Djebelemur, a Tiny Pre-Tooth-Combed Primate from the Eocene of Tunisia: A Glimpse into the Origin of Crown Strepsirhines
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{"title"=>"Djebelemur, a tiny pre-tooth-combed primate from the Eocene of Tunisia: A glimpse into the origin of crown strepsirhines", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Laurent", "last_name"=>"Marivaux", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603065491"}, {"first_name"=>"Anusha", "last_name"=>"Ramdarshan", "scopus_author_id"=>"36055277200"}, {"first_name"=>"El Mabrouk", "last_name"=>"Essid", "scopus_author_id"=>"52363476900"}, {"first_name"=>"Wissem", "last_name"=>"Marzougui", "scopus_author_id"=>"55812335700"}, {"first_name"=>"Hayet Khayati", "last_name"=>"Ammar", "scopus_author_id"=>"55843158200"}, {"first_name"=>"Renaud", "last_name"=>"Lebrun", "scopus_author_id"=>"22980305900"}, {"first_name"=>"Bernard", "last_name"=>"Marandat", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603490419"}, {"first_name"=>"Gilles", "last_name"=>"Merzeraud", "scopus_author_id"=>"6507118969"}, {"first_name"=>"Rodolphe", "last_name"=>"Tabuce", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602650395"}, {"first_name"=>"Monique", "last_name"=>"Vianey-Liaud", "scopus_author_id"=>"55909730200"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84891891420", "sgr"=>"84891891420", "issn"=>"19326203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0080778", "pmid"=>"24324627", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\n1932-6203 (Linking)", "pui"=>"372086477"}, "id"=>"bb60c61c-6590-3872-8384-8f0a907ff069", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Molecular clock estimates of crown strepsirhine origins generally advocate an ancient antiquity for Malagasy lemuriforms and Afro-Asian lorisiforms, near the onset of the Tertiary but most often extending back to the Late Cretaceous. Despite their inferred early origin, the subsequent evolutionary histories of both groups (except for the Malagasy aye-aye lineage) exhibit a vacuum of lineage diversification during most part of the Eocene, followed by a relative acceleration in diversification from the late Middle Eocene. This early evolutionary stasis was tentatively explained by the possibility of unrecorded lineage extinctions during the early Tertiary. However, this prevailing molecular view regarding the ancient origin and early diversification of crown strepsirhines must be viewed with skepticism due to the new but still scarce paleontological evidence gathered in recent years.\\n\\nMETHODOLOGICAL/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we describe new fossils attributable to Djebelemur martinezi, a≈50 Ma primate from Tunisia (Djebel Chambi). This taxon was originally interpreted as a cercamoniine adapiform based on limited information from its lower dentition. The new fossils provide anatomical evidence demonstrating that Djebelemur was not an adapiform but clearly a distant relative of lemurs, lorises and galagos. Cranial, dental and postcranial remains indicate that this diminutive primate was likely nocturnal, predatory (primarily insectivorous), and engaged in a form of generalized arboreal quadrupedalism with frequent horizontal leaping. Djebelemur did not have an anterior lower dentition as specialized as that characterizing most crown strepsirhines (i.e., tooth-comb), but it clearly exhibited a transformed antemolar pattern representing an early stage of a crown strepsirhine-like adaptation (\"pre-tooth-comb\").\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These new fossil data suggest that the differentiation of the tooth-comb must postdate the djebelemurid divergence, a view which hence constrains the timing of crown strepsirhine origins to the Middle Eocene, and then precludes the existence of unrecorded lineage extinctions of tooth-combed primates during the earliest Tertiary.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/djebelemur-tiny-pretoothcombed-primate-eocene-tunisia-glimpse-origin-crown-strepsirhines", "reader_count"=>26, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Researcher"=>7, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>4, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>2, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Researcher"=>7, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>4, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>2, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>12, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>3, "Psychology"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>3, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>5}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>3}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>3}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>5}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>12}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

Scopus | Further Information

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1303553"], "description"=>"<p><b>A</b>, map of Tunisia locating the Natural Park of Djebel Chambi, a mountain situated in the western part of Central Tunisia (Kasserine region); <b>B</b>, geological map of Djebel Chambi (modified after Hartenberger et al. <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0080778#pone.0080778-Hartenberger2\" target=\"_blank\">[42]</a>) showing the position of the fossiliferous CBI-1 locality in the Eocene deposits (white “F” in a black filled circle); <b>C</b>, landscape photograph of the lacustrine limestone bed (freshwater deposits), which has yielded CBI-1; <b>D</b>, photograph of the indurated limestone bed of CBI-1 showing a fossiliferous spot (Pictures by Laurent Marivaux); <b>E</b>, temporal distribution of primate-bearing localities from the Paleogene of Afro-Arabia (modified after Seiffert <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0080778#pone.0080778-Seiffert6\" target=\"_blank\">[38]</a> and Coster et al. <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0080778#pone.0080778-Coster1\" target=\"_blank\">[64]</a>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["primate-bearing", "chambi", "locus", "locality"], "article_id"=>868590, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Laurent Marivaux", "Anusha Ramdarshan", "El Mabrouk Essid", "Wissem Marzougui", "Hayet Khayati Ammar", "Renaud Lebrun", "Bernard Marandat", "Gilles Merzeraud", "Rodolphe Tabuce", "Monique Vianey-Liaud"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080778.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Location_map_of_the_primate_bearing_Chambi_locus_1_locality_CBI_1_in_Tunisia_/868590", "title"=>"Location map of the primate-bearing Chambi locus 1 locality (CBI-1) in Tunisia.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-12-04 04:19:06"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1303558"], "description"=>"<p><b>A</b>, outline of the CBI-1-565 maxilla in occlusal view; <b>B</b>, outline of the CBI-133 mandible (holotype) in occlusal; <b>C</b>, drawings of the upper toothrow (left P3-M3) of CBI-1-565; <b>D</b>, drawings of the lower toothrow (left p3-m3) of CBI-1-33. Scale bars: 1 mm. Original scientific drawings by Laurence Meslin (© CNRS-Meslin).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["jaws", "djebel", "chambi", "cbi-1"], "article_id"=>868595, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Laurent Marivaux", "Anusha Ramdarshan", "El Mabrouk Essid", "Wissem Marzougui", "Hayet Khayati Ammar", "Renaud Lebrun", "Bernard Marandat", "Gilles Merzeraud", "Rodolphe Tabuce", "Monique Vianey-Liaud"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080778.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Upper_and_lower_jaws_of_Djebelemur_martinezi_from_the_Djebel_Chambi_CBI_1_locality_/868595", "title"=>"Upper and lower jaws of <i>Djebelemur martinezi</i> from the Djebel Chambi CBI-1 locality.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-12-04 04:19:06"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1303581"], "description"=>"<p><b>A</b>, CBI-1-565, fragments of right mandible, which consists of three isolated pieces found together and reassembled here: the anterior part of the dentary bears the p3 and m1, and alveoli for p4, p2 and c, while the posterior part preserves m3 and a portion of the ascending ramus; m2 was found isolated but in the same small calcareous block treated by acid processing; <b>B</b>, photograph of the proximal part of CBI-1-565 (for p4 and p3, note that their mesial alveolus is slightly offset buccally with respect to their distal alveolus; the single alveolus for p2 is mesiodistally compressed and oblique, while the alveolus for the canine, although only partially preserved, appears slightly larger, suboval, and more lingually positioned with respect to the main axis of the toothrow). <b>C–G</b>, composite lower toothrow with the CBI-1-565 mandible, CBI-1-580 canine (reversed), CBI-1-587 p2 (reversed), and CBI-1-577 p4, in occlusal (<b>C</b>), lingual (<b>D</b>), frontal (<b>F</b>), and distal (<b>G</b>) views; <b>H</b>, CBI-1-587, left p2 in (from left to right) occlusal, buccal, lingual, distal, and mesial views (not reversed); <b>I</b>, CBI-1-580, left canine in (from left to right) occlusal, buccal, lingual, distal, and mesial views (not reversed). The 3D representations of CBI-1-565 (<b>A</b>, <b>C</b>–<b>G</b>), CBI-1-587 (<b>H</b>), and CBI-1-580 (<b>I</b>) have been obtained by X-ray µCT surface reconstruction. The crown and roots of teeth of the mandible have been virtually delimited by manual segmentation.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["djebel", "chambi", "cbi-1"], "article_id"=>868608, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Laurent Marivaux", "Anusha Ramdarshan", "El Mabrouk Essid", "Wissem Marzougui", "Hayet Khayati Ammar", "Renaud Lebrun", "Bernard Marandat", "Gilles Merzeraud", "Rodolphe Tabuce", "Monique Vianey-Liaud"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080778.g003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Lower_jaw_of_Djebelemur_martinezi_from_the_Djebel_Chambi_CBI_1_locality_/868608", "title"=>"Lower jaw of <i>Djebelemur martinezi</i> from the Djebel Chambi CBI-1 locality.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-12-04 04:19:06"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1303592"], "description"=>"<p><b>A–E</b>, CBI-1-544, left maxilla preserving P3-M3 and alveoli for P2 and C1, in frontal (<b>A</b>), coronal section (cs) through M1 (<b>B</b>), palatal (<b>C</b>), dorsal (<b>D</b>), and lateral (<b>E</b>) views; <b>F</b>, CBI-1-567, left P4 in occlusal view. The 3D representations of CBI-1-544 and CBI-1-567 have been obtained by X-ray µCT surface reconstruction. On the maxilla, the crown and roots of teeth have been virtually delimited by manual segmentation. Abbreviations: <b>IOF</b>, infraorbital foramen; <b>of</b>, orbital floor; <b>hp</b>, hard palate; <b>pzm</b>, <i>processus zygomaticus maxillae</i>; <b>ra</b>, root apex; <b>jms</b>, jugo-maxillary suture.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["djebel", "chambi", "cbi-1"], "article_id"=>868618, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Laurent Marivaux", "Anusha Ramdarshan", "El Mabrouk Essid", "Wissem Marzougui", "Hayet Khayati Ammar", "Renaud Lebrun", "Bernard Marandat", "Gilles Merzeraud", "Rodolphe Tabuce", "Monique Vianey-Liaud"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080778.g004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Facial_fragment_of_Djebelemur_martinezi_from_the_Djebel_Chambi_CBI_1_locality_/868618", "title"=>"Facial fragment of <i>Djebelemur martinezi</i> from the Djebel Chambi CBI-1 locality.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-12-04 04:19:06"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1303596"], "description"=>"<p><i>Microcebus</i>, <i>Cheirogaleus</i>, <i>Avahi</i>, <i>Loris</i>, <i>Euoticus</i>, <i>Aotus</i> and <i>Tarsius</i> are nocturnal primates, while <i>Cebus</i> and <i>Lemur</i> are diurnal (<i>Adapis</i> was most likely diurnal). The red arrows indicate the orbital floor, and the yellow bars provide an approximation of the suborbital depth of the maxilla. Scale bars: 1 mm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["high-resolution", "micro-ct", "scans", "maxilla", "distal", "m1", "nocturnal", "diurnal"], "article_id"=>868622, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Laurent Marivaux", "Anusha Ramdarshan", "El Mabrouk Essid", "Wissem Marzougui", "Hayet Khayati Ammar", "Renaud Lebrun", "Bernard Marandat", "Gilles Merzeraud", "Rodolphe Tabuce", "Monique Vianey-Liaud"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080778.g005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparative_high_resolution_micro_CT_scans_of_the_maxilla_through_the_distal_root_of_M1_in_some_selected_nocturnal_versus_diurnal_primates_/868622", "title"=>"Comparative high-resolution micro-CT scans of the maxilla through the distal root of M1 in some selected nocturnal <i>versus</i> diurnal primates.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-12-04 04:19:06"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1303597"], "description"=>"<p><b>A–F</b>, CBI-1-545, right talus in dorsal (<b>A</b>), ventral (<b>B</b>), proximal (<b>C</b>), distal (<b>D</b>), lateral (<b>E</b>), and medial (<b>F</b>) views. The oblique white line (<b>C</b> and <b>D</b>) indicates the slope of the lateral talofibular facet. The white arrow (<b>D</b>) indicates the passage of the <i>flexor hallucis longus</i> tendon. The images are 3D digital models of the CBI-1-545 talus, which have been obtained by X-ray µCT surface reconstruction.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["primate", "djebel", "chambi", "cbi-1"], "article_id"=>868623, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Laurent Marivaux", "Anusha Ramdarshan", "El Mabrouk Essid", "Wissem Marzougui", "Hayet Khayati Ammar", "Renaud Lebrun", "Bernard Marandat", "Gilles Merzeraud", "Rodolphe Tabuce", "Monique Vianey-Liaud"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080778.g006"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Ankle_bone_or_talus_of_primate_from_the_Djebel_Chambi_CBI_1_locality_/868623", "title"=>"Ankle bone (or talus) of primate from the Djebel Chambi CBI-1 locality.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-12-04 04:19:06"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1303599"], "description"=>"<p><b>A–C</b>, consensus trees (<b>A</b>, Strict; <b>B</b>, Majority Rule at 80%) of 3426 equally most-parsimonious trees of 3886 steps each (CI = 0.147; RI = 0.566), which were obtained after analyses performed considering some multistate characters as ordered (i.e., if changes from one state to another require passing through intermediate states); <b>C</b>, consensus tree (Majority Rule at 80%) of 64 equally most-parsimonious trees of 3593 steps each (CI = 0.159; RI = 0.542), which were obtained after analyses performed considering all characters as unordered. On the Majority Rule consensus trees (B and C), the values above or below the nodes correspond to the rates (%) of node occurrences across the whole equally most-parsimonious trees found.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["high-level", "primate", "phylogeny", "cladistic", "craniodental", "postcranial", "performed", "molecular"], "article_id"=>868625, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Laurent Marivaux", "Anusha Ramdarshan", "El Mabrouk Essid", "Wissem Marzougui", "Hayet Khayati Ammar", "Renaud Lebrun", "Bernard Marandat", "Gilles Merzeraud", "Rodolphe Tabuce", "Monique Vianey-Liaud"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080778.g007"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Phylogenetic_position_of_Djebelemur_in_a_high_level_primate_phylogeny_with_a_cladistic_assessment_of_the_craniodental_and_postcranial_evidence_performed_without_molecular_scaffold_/868625", "title"=>"Phylogenetic position of <i>Djebelemur</i> in a high-level primate phylogeny with a cladistic assessment of the craniodental and postcranial evidence performed without molecular scaffold.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-12-04 04:19:06"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1303603"], "description"=>"<p><b>A–B</b>, consensus trees (<b>A</b>, Strict; <b>B</b>, Majority Rule at 60%) of 506 equally most-parsimonious trees of 3903 steps each (CI = 0.147; RI = 0.564), which were obtained after analyses performed considering some ordered characters; <b>C</b>, consensus tree (Majority Rule at 80%) of 116 equally most-parsimonious trees of 3608 steps each (CI = 0.158; RI = 0.539), which were obtained after analyses performed considering all characters unordered. The molecular scaffold <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0080778#pone.0080778-Springer2\" target=\"_blank\">[47]</a> was used to recover those primate clades that are supported by genomic sequences. This gene-based tree of modern taxa (Perelman et al. <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0080778#pone.0080778-Perelman1\" target=\"_blank\">[28]</a>) strongly supports the monophyly of Malagasy Lemuriformes (including a Lemuridae clade, a <i>Lepilemur</i>-Cheirogaleidae clade, and an Indriidae clade) and that of the Lorisiformes (including a Galagidae clade and a Lorisidae clade with an <i>Arctocebus</i>-<i>Perodicticus</i> subclade and a <i>Loris</i>-<i>Nycticebus</i> subclade). On the Majority Rule consensus trees (B and C), the values above or below the nodes correspond to the rates (%) of node occurrences across the whole equally most-parsimonious trees found. The molecular scaffold used here is as follows <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0080778#pone.0080778-Perelman1\" target=\"_blank\">[28]</a>: (Scandentia, ((((<i>Varecia</i>, (<i>Eulemur</i>, (<i>Lemur</i>, <i>Hapalemur</i>))), (<i>Lepilemur</i>, (<i>Cheirogaleus</i>, (<i>Microcebus</i>, <i>Mirza</i>))), (<i>Propithecus</i>, <i>Avahi</i>)), (((<i>Loris</i>, <i>Nycticebus</i>), (<i>Perodicticus</i>, <i>Arctocebus</i>)), (<i>Galago</i>, <i>Otolemur</i>))), (<i>Tarsius</i>, (<i>Saimiri</i>, <i>Aotus</i>)))).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["high-level", "primate", "phylogeny", "cladistic", "craniodental", "postcranial", "performed", "molecular"], "article_id"=>868629, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Laurent Marivaux", "Anusha Ramdarshan", "El Mabrouk Essid", "Wissem Marzougui", "Hayet Khayati Ammar", "Renaud Lebrun", "Bernard Marandat", "Gilles Merzeraud", "Rodolphe Tabuce", "Monique Vianey-Liaud"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080778.g008"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Phylogenetic_position_of_Djebelemur_in_a_high_level_primate_phylogeny_with_a_cladistic_assessment_of_the_craniodental_and_postcranial_evidence_performed_with_a_molecular_scaffold_/868629", "title"=>"Phylogenetic position of <i>Djebelemur</i> in a high-level primate phylogeny with a cladistic assessment of the craniodental and postcranial evidence performed with a molecular scaffold.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-12-04 04:19:06"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1303604"], "description"=>"<p>For each taxon, the SQ value is the ratio of m2 length to summed lengths of six principal m2 shearing crests <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0080778#pone.0080778-Anthony1\" target=\"_blank\">[53]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0080778#pone.0080778-Kirk1\" target=\"_blank\">[54]</a>. Color-coded bars (blue, insects; green, leaves; red, fruit and gums) indicate principal dietary item for extant strepsirhine taxa <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0080778#pone.0080778-Kirk1\" target=\"_blank\">[54]</a>. Low values indicate a diet based on fruit, gums or even seeds, whereas a high SQ points towards a leaf or insect based diet.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["shearing", "quotients", "eocene", "strepsirhine", "primates"], "article_id"=>868630, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Laurent Marivaux", "Anusha Ramdarshan", "El Mabrouk Essid", "Wissem Marzougui", "Hayet Khayati Ammar", "Renaud Lebrun", "Bernard Marandat", "Gilles Merzeraud", "Rodolphe Tabuce", "Monique Vianey-Liaud"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080778.g009"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparison_of_the_shearing_quotients_SQ_of_the_different_Eocene_strepsirhine_primates_non_Adapiformes_from_Africa_/868630", "title"=>"Comparison of the shearing quotients (SQ) of the different Eocene strepsirhine primates (non Adapiformes) from Africa.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-12-04 04:19:06"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1303606"], "description"=>"<p>Extant specimens are distinguished according to family: Cheirogaleidae (<i>Cheirogaleus major</i>, <i>Ch. Medius</i>, <i>Microcebus murinus</i>), Galagidae (<i>Galago senegalensis</i>, <i>Euoticus elegantulus</i>), Indriidae (<i>Propithecus verreauxi</i>), Lemuridae (<i>Eulemur fulvus</i>, <i>Hapalemur griseus</i>), Lepilemuridae (<i>Lepilemur ruficaudatus</i>), Lorisidae (<i>Perodicticus potto</i>, <i>Arctocebus calabarensis</i>, <i>Loris tardigradus</i>), and Tarsiidae (<i>Tarsius spectrum</i>). Dietary categories, generated by data on extant taxa, are delimited by LDA decision boundaries (dotted lines): leaf-eating is in green; fruit-eating in red; insect-eating in blue; gum-eating in yellow <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0080778#pone.0080778-Ramdarshan3\" target=\"_blank\">[61]</a>. Photographs situated on the top of this figure are digitized images of microwear patterns for each dietary category and <i>Djebelemur martinezi</i> (top right: detail of the crushing facet of the protocone captured on the M2 of CBI-1-544). Photos were taken at 100 x using an optical stereomicroscope (Leica M 205C) connected to a camera (Leica DFC 420C). Scale bar = 100 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["discriminant", "dental", "shearing", "quotients", "estimations", "extant", "strepsirhines"], "article_id"=>868632, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Laurent Marivaux", "Anusha Ramdarshan", "El Mabrouk Essid", "Wissem Marzougui", "Hayet Khayati Ammar", "Renaud Lebrun", "Bernard Marandat", "Gilles Merzeraud", "Rodolphe Tabuce", "Monique Vianey-Liaud"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080778.g010"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Linear_discriminant_analysis_LDA_based_on_dental_microwear_shearing_quotients_and_body_mass_estimations_for_extant_strepsirhines_and_Djebelemur_martinezi_/868632", "title"=>"Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) based on dental microwear, shearing quotients and body mass estimations for extant strepsirhines and <i>Djebelemur martinezi</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-12-04 04:19:06"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1303607"], "description"=>"<p>This primate tarsal specimen is attributed to <i>Djebelemur martinezi</i>. T-Neck-angle and talar measurements follow the works of Gebo et al. <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0080778#pone.0080778-Gebo3\" target=\"_blank\">[75]</a>. The angle between the fibular facet and lateral tibial facet (SFF-angle) is after Boyer et al. <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0080778#pone.0080778-Boyer1\" target=\"_blank\">[73]</a>. The talus was measured with a microscope fitted with a calibrated reticle (Measuroscope Nikon 10).</p>1<p>Distance from the most lateral point on the fibular facet (laterally projecting talar process) to the most medial point on the tibial facet.</p>2<p>Perpendicular distance from the most dorsal aspect of the medial trochlear margin to a chord connecting the most plantar point on the medial talar body to the plantar aspect of the talar head.</p>3<p>Perpendicular distance from the most dorsal point on the lateral trochlea margin to the chord defining the most plantar extent of the anterior and posterior aspects of the ectal facet.</p>4<p>Maximum mediolateral width.</p>5<p>Maximum dorsoplantar height.</p>6<p>Medial deviation of the talar neck relative to the anteroposterior axis of the trochlea.</p>7<p>Dorsolateral rotation of the talar head relative to the mediolateral axis of the dorsal trochlea.</p>8<p>Position of the posterior calcaneal facet relative to the talar neck.</p>9<p>Angle between the plane of the fibular facet relative to that of the lateral tibial facet.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cbi-1-545", "talus", "djebel", "chambi", "cbi-1"], "article_id"=>868633, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Laurent Marivaux", "Anusha Ramdarshan", "El Mabrouk Essid", "Wissem Marzougui", "Hayet Khayati Ammar", "Renaud Lebrun", "Bernard Marandat", "Gilles Merzeraud", "Rodolphe Tabuce", "Monique Vianey-Liaud"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080778.t002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Metric_features_in_millimetres_of_the_CBI_1_545_talus_from_the_Djebel_Chambi_CBI_1_locality_/868633", "title"=>"Metric features (in millimetres) of the CBI-1-545 talus from the Djebel Chambi CBI-1 locality.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-12-04 04:19:06"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1303608"], "description"=>"<p>The CBI-1-544 maxilla preserves most of the inferior orbital rim, which bears the infraorbital foramen (IOF). Teeth and IOF sizes were measured with a microscope fitted with a calibrated reticle (Measuroscope Nikon 10). MD, maximum mesiodistal length; BL, maximum buccolingual width; SDLM1, suborbital depth lingual to M1 (thickness of the bony laminae forming the floor of the orbit and the hard palate lingual to M1).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["teeth", "djebel", "chambi", "cbi-1"], "article_id"=>868634, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Laurent Marivaux", "Anusha Ramdarshan", "El Mabrouk Essid", "Wissem Marzougui", "Hayet Khayati Ammar", "Renaud Lebrun", "Bernard Marandat", "Gilles Merzeraud", "Rodolphe Tabuce", "Monique Vianey-Liaud"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080778.t001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Measurements_in_millimetres_of_upper_and_lower_teeth_of_Djebelemur_martinezi_from_the_Djebel_Chambi_CBI_1_locality_/868634", "title"=>"Measurements (in millimetres) of upper and lower teeth of <i>Djebelemur martinezi</i> from the Djebel Chambi CBI-1 locality.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-12-04 04:19:06"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1303610", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1303611", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1303612", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1303613", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1303614", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1303615"], "description"=>"<div><p>Background</p><p>Molecular clock estimates of crown strepsirhine origins generally advocate an ancient antiquity for Malagasy lemuriforms and Afro-Asian lorisiforms, near the onset of the Tertiary but most often extending back to the Late Cretaceous. Despite their inferred early origin, the subsequent evolutionary histories of both groups (except for the Malagasy aye-aye lineage) exhibit a vacuum of lineage diversification during most part of the Eocene, followed by a relative acceleration in diversification from the late Middle Eocene. This early evolutionary stasis was tentatively explained by the possibility of unrecorded lineage extinctions during the early Tertiary. However, this prevailing molecular view regarding the ancient origin and early diversification of crown strepsirhines must be viewed with skepticism due to the new but still scarce paleontological evidence gathered in recent years.</p><p>Methodological/Principal Findings</p><p>Here, we describe new fossils attributable to <i>Djebelemur martinezi</i>, a≈50 Ma primate from Tunisia (Djebel Chambi). This taxon was originally interpreted as a cercamoniine adapiform based on limited information from its lower dentition. The new fossils provide anatomical evidence demonstrating that <i>Djebelemur</i> was not an adapiform but clearly a distant relative of lemurs, lorises and galagos. Cranial, dental and postcranial remains indicate that this diminutive primate was likely nocturnal, predatory (primarily insectivorous), and engaged in a form of generalized arboreal quadrupedalism with frequent horizontal leaping. <i>Djebelemur</i> did not have an anterior lower dentition as specialized as that characterizing most crown strepsirhines (i.e., tooth-comb), but it clearly exhibited a transformed antemolar pattern representing an early stage of a crown strepsirhine-like adaptation (“pre-tooth-comb”).</p><p>Conclusions/Significance</p><p>These new fossil data suggest that the differentiation of the tooth-comb must postdate the djebelemurid divergence, a view which hence constrains the timing of crown strepsirhine origins to the Middle Eocene, and then precludes the existence of unrecorded lineage extinctions of tooth-combed primates during the earliest Tertiary.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pre-tooth-combed", "primate", "eocene", "crown", "strepsirhines"], "article_id"=>868636, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Laurent Marivaux", "Anusha Ramdarshan", "El Mabrouk Essid", "Wissem Marzougui", "Hayet Khayati Ammar", "Renaud Lebrun", "Bernard Marandat", "Gilles Merzeraud", "Rodolphe Tabuce", "Monique Vianey-Liaud"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080778.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080778.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080778.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080778.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080778.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080778.s006"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Djebelemur_a_Tiny_Pre_Tooth_Combed_Primate_from_the_Eocene_of_Tunisia_A_Glimpse_into_the_Origin_of_Crown_Strepsirhines/868636", "title"=>"<i>Djebelemur</i>, a Tiny Pre-Tooth-Combed Primate from the Eocene of Tunisia: A Glimpse into the Origin of Crown Strepsirhines", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-12-04 04:19:06"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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