Assessing “Dangerous Climate Change”: Required Reduction of Carbon Emissions to Protect Young People, Future Generations and Nature
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{"title"=>"Assessing \"dangerous climate change\": Required reduction of carbon emissions to protect young people, future generations and nature", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"James", "last_name"=>"Hansen", "scopus_author_id"=>"7404334532"}, {"first_name"=>"Pushker", "last_name"=>"Kharecha", "scopus_author_id"=>"16304578900"}, {"first_name"=>"Makiko", "last_name"=>"Sato", "scopus_author_id"=>"7405727977"}, {"first_name"=>"Valerie", "last_name"=>"Masson-Delmotte", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603524169"}, {"first_name"=>"Frank", "last_name"=>"Ackerman", "scopus_author_id"=>"36877553300"}, {"first_name"=>"David J.", "last_name"=>"Beerling", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005793077"}, {"first_name"=>"Paul J.", "last_name"=>"Hearty", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003591250"}, {"first_name"=>"Ove", "last_name"=>"Hoegh-Guldberg", "scopus_author_id"=>"26643606100"}, {"first_name"=>"Shi Ling", "last_name"=>"Hsu", "scopus_author_id"=>"55764912000"}, {"first_name"=>"Camille", "last_name"=>"Parmesan", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602907229"}, {"first_name"=>"Johan", "last_name"=>"Rockstrom", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603746245"}, {"first_name"=>"Eelco J.", "last_name"=>"Rohling", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003642344"}, {"first_name"=>"Jeffrey", "last_name"=>"Sachs", "scopus_author_id"=>"7101926169"}, {"first_name"=>"Pete", "last_name"=>"Smith", "scopus_author_id"=>"55723644900"}, {"first_name"=>"Konrad", "last_name"=>"Steffen", "scopus_author_id"=>"55407808000"}, {"first_name"=>"Lise", "last_name"=>"Van Susteren", "scopus_author_id"=>"55987603100"}, {"first_name"=>"Karina", "last_name"=>"Von Schuckmann", "scopus_author_id"=>"25822837600"}, {"first_name"=>"James C.", "last_name"=>"Zachos", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003450850"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84891682477", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"372056216", "sgr"=>"84891682477", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pmid"=>"24312568", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0081648"}, "id"=>"0286baca-6443-3ed6-8d8c-765186e45034", "abstract"=>"We assess climate impacts of global warming using ongoing observations and paleoclimate data. We use Earth's measured energy imbalance, paleoclimate data, and simple representations of the global carbon cycle and temperature to define emission reductions needed to stabilize climate and avoid potentially disastrous impacts on today's young people, future generations, and nature. A cumulative industrial-era limit of ∼500 GtC fossil fuel emissions and 100 GtC storage in the biosphere and soil would keep climate close to the Holocene range to which humanity and other species are adapted. Cumulative emissions of ∼1000 GtC, sometimes associated with 2°C global warming, would spur \"slow\" feedbacks and eventual warming of 3-4°C with disastrous consequences. Rapid emissions reduction is required to restore Earth's energy balance and avoid ocean heat uptake that would practically guarantee irreversible effects. Continuation of high fossil fuel emissions, given current knowledge of the consequences, would be an act of extraordinary witting intergenerational injustice. Responsible policymaking requires a rising price on carbon emissions that would preclude emissions from most remaining coal and unconventional fossil fuels and phase down emissions from conventional fossil fuels.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/assessing-dangerous-climate-change-required-reduction-carbon-emissions-protect-young-people-future-g", "reader_count"=>537, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>7, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>17, "Librarian"=>4, "Researcher"=>123, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>30, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>102, "Student > Postgraduate"=>20, "Student > Master"=>107, "Other"=>36, "Student > Bachelor"=>56, "Lecturer"=>7, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>5, "Professor"=>23}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>7, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>17, "Librarian"=>4, "Researcher"=>123, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>30, "Student > Ph. D. 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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1302071"], "description"=>"<p>(A) 6% or 2% annual cut begins in 2013 and 100 GtC reforestation drawdown occurs in 2031–2080, (B) effect of delaying onset of emission reduction.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fossil", "emissions"], "article_id"=>867437, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["James Hansen", "Pushker Kharecha", "Makiko Sato", "Valerie Masson-Delmotte", "Frank Ackerman", "David J. Beerling", "Paul J. Hearty", "Ove Hoegh-Guldberg", "Shi-Ling Hsu", "Camille Parmesan", "Johan Röckström", "Eelco J. Rohling", "Jeffrey Sachs", "Pete Smith", "Konrad Steffen", "Lise Van Susteren", "Karina von Schuckmann", "James C. Zachos"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081648.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Atmospheric_CO_2_if_fossil_fuel_emissions_reduced_/867437", "title"=>"Atmospheric CO<sub>2</sub> if fossil fuel emissions reduced.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-12-03 03:41:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1302088"], "description"=>"<p>World energy consumption for indicated fuels, which excludes wood <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0081648#pone.0081648-BP1\" target=\"_blank\">[4]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["indicated", "excludes"], "article_id"=>867454, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["James Hansen", "Pushker Kharecha", "Makiko Sato", "Valerie Masson-Delmotte", "Frank Ackerman", "David J. Beerling", "Paul J. Hearty", "Ove Hoegh-Guldberg", "Shi-Ling Hsu", "Camille Parmesan", "Johan Röckström", "Eelco J. Rohling", "Jeffrey Sachs", "Pete Smith", "Konrad Steffen", "Lise Van Susteren", "Karina von Schuckmann", "James C. Zachos"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081648.g014", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_World_energy_consumption_for_indicated_fuels_which_excludes_wood_4_/867454", "title"=>"World energy consumption for indicated fuels, which excludes wood [4].", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-12-03 03:41:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1302085"], "description"=>"<p>(A) 2012 emissions by source region, and (B) cumulative 1751–2012 emissions. Results are an update of Fig. 10 of <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0081648#pone.0081648-Hansen15\" target=\"_blank\">[190]</a> using data from <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0081648#pone.0081648-Boden1\" target=\"_blank\">[5]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>[], "article_id"=>867451, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["James Hansen", "Pushker Kharecha", "Makiko Sato", "Valerie Masson-Delmotte", "Frank Ackerman", "David J. Beerling", "Paul J. Hearty", "Ove Hoegh-Guldberg", "Shi-Ling Hsu", "Camille Parmesan", "Johan Röckström", "Eelco J. Rohling", "Jeffrey Sachs", "Pete Smith", "Konrad Steffen", "Lise Van Susteren", "Karina von Schuckmann", "James C. Zachos"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081648.g011", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Fossil_fuel_CO_2_emissions_/867451", "title"=>"Fossil fuel CO<sub>2</sub> emissions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-12-03 03:41:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1302070"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Instantaneous injection or extraction of CO<sub>2</sub> with initial conditions at equilibrium. (B) Fossil fuel emissions terminate at the end of 2015, 2030, or 2050 and land use emissions terminate after 2015 in all three cases, i.e., thereafter there is no net deforestation.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["atmospheric"], "article_id"=>867436, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["James Hansen", "Pushker Kharecha", "Makiko Sato", "Valerie Masson-Delmotte", "Frank Ackerman", "David J. Beerling", "Paul J. Hearty", "Ove Hoegh-Guldberg", "Shi-Ling Hsu", "Camille Parmesan", "Johan Röckström", "Eelco J. Rohling", "Jeffrey Sachs", "Pete Smith", "Konrad Steffen", "Lise Van Susteren", "Karina von Schuckmann", "James C. Zachos"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081648.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Decay_of_atmospheric_CO_2_perturbations_/867436", "title"=>"Decay of atmospheric CO<sub>2</sub> perturbations.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-12-03 03:41:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1302067"], "description"=>"<p>Estimates of reserves (profitable to extract at current prices) and resources (potentially recoverable with advanced technology and/or at higher prices) are the mean of estimates of Energy Information Administration (EIA) <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0081648#pone.0081648-Energy1\" target=\"_blank\">[7]</a>, German Advisory Council (GAC) <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0081648#pone.0081648-German1\" target=\"_blank\">[8]</a>, and Global Energy Assessment (GEA) <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0081648#pone.0081648-Global1\" target=\"_blank\">[9]</a>. GEA <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0081648#pone.0081648-Global1\" target=\"_blank\">[9]</a> suggests the possibility of >15,000 GtC unconventional gas. Error estimates (vertical lines) are from GEA and probably underestimate the total uncertainty. We convert energy content to carbon content using emission factors of Table 4.2 of <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0081648#pone.0081648-IntergovernmentalPanelonClimate3\" target=\"_blank\">[15]</a> for coal, gas and conventional oil, and, also following <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0081648#pone.0081648-IntergovernmentalPanelonClimate3\" target=\"_blank\">[15]</a>, emission factor of unconventional oil is approximated as being the same as for coal. Total emissions through 2012, including gas flaring and cement manufacture, are 384 GtC; fossil fuel emissions alone are ∼370 GtC.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["emissions", "carbon", "ppm", "atmospheric"], "article_id"=>867433, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["James Hansen", "Pushker Kharecha", "Makiko Sato", "Valerie Masson-Delmotte", "Frank Ackerman", "David J. Beerling", "Paul J. Hearty", "Ove Hoegh-Guldberg", "Shi-Ling Hsu", "Camille Parmesan", "Johan Röckström", "Eelco J. Rohling", "Jeffrey Sachs", "Pete Smith", "Konrad Steffen", "Lise Van Susteren", "Karina von Schuckmann", "James C. Zachos"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081648.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>72, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Fossil_fuel_CO_2_emissions_and_carbon_content_1_ppm_atmospheric_CO_2_8764_2_12_GtC_/867433", "title"=>"Fossil fuel CO<sub>2</sub> emissions and carbon content (1 ppm atmospheric CO<sub>2</sub> ∼ 2.12 GtC).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-12-03 03:41:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1302066"], "description"=>"<p>(A) is log scale and (B) is linear.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["emissions", "fossil", "cement", "british", "petroleum", "concatenated", "boden", "et"], "article_id"=>867432, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["James Hansen", "Pushker Kharecha", "Makiko Sato", "Valerie Masson-Delmotte", "Frank Ackerman", "David J. Beerling", "Paul J. Hearty", "Ove Hoegh-Guldberg", "Shi-Ling Hsu", "Camille Parmesan", "Johan Röckström", "Eelco J. Rohling", "Jeffrey Sachs", "Pete Smith", "Konrad Steffen", "Lise Van Susteren", "Karina von Schuckmann", "James C. Zachos"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081648.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_CO_2_annual_emissions_from_fossil_fuel_use_and_cement_manufacture_based_on_data_of_British_Petroleum_4_concatenated_with_data_of_Boden_et_al_5_/867432", "title"=>"CO<sub>2</sub> annual emissions from fossil fuel use and cement manufacture, based on data of British Petroleum [4] concatenated with data of Boden et al. [5].", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-12-03 03:41:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1302073"], "description"=>"<p>Prior to 1981 the CO<sub>2</sub> change is based on only Mauna Loa, Hawaii. Temperature changes in lower diagram are 12-month running means for the globe and Niño3.4 area <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0081648#pone.0081648-Hansen2\" target=\"_blank\">[16]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["noaa"], "article_id"=>867439, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["James Hansen", "Pushker Kharecha", "Makiko Sato", "Valerie Masson-Delmotte", "Frank Ackerman", "David J. Beerling", "Paul J. Hearty", "Ove Hoegh-Guldberg", "Shi-Ling Hsu", "Camille Parmesan", "Johan Röckström", "Eelco J. Rohling", "Jeffrey Sachs", "Pete Smith", "Konrad Steffen", "Lise Van Susteren", "Karina von Schuckmann", "James C. Zachos"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081648.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Annual_increase_of_CO_2_based_on_data_from_the_NOAA_Earth_System_Research_Laboratory_188_/867439", "title"=>"Annual increase of CO<sub>2</sub> based on data from the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory [188].", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-12-03 03:41:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1302087"], "description"=>"<p>United States energy consumption <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0081648#pone.0081648-US1\" target=\"_blank\">[229]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["states"], "article_id"=>867453, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["James Hansen", "Pushker Kharecha", "Makiko Sato", "Valerie Masson-Delmotte", "Frank Ackerman", "David J. Beerling", "Paul J. Hearty", "Ove Hoegh-Guldberg", "Shi-Ling Hsu", "Camille Parmesan", "Johan Röckström", "Eelco J. Rohling", "Jeffrey Sachs", "Pete Smith", "Konrad Steffen", "Lise Van Susteren", "Karina von Schuckmann", "James C. Zachos"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081648.g013", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_United_States_energy_consumption_229_/867453", "title"=>"United States energy consumption [229].", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-12-03 03:41:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1302069"], "description"=>"<p>B shows the 5 and 11 year means. Figures are updates of <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0081648#pone.0081648-Hansen2\" target=\"_blank\">[16]</a> using data through August 2013.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>[], "article_id"=>867435, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["James Hansen", "Pushker Kharecha", "Makiko Sato", "Valerie Masson-Delmotte", "Frank Ackerman", "David J. Beerling", "Paul J. Hearty", "Ove Hoegh-Guldberg", "Shi-Ling Hsu", "Camille Parmesan", "Johan Röckström", "Eelco J. Rohling", "Jeffrey Sachs", "Pete Smith", "Konrad Steffen", "Lise Van Susteren", "Karina von Schuckmann", "James C. Zachos"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081648.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Global_surface_temperature_relative_to_1880_8211_1920_mean_/867435", "title"=>"Global surface temperature relative to 1880–1920 mean.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-12-03 03:41:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1302086"], "description"=>"<p>Countries, regions and data sources are the same as in Fig. 11. Horizontal lines are the global mean and multiples of the global mean.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["capita", "fossil"], "article_id"=>867452, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["James Hansen", "Pushker Kharecha", "Makiko Sato", "Valerie Masson-Delmotte", "Frank Ackerman", "David J. Beerling", "Paul J. Hearty", "Ove Hoegh-Guldberg", "Shi-Ling Hsu", "Camille Parmesan", "Johan Röckström", "Eelco J. Rohling", "Jeffrey Sachs", "Pete Smith", "Konrad Steffen", "Lise Van Susteren", "Karina von Schuckmann", "James C. Zachos"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081648.g012", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Per_capita_fossil_fuel_CO_2_emissions_/867452", "title"=>"Per capita fossil fuel CO<sub>2</sub> emissions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-12-03 03:41:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1302083"], "description"=>"<p>Data were read from <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0081648#pone-0081648-g004\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 4</a> of Shepherd et al. <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0081648#pone.0081648-Shepherd1\" target=\"_blank\">[23]</a> and averaged over the available records.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["greenland", "antarctic"], "article_id"=>867449, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["James Hansen", "Pushker Kharecha", "Makiko Sato", "Valerie Masson-Delmotte", "Frank Ackerman", "David J. Beerling", "Paul J. Hearty", "Ove Hoegh-Guldberg", "Shi-Ling Hsu", "Camille Parmesan", "Johan Röckström", "Eelco J. Rohling", "Jeffrey Sachs", "Pete Smith", "Konrad Steffen", "Lise Van Susteren", "Karina von Schuckmann", "James C. Zachos"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081648.g010", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Annual_Greenland_and_West_Antarctic_ice_mass_changes_as_estimated_via_alternative_methods_/867449", "title"=>"Annual Greenland and West Antarctic ice mass changes as estimated via alternative methods.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-12-03 03:41:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1302081"], "description"=>"<p>Forcings through 2010 are as in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0081648#pone.0081648-Hansen7\" target=\"_blank\">[64]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["forcings", "employed"], "article_id"=>867447, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["James Hansen", "Pushker Kharecha", "Makiko Sato", "Valerie Masson-Delmotte", "Frank Ackerman", "David J. Beerling", "Paul J. Hearty", "Ove Hoegh-Guldberg", "Shi-Ling Hsu", "Camille Parmesan", "Johan Röckström", "Eelco J. Rohling", "Jeffrey Sachs", "Pete Smith", "Konrad Steffen", "Lise Van Susteren", "Karina von Schuckmann", "James C. Zachos"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081648.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Climate_forcings_employed_in_our_six_main_scenarios_/867447", "title"=>"Climate forcings employed in our six main scenarios.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-12-03 03:41:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1302082"], "description"=>"<p>Simulated global temperature relative to 1880–1920 mean for CO<sub>2</sub> scenarios of <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0081648#pone-0081648-g005\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 5</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["scenarios"], "article_id"=>867448, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["James Hansen", "Pushker Kharecha", "Makiko Sato", "Valerie Masson-Delmotte", "Frank Ackerman", "David J. Beerling", "Paul J. Hearty", "Ove Hoegh-Guldberg", "Shi-Ling Hsu", "Camille Parmesan", "Johan Röckström", "Eelco J. Rohling", "Jeffrey Sachs", "Pete Smith", "Konrad Steffen", "Lise Van Susteren", "Karina von Schuckmann", "James C. Zachos"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081648.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>18, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Simulated_global_temperature_relative_to_1880_1920_mean_for_CO_2_scenarios_of_Figure_5_/867448", "title"=>"Simulated global temperature relative to 1880–1920 mean for CO<sub>2</sub> scenarios of Figure 5.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-12-03 03:41:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1302080"], "description"=>"<p>Left scale is the energy passing through an area perpendicular to Sun-Earth line. Averaged over Earth’s surface the absorbed solar energy is ∼240 W/m<sup>2</sup>, so the full amplitude of measured solar variability is ∼0.25 W/m<sup>2</sup>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["irradiance", "sunspot"], "article_id"=>867446, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["James Hansen", "Pushker Kharecha", "Makiko Sato", "Valerie Masson-Delmotte", "Frank Ackerman", "David J. Beerling", "Paul J. Hearty", "Ove Hoegh-Guldberg", "Shi-Ling Hsu", "Camille Parmesan", "Johan Röckström", "Eelco J. Rohling", "Jeffrey Sachs", "Pete Smith", "Konrad Steffen", "Lise Van Susteren", "Karina von Schuckmann", "James C. Zachos"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081648.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Solar_irradiance_and_sunspot_number_in_the_era_of_satellite_data_see_text_/867446", "title"=>"Solar irradiance and sunspot number in the era of satellite data (see text).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-12-03 03:41:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1302089", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1302090", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1302091", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1302092"], "description"=>"<div><p>We assess climate impacts of global warming using ongoing observations and paleoclimate data. We use Earth’s measured energy imbalance, paleoclimate data, and simple representations of the global carbon cycle and temperature to define emission reductions needed to stabilize climate and avoid potentially disastrous impacts on today’s young people, future generations, and nature. A cumulative industrial-era limit of ∼500 GtC fossil fuel emissions and 100 GtC storage in the biosphere and soil would keep climate close to the Holocene range to which humanity and other species are adapted. Cumulative emissions of ∼1000 GtC, sometimes associated with 2°C global warming, would spur “slow” feedbacks and eventual warming of 3–4°C with disastrous consequences. Rapid emissions reduction is required to restore Earth’s energy balance and avoid ocean heat uptake that would practically guarantee irreversible effects. Continuation of high fossil fuel emissions, given current knowledge of the consequences, would be an act of extraordinary witting intergenerational injustice. Responsible policymaking requires a rising price on carbon emissions that would preclude emissions from most remaining coal and unconventional fossil fuels and phase down emissions from conventional fossil fuels.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["carbon", "emissions", "generations"], "article_id"=>867455, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["James Hansen", "Pushker Kharecha", "Makiko Sato", "Valerie Masson-Delmotte", "Frank Ackerman", "David J. Beerling", "Paul J. Hearty", "Ove Hoegh-Guldberg", "Shi-Ling Hsu", "Camille Parmesan", "Johan Röckström", "Eelco J. Rohling", "Jeffrey Sachs", "Pete Smith", "Konrad Steffen", "Lise Van Susteren", "Karina von Schuckmann", "James C. Zachos"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081648.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081648.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081648.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081648.s004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>11, "page_views"=>22, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Assessing_8220_Dangerous_Climate_Change_8221_Required_Reduction_of_Carbon_Emissions_to_Protect_Young_People_Future_Generations_and_Nature_/867455", "title"=>"Assessing “Dangerous Climate Change”: Required Reduction of Carbon Emissions to Protect Young People, Future Generations and Nature", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-12-03 03:41:44"}

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Relative Metric

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