "group_count"=>3}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1291640"], "description"=>"<p>Ifitm3<sup>-/-</sup> or wild type littermate control mice were infected i.n. with 5x10<sup>5</sup> RSV A2. Mice were weighed daily and weight changes recorded as a percentage of original weight (<b>A</b>). Lungs were excised and viral load calculated by qPCR on days 4 and 7 pi (<b>B</b>). Total cell counts from lung (<b>C</b>) and BAL (<b>D</b>) were calculated, along with totals of CD3, CD4 and CD8 (T cells), CD19 (B cells) and DX5+ (NK cells) (<b>E</b>) measured in lung by flow cytometry on day 7 post infection. Granulocyte numbers were also calculated in the BAL on day 7 post infection (F) Levels of the inflammatory cytokines IFNγ and IL-1β in lung (<b>G</b>) and IFNγ and IL-6 in BAL (H) were measured by ELISA on day 7 post infection. ■: wild type, □: Ifitm3<sup>-/-</sup>. Results show means ± S.D. (n > 5). Statistical significance was assessed by Student’s <i>t</i>-test, or ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's Multiple Comparison Test when there were more than two groups (* <i>p</i><0.05, ** <i>p</i><0.01, *** p<0.001).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["rsv", "mice"], "article_id"=>859337, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Aaron R. Everitt", "Simon Clare", "Jacqueline U. McDonald", "Leanne Kane", "Katherine Harcourt", "Malika Ahras", "Amar Lall", "Christine Hale", "Angela Rodgers", "Douglas B. Young", "Ashraful Haque", "Oliver Billker", "John S. Tregoning", "Gordon Dougan", "Paul Kellam"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080723.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparison_of_RSV_infection_in_Ifitm3_mice_to_wild_type_mice_/859337", "title"=>"Comparison of RSV infection in Ifitm3<sup>-/-</sup> mice to wild type mice.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-21 03:28:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1291639"], "description"=>"<p>Mice were intraperitoneally injected with red blood cells containing <i>P. berghei</i> ANKA and were monitored for survival for 12 days pi. n = 9 for wild type, n = 2 for each of Ifitm3<sup>-/-</sup> and Ifngr<sup>-/-</sup> mutants (<b>A</b>). Parasite biomass was monitored by measuring the activity of a luciferase reporter gene constitutively expressed by the parasite and expressed as relative light units (RLU) (<b>B</b>), and cytokine dysregulation was measured from the sera on day three pi by cytometric bead assay (<b>C</b>). ■: wild type, □: Ifitm3<sup>-/-</sup>, ○: Ifngr<sup>-/-</sup>. Results show means ± S.D. (n > 2).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mice"], "article_id"=>859336, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Aaron R. Everitt", "Simon Clare", "Jacqueline U. McDonald", "Leanne Kane", "Katherine Harcourt", "Malika Ahras", "Amar Lall", "Christine Hale", "Angela Rodgers", "Douglas B. Young", "Ashraful Haque", "Oliver Billker", "John S. Tregoning", "Gordon Dougan", "Paul Kellam"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080723.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Malarial_challenge_of_wild_type_and_Ifitm3_mice_with_P_berghei_ANKA_/859336", "title"=>"Malarial challenge of wild type and Ifitm3<sup>-/-</sup> mice with <i>P. berghei</i> ANKA.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-21 03:28:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1291637"], "description"=>"<p>Mice were killed over the course of infection with H37Rv <i>M. tuberculosis</i> to determine the bacterial load within their lungs. ■: wild type, □: Ifitm3<sup>-/-</sup>. Results show means ± S.D. (n > 5).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["kinetics", "lungs"], "article_id"=>859334, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Aaron R. Everitt", "Simon Clare", "Jacqueline U. McDonald", "Leanne Kane", "Katherine Harcourt", "Malika Ahras", "Amar Lall", "Christine Hale", "Angela Rodgers", "Douglas B. Young", "Ashraful Haque", "Oliver Billker", "John S. Tregoning", "Gordon Dougan", "Paul Kellam"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080723.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Bacterial_growth_kinetics_of_M_tuberculosis_in_the_lungs_of_wild_type_and_Ifitm3_mice_/859334", "title"=>"Bacterial growth kinetics of <i>M. tuberculosis</i> in the lungs of wild type and Ifitm3<sup>-/-</sup> mice.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-21 03:28:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1291633"], "description"=>"<p>Paraffin-embedded sections from wild type and Ifitm3<sup>-/-</sup> mice were cut and stained for expression of Ifitm3 (brown), and counterstained with hematoxylin (blue). Original magnification of lymph node and spleen 10×; lung and intestine 20×; liver 40×.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ifitm3", "predominant", "sites", "pathogen"], "article_id"=>859330, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Aaron R. Everitt", "Simon Clare", "Jacqueline U. McDonald", "Leanne Kane", "Katherine Harcourt", "Malika Ahras", "Amar Lall", "Christine Hale", "Angela Rodgers", "Douglas B. Young", "Ashraful Haque", "Oliver Billker", "John S. Tregoning", "Gordon Dougan", "Paul Kellam"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080723.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Expression_of_Ifitm3_at_the_predominant_sites_of_pathogen_infection_/859330", "title"=>"Expression of Ifitm3 at the predominant sites of pathogen infection.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-21 03:28:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1291636"], "description"=>"<p>Mice were orally infected with <i>C. rodentium</i> and weighed daily to monitor morbidity (<b>A</b>). Faecal samples were taken over the course of infection (<b>B</b>), and were homogenised, diluted and plated to count the number of colony forming units (CFU) shed over the course of the challenge. Mice were also killed on days 14 and 28 pi and CFU of <i>C. rodentium</i> were counted from caecal patch (<b>C</b>), caecum (<b>D</b>), colon (<b>E</b>), caecal contents (<b>F</b>), liver (<b>G</b>) and spleen (<b>H</b>). ■: wild type, □: Ifitm3<sup>-/-</sup>. Results show means ± S.D. (n > 4).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>[], "article_id"=>859333, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Aaron R. Everitt", "Simon Clare", "Jacqueline U. McDonald", "Leanne Kane", "Katherine Harcourt", "Malika Ahras", "Amar Lall", "Christine Hale", "Angela Rodgers", "Douglas B. Young", "Ashraful Haque", "Oliver Billker", "John S. Tregoning", "Gordon Dougan", "Paul Kellam"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080723.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>18, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Citrobacter_rodentium_challenge_of_wild_type_and_Ifitm3_mice_/859333", "title"=>"<i>Citrobacter rodentium</i> challenge of wild type and Ifitm3<sup>-/-</sup> mice.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-21 03:28:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1291635"], "description"=>"<p>Mice were intravenously injected with <i>S</i>. Typhimurium and observed for weight loss for 28 days pi (<b>A</b>). Mice were killed on day 28 pi to assess neutralising antibody titre against <i>S</i>. Typhimurium (<b>B</b>). Bacterial contents from spleen (<b>C</b>), liver (<b>D</b>) and caecal contents (<b>E</b>) were titred on days 14 and 28 pi to assess the bacterial colonisation. ■: wild type, □: Ifitm3<sup>-/-</sup>. Results show means ± S.D. (n > 3).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["typhimurium"], "article_id"=>859332, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Aaron R. Everitt", "Simon Clare", "Jacqueline U. McDonald", "Leanne Kane", "Katherine Harcourt", "Malika Ahras", "Amar Lall", "Christine Hale", "Angela Rodgers", "Douglas B. Young", "Ashraful Haque", "Oliver Billker", "John S. Tregoning", "Gordon Dougan", "Paul Kellam"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080723.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Salmonella_Typhimurium_challenge_of_wild_type_and_Ifitm3_mice_/859332", "title"=>"<i>Salmonella</i> Typhimurium challenge of wild type and Ifitm3<sup>-/-</sup> mice.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-21 03:28:55"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2013-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2013-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Microbiology", "average_usage"=>[293, 503, 638, 755, 861, 960, 1056, 1146, 1239, 1323, 1403, 1491, 1568]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Organisms", "average_usage"=>[281, 484, 611, 728, 835, 934, 1030, 1123, 1214, 1299, 1383, 1464]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Parasitology", "average_usage"=>[354, 586, 723, 820, 941, 1045, 1176, 1283, 1391, 1469, 1526, 1639, 1730]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Pathology and laboratory medicine", "average_usage"=>[267, 466, 592, 709, 806, 901, 989, 1075, 1162, 1254, 1342, 1424, 1486]}]}
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