An Optimal Cost Effectiveness Study on Zimbabwe Cholera Seasonal Data from 2008–2011
Publication Date
December 03, 2013
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Tridip Sardar, Soumalya Mukhopadhyay, Amiya Ranjan Bhowmick & Joydev Chattopadhyay
Volume
8
Issue
12
Pages
e81231
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081231
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0081231
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24312540
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3849194
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/24312540
Web of Science
000327947800042
Scopus
84891912242
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/optimal-cost-effectiveness-study-zimbabwe-cholera-seasonal-data-20082011
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"An optimal cost effectiveness study on Zimbabwe cholera seasonal data from 2008-2011", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Tridip", "last_name"=>"Sardar", "scopus_author_id"=>"55994966500"}, {"first_name"=>"Soumalya", "last_name"=>"Mukhopadhyay", "scopus_author_id"=>"55994764300"}, {"first_name"=>"Amiya Ranjan", "last_name"=>"Bhowmick", "scopus_author_id"=>"55513170200"}, {"first_name"=>"Joydev", "last_name"=>"Chattopadhyay", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602973315"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"372089724", "issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0081231", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84891912242", "pmid"=>"24312540", "sgr"=>"84891912242"}, "id"=>"3d0c8568-5b4e-30f7-a6ed-b34fb4a65b71", "abstract"=>"Incidence of cholera outbreak is a serious issue in underdeveloped and developing countries. In Zimbabwe, after the massive outbreak in 2008-09, cholera cases and deaths are reported every year from some provinces. Substantial number of reported cholera cases in some provinces during and after the epidemic in 2008-09 indicates a plausible presence of seasonality in cholera incidence in those regions. We formulate a compartmental mathematical model with periodic slow-fast transmission rate to study such recurrent occurrences and fitted the model to cumulative cholera cases and deaths for different provinces of Zimbabwe from the beginning of cholera outbreak in 2008-09 to June 2011. Daily and weekly reported cholera incidence data were collected from Zimbabwe epidemiological bulletin, Zimbabwe Daily cholera updates and Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs Zimbabwe (OCHA, Zimbabwe). For each province, the basic reproduction number ([Formula: see text]) in periodic environment is estimated. To the best of our knowledge, this is probably a pioneering attempt to estimate [Formula: see text] in periodic environment using real-life data set of cholera epidemic for Zimbabwe. Our estimates of [Formula: see text] agree with the previous estimate for some provinces but differ significantly for Bulawayo, Mashonaland West, Manicaland, Matabeleland South and Matabeleland North. Seasonal trend in cholera incidence is observed in Harare, Mashonaland West, Mashonaland East, Manicaland and Matabeleland South. Our result suggests that, slow transmission is a dominating factor for cholera transmission in most of these provinces. Our model projects [Formula: see text] cholera cases and [Formula: see text] cholera deaths during the end of the epidemic in 2008-09 to January 1, 2012. We also determine an optimal cost-effective control strategy among the four government undertaken interventions namely promoting hand-hygiene & clean water distribution, vaccination, treatment and sanitation for each province.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/optimal-cost-effectiveness-study-zimbabwe-cholera-seasonal-data-20082011", "reader_count"=>55, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>10, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>10, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>12, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>10, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>10, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>12, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>7, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>3, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1, "Computer Science"=>1, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>3, "Engineering"=>2, "Environmental Science"=>3, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>4, "Mathematics"=>7, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>15, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Psychology"=>2, "Social Sciences"=>4, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>15}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>4}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>2}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>7}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>7}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>3}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>2}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>3}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>3}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>4}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Bangladesh"=>1, "United States"=>1, "Mexico"=>1, "Indonesia"=>1}, "group_count"=>4}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1301246"], "description"=>"<p>Data are given in the format [mean (95% CI)].</p><p>Notations in the first column are exactly same as <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0081231#pone-0081231-t005\" target=\"_blank\">Table 5</a>. * indicate the intervention/intervention combination which do not have any effect on death reduction in a province.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["deaths", "cholera", "projected", "january", "optimal"], "article_id"=>866848, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Tridip Sardar", "Soumalya Mukhopadhyay", "Amiya Ranjan Bhowmick", "Joydev Chattopadhyay"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081231.t006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Table_6_Number_of_deaths_from_cholera_projected_between_the_end_of_2008_8211_09_epidemic_to_January_1_2012_by_province_under_base_case_and_under_each_intervention_scenario_at_an_optimal_rate_/866848", "title"=>"Table 6. Number of deaths from cholera projected between the end of 2008–09 epidemic to January 1, 2012, by province under base case and under each intervention scenario at an optimal rate.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-12-03 02:44:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1301244"], "description"=>"<p>Costs are given in the format [mean(95% CI)]. Cost corresponding to Bulawayo province is not given as different interventions have no effect on case or death reduction in this region.</p><p>Notations in the first column are exactly same as <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0081231#pone-0081231-t005\" target=\"_blank\">Table 5</a>. Here <i>Ek</i> = 10<i><sup>k</sup></i>. * indicate the intervention/intervention combination which do not have any effect on case or death reduction in a province.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["projected", "january", "optimal"], "article_id"=>866846, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Tridip Sardar", "Soumalya Mukhopadhyay", "Amiya Ranjan Bhowmick", "Joydev Chattopadhyay"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081231.t008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Optimal_cost_in_USD_projected_between_the_end_of_2008_8211_09_epidemic_to_January_1_2012_by_province_under_each_intervention_scenario_at_an_optimal_rate_/866846", "title"=>"Optimal cost (in USD) projected between the end of 2008–09 epidemic to January 1, 2012, by province under each intervention scenario at an optimal rate.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-12-03 02:44:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1301241"], "description"=>"<p>The solid line represents the model solution, and blue circles mark the reported cholera cases in the provinces using parameter values and initial conditions from <b><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0081231#pone.0081231.s005\" target=\"_blank\">Table S3</a> and <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0081231#pone.0081231.s006\" target=\"_blank\">Table S4</a></b>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fitting", "cholera"], "article_id"=>866843, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Tridip Sardar", "Soumalya Mukhopadhyay", "Amiya Ranjan Bhowmick", "Joydev Chattopadhyay"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081231.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Cholera_model_fitting_for_the_weekly_new_cholera_cases_/866843", "title"=>"Cholera model fitting for the weekly new cholera cases.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-12-03 02:44:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1301240"], "description"=>"<p>The data points are shown by empty blue circles while the model fits by the solid lines. The plots are given in the same order as of <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0081231#pone-0081231-g003\" target=\"_blank\"><b>Figure 3</b></a>. The cumulative deaths from the model are plotted using parameter values and initial conditions from <b><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0081231#pone.0081231.s005\" target=\"_blank\">Table S3</a> and <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0081231#pone.0081231.s006\" target=\"_blank\">Table S4</a></b>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cumulative", "cholera-related"], "article_id"=>866842, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Tridip Sardar", "Soumalya Mukhopadhyay", "Amiya Ranjan Bhowmick", "Joydev Chattopadhyay"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081231.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Province_wise_cumulative_cholera_related_deaths_/866842", "title"=>"Province-wise cumulative cholera-related deaths.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-12-03 02:44:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1301253", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1301254", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1301255", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1301256", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1301257", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1301258", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1301259"], "description"=>"<div><p>Incidence of cholera outbreak is a serious issue in underdeveloped and developing countries. In Zimbabwe, after the massive outbreak in 2008–09, cholera cases and deaths are reported every year from some provinces. Substantial number of reported cholera cases in some provinces during and after the epidemic in 2008–09 indicates a plausible presence of seasonality in cholera incidence in those regions. We formulate a compartmental mathematical model with periodic slow-fast transmission rate to study such recurrent occurrences and fitted the model to cumulative cholera cases and deaths for different provinces of Zimbabwe from the beginning of cholera outbreak in 2008–09 to June 2011. Daily and weekly reported cholera incidence data were collected from Zimbabwe epidemiological bulletin, Zimbabwe Daily cholera updates and Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs Zimbabwe (OCHA, Zimbabwe). For each province, the basic reproduction number () in periodic environment is estimated. To the best of our knowledge, this is probably a pioneering attempt to estimate in periodic environment using real-life data set of cholera epidemic for Zimbabwe. Our estimates of agree with the previous estimate for some provinces but differ significantly for Bulawayo, Mashonaland West, Manicaland, Matabeleland South and Matabeleland North. Seasonal trend in cholera incidence is observed in Harare, Mashonaland West, Mashonaland East, Manicaland and Matabeleland South. Our result suggests that, slow transmission is a dominating factor for cholera transmission in most of these provinces. Our model projects cholera cases and cholera deaths during the end of the epidemic in 2008–09 to January 1, 2012. We also determine an optimal cost-effective control strategy among the four government undertaken interventions namely promoting hand-hygiene & clean water distribution, vaccination, treatment and sanitation for each province.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["optimal", "zimbabwe", "cholera", "seasonal"], "article_id"=>866855, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Tridip Sardar", "Soumalya Mukhopadhyay", "Amiya Ranjan Bhowmick", "Joydev Chattopadhyay"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081231.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081231.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081231.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081231.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081231.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081231.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081231.s007"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>13, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_An_Optimal_Cost_Effectiveness_Study_on_Zimbabwe_Cholera_Seasonal_Data_from_2008_8211_2011_/866855", "title"=>"An Optimal Cost Effectiveness Study on Zimbabwe Cholera Seasonal Data from 2008–2011", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-12-03 02:44:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1301235"], "description"=>"<p>Cholera transmission model without any interventions.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>[], "article_id"=>866837, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Tridip Sardar", "Soumalya Mukhopadhyay", "Amiya Ranjan Bhowmick", "Joydev Chattopadhyay"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081231.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Cholera_transmission_model_without_any_interventions_/866837", "title"=>"Cholera transmission model without any interventions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-12-03 02:44:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1301252"], "description"=>"<p>Data Summary.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>[], "article_id"=>866854, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Tridip Sardar", "Soumalya Mukhopadhyay", "Amiya Ranjan Bhowmick", "Joydev Chattopadhyay"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081231.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>9, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Data_Summary_/866854", "title"=>"Data Summary.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-12-03 02:44:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1301249"], "description"=>"<p>Estimates of , and .</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>[], "article_id"=>866851, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Tridip Sardar", "Soumalya Mukhopadhyay", "Amiya Ranjan Bhowmick", "Joydev Chattopadhyay"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081231.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Estimates_of_and_/866851", "title"=>"Estimates of , and .", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-12-03 02:44:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1301248"], "description"=>"<p>Bold provinces are where the seasonality test result is found to be positive. : Denote the provinces where seasonality presents at the significance level and : denote the provinces where seasonality present at the significance level .</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["seasonality"], "article_id"=>866850, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Tridip Sardar", "Soumalya Mukhopadhyay", "Amiya Ranjan Bhowmick", "Joydev Chattopadhyay"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081231.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>7, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Table_showing_results_for_seasonality_testing_/866850", "title"=>"Table showing results for seasonality testing.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-12-03 02:44:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1301243"], "description"=>"<p>Data are given in the format [mean (95% CI)]. Data corresponding to Bulawayo province is not given as different interventions have no effect on case or death reduction in this region.</p><p>Notations in the first column are exactly same as <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0081231#pone-0081231-t005\" target=\"_blank\">Table 5</a>. Here <i>Ek</i> = 10<i><sup>k</sup></i>. * indicate the intervention/intervention combination which do not have any effect on case or death reduction in a province.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["averted", "projected", "january", "optimal"], "article_id"=>866845, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Tridip Sardar", "Soumalya Mukhopadhyay", "Amiya Ranjan Bhowmick", "Joydev Chattopadhyay"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081231.t009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Cost_per_averted_case_in_USD_projected_between_the_end_of_2008_8211_09_epidemic_to_January_1_2012_by_province_under_each_intervention_scenario_at_an_optimal_rate_/866845", "title"=>"Cost per averted case (in USD) projected between the end of 2008–09 epidemic to January 1, 2012, by province under each intervention scenario at an optimal rate.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-12-03 02:44:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1301242"], "description"=>"<p>The solid line represents the model solution, and blue circles mark the reported cholera deaths in the provinces using parameter values and initial conditions from <b><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0081231#pone.0081231.s005\" target=\"_blank\">Table S3</a> and <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0081231#pone.0081231.s006\" target=\"_blank\">Table S4</a></b>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fitting", "cholera"], "article_id"=>866844, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Tridip Sardar", "Soumalya Mukhopadhyay", "Amiya Ranjan Bhowmick", "Joydev Chattopadhyay"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081231.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Cholera_model_fitting_for_the_weekly_new_cholera_deaths_/866844", "title"=>"Cholera model fitting for the weekly new cholera deaths.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-12-03 02:44:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1301237"], "description"=>"<p>Cholera transmission model with different interventions.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>[], "article_id"=>866839, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Tridip Sardar", "Soumalya Mukhopadhyay", "Amiya Ranjan Bhowmick", "Joydev Chattopadhyay"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081231.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Cholera_transmission_model_with_different_interventions_/866839", "title"=>"Cholera transmission model with different interventions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-12-03 02:44:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1301238"], "description"=>"<p>The observed data points (available at some discrete time points over a time period, which varies across the study regions) are shown by blue circles while the solid lines depict the model solutions. The cumulative cholera cases from the model are plotted for each day of the time period (from the start to end week for the observed cholera data) using parameter values and initial conditions from <b><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0081231#pone.0081231.s005\" target=\"_blank\">Table S3</a> and <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0081231#pone.0081231.s006\" target=\"_blank\">Table S4</a></b>. The above plots of cholera cases from the different provinces of Zimbabwe are as follows: (i) Harare; (ii) Bulawayo; (iii) Mashonland West; (iv) Mashonland Central; (v) Mashonland East; (vi) Midlands; (vii) Masvingo; (viii) Manicaland; (ix) Matabalend South; and (x) Matabalend North.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cumulative", "cholera", "cases"], "article_id"=>866840, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Tridip Sardar", "Soumalya Mukhopadhyay", "Amiya Ranjan Bhowmick", "Joydev Chattopadhyay"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081231.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Province_wise_cumulative_cholera_cases_in_Zimbabwe_/866840", "title"=>"Province-wise cumulative cholera cases in Zimbabwe.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-12-03 02:44:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1301250"], "description"=>"<p>Fixed cost-coefficients.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>[], "article_id"=>866852, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Tridip Sardar", "Soumalya Mukhopadhyay", "Amiya Ranjan Bhowmick", "Joydev Chattopadhyay"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081231.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Fixed_cost_coefficients_/866852", "title"=>"Fixed cost-coefficients.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-12-03 02:44:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1301247"], "description"=>"<p>Data are given in the format [mean (95% CI)].</p><p>PH & CWD: Promoting hand-hygiene & clean water distribution; VA: Vaccination; TR: Treatment; SN: Sanitation; PH & CWD + TR + VA: Promoting hand-hygiene & clean water distribution plus treatment with vaccination; PH & CWD + TR + SN: Promoting hand-hygiene & clean water distribution plus treatment with sanitation; PH & CWD + VA + SN: Promoting hand-hygiene & clean water distribution plus vaccination with sanitation; VA + TR + SN: Vaccination plus treatment with sanitation; PH & CWD + TR + VA + SN: Promoting hand-hygiene & clean water distribution plus treatment plus vaccination with sanitation. * indicate the intervention/intervention combination which do not have any effect on case reduction in a province.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cases", "cholera", "projected", "january", "optimal"], "article_id"=>866849, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Tridip Sardar", "Soumalya Mukhopadhyay", "Amiya Ranjan Bhowmick", "Joydev Chattopadhyay"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081231.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Number_of_cases_from_cholera_projected_between_the_end_of_2008_8211_09_epidemic_to_January_1_2012_by_province_under_base_case_and_under_each_intervention_scenario_at_an_optimal_rate_/866849", "title"=>"Number of cases from cholera projected between the end of 2008–09 epidemic to January 1, 2012, by province under base case and under each intervention scenario at an optimal rate.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-12-03 02:44:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1301245"], "description"=>"<p>Data for vaccination are given according to its total coverage percentage and data for treatment, hand-hygiene & clean water distribution (PH & CWD) and sanitation given according to average coverage percentage per day. All data are given in the format [mean (95% CI)]. Data for the Bulawayo province is not given as different interventions have no effect on case or death reduction in this region.</p><p>Notations in the first column are exactly same as <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0081231#pone-0081231-t005\" target=\"_blank\">Table 5</a>. * indicate the intervention/intervention combinations which do not have any effect on case or death reduction in a province.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["optimal", "january"], "article_id"=>866847, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Tridip Sardar", "Soumalya Mukhopadhyay", "Amiya Ranjan Bhowmick", "Joydev Chattopadhyay"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081231.t007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Average_optimal_rate_at_which_different_intervention_should_be_given_between_the_end_of_2008_8211_09_epidemic_to_January_1_2012_for_each_province_/866847", "title"=>"Average optimal rate at which different intervention should be given between the end of 2008–09 epidemic to January 1, 2012, for each province.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-12-03 02:44:12"}

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Relative Metric

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