Short Faces, Big Tongues: Developmental Origin of the Human Chin
Publication Date
November 15, 2013
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Michael Coquerelle, Juan Carlos Prados Frutos, Rosa Rojo, Philipp Mitteroecker, et al
Volume
8
Issue
11
Pages
e81287
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081287
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0081287
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24260566
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3829973
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/24260566
Web of Science
000327258600112
Scopus
84894096990
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/short-faces-big-tongues-developmental-origin-human-chin
Events
Loading … Spinner

Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Short faces, big tongues: Developmental origin of the human chin", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Michael", "last_name"=>"Coquerelle", "scopus_author_id"=>"36140239700"}, {"first_name"=>"Juan Carlos", "last_name"=>"Prados-Frutos", "scopus_author_id"=>"6507817467"}, {"first_name"=>"Rosa", "last_name"=>"Rojo", "scopus_author_id"=>"56661991100"}, {"first_name"=>"Philipp", "last_name"=>"Mitteroecker", "scopus_author_id"=>"6507135382"}, {"first_name"=>"Markus", "last_name"=>"Bastir", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603088960"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "sgr"=>"84894096990", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84894096990", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "pui"=>"372377686", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0081287", "pmid"=>"24260566"}, "id"=>"be1903af-ed02-3723-910a-9359e5548aa6", "abstract"=>"During the course of human evolution, the retraction of the face underneath the braincase, and closer to the cervical column, has reduced the horizontal dimension of the vocal tract. By contrast, the relative size of the tongue has not been reduced, implying a rearrangement of the space at the back of the vocal tract to allow breathing and swallowing. This may have left a morphological signature such as a chin (mental prominence) that can potentially be interpreted in Homo. Long considered an autopomorphic trait of Homo sapiens, various extinct hominins show different forms of mental prominence. These features may be the evolutionary by-product of equivalent developmental constraints correlated with an enlarged tongue. In order to investigate developmental mechanisms related to this hypothesis, we compare modern 34 human infants against 8 chimpanzee fetuses, whom development of the mandibular symphysis passes through similar stages. The study sets out to test that the shared ontogenetic shape changes of the symphysis observed in both species are driven by the same factor--space restriction at the back of the vocal tract and the associated arrangement of the tongue and hyoid bone. We apply geometric morphometric methods to extensive three-dimensional anatomical landmarks and semilandmarks configuration, capturing the geometry of the cervico-craniofacial complex including the hyoid bone, tongue muscle and the mandible. We demonstrate that in both species, the forward displacement of the mental region derives from the arrangement of the tongue and hyoid bone, in order to cope with the relative horizontal narrowing of the oral cavity. Because humans and chimpanzees share this pattern of developmental integration, the different forms of mental prominence seen in some extinct hominids likely originate from equivalent ontogenetic constraints. Variations in this process could account for similar morphologies.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/short-faces-big-tongues-developmental-origin-human-chin", "reader_count"=>28, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Researcher"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>7, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>2, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Researcher"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>7, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>2, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Materials Science"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>13, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>4, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Arts and Humanities"=>2, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>3, "Computer Science"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>4}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>3}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>13}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Luxembourg"=>1, "Brazil"=>1, "Switzerland"=>1, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>2}

Scopus | Further Information

{"@_fa"=>"true", "link"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"self", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84894096990"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"author-affiliation", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84894096990?field=author,affiliation"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=84894096990&origin=inward"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus-citedby", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=84894096990&origin=inward"}], "prism:url"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84894096990", "dc:identifier"=>"SCOPUS_ID:84894096990", "eid"=>"2-s2.0-84894096990", "dc:title"=>"Short faces, big tongues: Developmental origin of the human chin", "dc:creator"=>"Coquerelle M.", "prism:publicationName"=>"PLoS ONE", "prism:eIssn"=>"19326203", "prism:volume"=>"8", "prism:issueIdentifier"=>"11", "prism:pageRange"=>nil, "prism:coverDate"=>"2013-11-15", "prism:coverDisplayDate"=>"15 November 2013", "prism:doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0081287", "citedby-count"=>"13", "affiliation"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "affilname"=>"Universidad Rey Juan Carlos", "affiliation-city"=>"Mostoles", "affiliation-country"=>"Spain"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "affilname"=>"CSIC - Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (MNCN)", "affiliation-city"=>"Madrid", "affiliation-country"=>"Spain"}], "pubmed-id"=>"24260566", "prism:aggregationType"=>"Journal", "subtype"=>"ar", "subtypeDescription"=>"Article", "article-number"=>"e81287", "source-id"=>"10600153309", "openaccess"=>"1", "openaccessFlag"=>true, "freetoread"=>{"value"=>[{"$"=>"all"}, {"$"=>"publisherfullgold"}, {"$"=>"repository"}, {"$"=>"repositoryvor"}, {"$"=>"repositoryam"}]}, "freetoreadLabel"=>{"value"=>[{"$"=>"All Open Access"}, {"$"=>"Gold"}, {"$"=>"Green"}]}}

Facebook

  • {"url"=>"http%3A%2F%2Fjournals.plos.org%2Fplosone%2Farticle%3Fid%3D10.1371%252Fjournal.pone.0081287", "share_count"=>0, "like_count"=>0, "comment_count"=>0, "click_count"=>0, "total_count"=>0}

Twitter

Counter

  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"110", "xml_views"=>"21", "html_views"=>"1241"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"20", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"317"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"22", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"145"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"23", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"130"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"157"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"22", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"133"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"95"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"74"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"79"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"66"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"70"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"73"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"65"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"88"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"89"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"48"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"56"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"70"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"63"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"38"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"45"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"49"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"95"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"94"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"125"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"96"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"75"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"83"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"88"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"91"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"59"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"46"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"45"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"47"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"100"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"34"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"38"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"53"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"44"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"50"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"63"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"80"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"65"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"47"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"23"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"38"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"38"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"48"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"75"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"32"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"23"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"23"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"37"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"35"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"30"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"23"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"23"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"21"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"32"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"46"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"49"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"27"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"24"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"36"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"22"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"26"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"18", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"58"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"14"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"22"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"11"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"23"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"36"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"32"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"21"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"26"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"27"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"30"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"21", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"43"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"35"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"40"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"25", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"27"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"25"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"51"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"49"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"35"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"41"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2021", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"52"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2021", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"41"}

Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1283775"], "description"=>"<p>The first three PCs in Procrustes form space account for approximately 94% of the total form variance for block 1 and 98% of that for block 2. Chimpanzees (blue trajectory) and humans (black trajectory) have distinct curvilinear ontogenetic trajectories. Blue dots: chimpanzee fetuses (a, b) to neonates (c). Black dots: humans from birth (d) to ~1 y.o. (e), red dots: from ~1 to ~2.5 y.o., green dots: from 2.5 to 5.5 y.o (f). Pink dots: regression estimates at age a, b, c, d, e and f visualized in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0081287#pone-0081287-g002\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 2</a>. The 3D reconstructions of blocks 1 and 2 show the landmark and semilandmark configurations (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0081287#pone.0081287.s001\" target=\"_blank\">Figure S1</a> and <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0081287#pone.0081287.s003\" target=\"_blank\">Table S1</a> for complete description). Note the parallel orientations of trajectories between a) and b) in chimps and between d) and e) in humans demonstrates similar developmental pathways within a different anatomical context. </p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>[], "article_id"=>853104, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Michael Coquerelle", "Juan Carlos Prados-Frutos", "Rosa Rojo", "Philipp Mitteroecker", "Markus Bastir"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081287.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Form_space_principal_component_analysis_/853104", "title"=>"Form space principal component analysis.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-15 02:49:46"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1283789", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1283790", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1283791", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1283792", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1283793"], "description"=>"<div><p>During the course of human evolution, the retraction of the face underneath the braincase, and closer to the cervical column, has reduced the horizontal dimension of the vocal tract. By contrast, the relative size of the tongue has not been reduced, implying a rearrangement of the space at the back of the vocal tract to allow breathing and swallowing. This may have left a morphological signature such as a chin (mental prominence) that can potentially be interpreted in <i>Homo</i>. Long considered an autopomorphic trait of <i>Homo sapiens</i>, various extinct hominins show different forms of mental prominence. These features may be the evolutionary by-product of equivalent developmental constraints correlated with an enlarged tongue. In order to investigate developmental mechanisms related to this hypothesis, we compare modern 34 human infants against 8 chimpanzee fetuses, whom development of the mandibular symphysis passes through similar stages. The study sets out to test that the shared ontogenetic shape changes of the symphysis observed in both species are driven by the same factor – the space restriction at the back of the vocal tract and the associated arrangement of the tongue and hyoid bone. We apply geometric morphometric methods to extensive three-dimensional anatomical landmarks and semilandmarks configuration, capturing the geometry of the cervico-craniofacial complex including the hyoid bone, tongue muscle and the mandible. We demonstrate that in both species, the forward displacement of the mental region derives from the arrangement of the tongue and hyoid bone, in order to cope with the relative horizontal narrowing of the oral cavity. Because humans and chimpanzees share this pattern of developmental integration, the different forms of mental prominence seen in some extinct hominids likely originate from equivalent ontogenetic constraints. Variations in this process could account for similar morphologies.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>[], "article_id"=>853112, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Michael Coquerelle", "Juan Carlos Prados-Frutos", "Rosa Rojo", "Philipp Mitteroecker", "Markus Bastir"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081287.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081287.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081287.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081287.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081287.s005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Short_Faces_Big_Tongues_Developmental_Origin_of_the_Human_Chin_/853112", "title"=>"Short Faces, Big Tongues: Developmental Origin of the Human Chin", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-11-15 02:49:46"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1283776"], "description"=>"<div><p>Lateral view: shape changes along the ontogenetic trajectories of chimpanzees (a-c) and humans (d-f) seen in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0081287#pone-0081287-g001\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 1</a>. The 3D morphs are regression estimates scaled to unit centroid size in order to focus on the shape changes. The mandible (translucent) was brought into the space of the cervico-craniofacial complex in order to visualize simultaneous shape changes of the tongue and the symphyseal midline. Sagittal plane: the thin plate spline deformation grids illustrate the shape changes of the sagittal structures of block 1 (left) and the symphysis of block 2 (right) from each age stage to its next older stage (exaggerated by factor of 1.5). Red dots: landmarks (listed in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0081287#pone.0081287.s003\" target=\"_blank\">Table S1</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0081287#pone.0081287.s001\" target=\"_blank\">Figure S1a</a>).</p>\n\t\t\t\t\t\t<p>Similar shape changes in chimpanzees (a-b) and humans (d-e) simultaneously include: 1) the forward projection of the mental region; 2) the relative horizontal reduction of the tongue and that of the oral cavity; 3) the cranial base flexion; 4) the relative shortening of the anterior cranial base; 5) the clockwise rotation of the posterior region of the upper mid-face; and 6) the forward positioning of the cervical column and the hyoid bone.</p>\n\t\t\t\t\t\t<p>Growth divergence in chimpanzees (b-c) and in humans (e-f). In humans: 1) vertical growth of the upper mid-face; 2) the rotation of the ramus towards the corpus; 3) lowering of the base of the tongue and the hyoid bone; 4) and the relative anteroposterior narrowing of the pharynx. In chimpanzees: 1) the inferior transverse torus starts to grow posteriorly; 2) the cranial base retroflexes; 3) the upper mid-face rotates forwards; and 4) the cervical column, the hyoid bone and lower part of the pharynx displace backwards.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>[], "article_id"=>853105, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Michael Coquerelle", "Juan Carlos Prados-Frutos", "Rosa Rojo", "Philipp Mitteroecker", "Markus Bastir"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081287.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Ontogenetic_shape_changes_/853105", "title"=>"Ontogenetic shape changes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-15 02:49:46"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1283777"], "description"=>"<p>Plot of the first pair of singular warps (SW1s), accounting for 21.92% of the summed squared covariances between these Procrustes coordinates (p-value=0.005). Humans (dots) and chimpanzees (squares) share the same pattern of covariation between the symphysis and the space at the back of the vocal tract. The thin plate spine deformation grids (exaggerated by factor of 2) show the pattern of independent growth. From the Procrustes mean shape of the pooled sample towards the negative SW1 scores, a convex symphyseal middle axis (mental prominence) correlates with a narrowed pharynx, a relatively short anterior cranial base, a backward upper mid-face and a globular tongue. Conversely, towards the positive SW1 scores, a concave symphyseal middle axis is associated with a broad pharynx, a relatively long anterior cranial base, a forward upper mid-face, and a flatter tongue. r: Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient between the first pair of singular warps.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>[], "article_id"=>853106, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Michael Coquerelle", "Juan Carlos Prados-Frutos", "Rosa Rojo", "Philipp Mitteroecker", "Markus Bastir"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081287.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Partial_least_square_analysis_/853106", "title"=>"Partial least square analysis.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-15 02:49:46"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"12", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"30", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"38", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"7", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"45", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"26", "full-text"=>"35", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"32", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"35", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"28", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"29", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"0", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"10", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"5", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"5", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"53", "full-text"=>"59", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"3", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"74", "full-text"=>"80", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"73", "full-text"=>"78", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"75", "full-text"=>"77", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"54", "full-text"=>"59", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"5", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2021", "month"=>"1"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2013-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2013-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Developmental biology", "average_usage"=>[275, 472, 605, 720, 822, 921, 1013, 1106, 1200, 1289, 1378, 1459, 1531]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Paleontology", "average_usage"=>[605, 959, 1140, 1273, 1412, 1552, 1709, 1830, 1959, 2077, 2241, 2360, 2456]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Earth sciences/Paleontology", "average_usage"=>[591, 936, 1096, 1257, 1426, 1560, 1700, 1841, 1976, 2133, 2250, 2381, 2482]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Anatomy and physiology", "average_usage"=>[253, 430]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Social sciences/Anthropology", "average_usage"=>[431, 661, 887, 1066, 1189, 1333, 1445, 1558, 1633, 1766, 1894, 1989, 2064]}]}
Loading … Spinner
There are currently no alerts