Systems Biology Analysis of Brucella Infected Peyer's Patch Reveals Rapid Invasion with Modest Transient Perturbations of the Host Transcriptome
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{"title"=>"Systems biology analysis of Brucella infected Peyer's patch reveals rapid invasion with modest transient perturbations of the host transcriptome", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Carlos A.", "last_name"=>"Rossetti", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006728377"}, {"first_name"=>"Kenneth L.", "last_name"=>"Drake", "scopus_author_id"=>"36166313900"}, {"first_name"=>"Prasad", "last_name"=>"Siddavatam", "scopus_author_id"=>"24605826600"}, {"first_name"=>"Sara D.", "last_name"=>"Lawhon", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602821360"}, {"first_name"=>"Jairo E.S.", "last_name"=>"Nunes", "scopus_author_id"=>"56224247700"}, {"first_name"=>"Tamara", "last_name"=>"Gull", "scopus_author_id"=>"13906100400"}, {"first_name"=>"Sangeeta", "last_name"=>"Khare", "scopus_author_id"=>"7101890733"}, {"first_name"=>"Robin E.", "last_name"=>"Everts", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004156802"}, {"first_name"=>"Harris A.", "last_name"=>"Lewin", "scopus_author_id"=>"16943119700"}, {"first_name"=>"Leslie Garry", "last_name"=>"Adams", "scopus_author_id"=>"7202283031"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84892581350", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0081719", "sgr"=>"84892581350", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\n1932-6203 (Linking)", "pmid"=>"24349118", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"372132660"}, "id"=>"3a78efe1-d368-331f-bb67-0b86fe19438e", "abstract"=>"Brucella melitensis causes the most severe and acute symptoms of all Brucella species in human beings and infects hosts primarily through the oral route. The epithelium covering domed villi of jejunal-ileal Peyer's patches is an important site of entry for several pathogens, including Brucella. Here, we use the calf ligated ileal loop model to study temporal in vivo Brucella-infected host molecular and morphological responses. Our results document Brucella bacteremia occurring within 30 min after intraluminal inoculation of the ileum without histopathologic traces of lesions. Based on a system biology Dynamic Bayesian Network modeling approach (DBN) of microarray data, a very early transient perturbation of the host enteric transcriptome was associated with the initial host response to Brucella contact that is rapidly averted allowing invasion and dissemination. A detailed analysis revealed active expression of Syndecan 2, Integrin alpha L and Integrin beta 2 genes, which may favor initial Brucella adhesion. Also, two intestinal barrier-related pathways (Tight Junction and Trefoil Factors Initiated Mucosal Healing) were significantly repressed in the early stage of infection, suggesting subversion of mucosal epithelial barrier function to facilitate Brucella transepithelial migration. Simultaneously, the strong activation of the innate immune response pathways would suggest that the host mounts an appropriate protective immune response; however, the expression of the two key genes that encode innate immunity anti-Brucella cytokines such as TNF-α and IL12p40 were not significantly changed throughout the study. Furthermore, the defective expression of Toll-Like Receptor Signaling pathways may partially explain the lack of proinflammatory cytokine production and consequently the absence of morphologically detectable inflammation at the site of infection. Cumulatively, our results indicate that the in vivo pathogenesis of the early infectious process of Brucella is primarily accomplished by compromising the mucosal immune barrier and subverting critical immune response mechanisms.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/systems-biology-analysis-brucella-infected-peyers-patch-reveals-rapid-invasion-modest-transient-pert", "reader_count"=>25, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Researcher"=>6, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>9, "Student > Master"=>3, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Researcher"=>6, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>9, "Student > Master"=>3, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>4, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>12, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>2, "Computer Science"=>2, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>4}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>12}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>2}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>4}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>2}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1308391"], "description"=>"<p>The heat map shows a number of up-regulated genes occurring in the early stage (15–60 minutes post-inoculation) as indicated by the darker red boxes as well as down-regulated genes as indicated by the darker green boxes.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["receptor"], "article_id"=>872365, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Carlos A. Rossetti", "Kenneth L. Drake", "Prasad Siddavatam", "Sara D. Lawhon", "Jairo E. S. Nunes", "Tamara Gull", "Sangeeta Khare", "Robin E. Everts", "Harris A. Lewin", "Leslie Garry Adams"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081719.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Toll_like_Receptor_Related_Gene_Score_Heat_Map_by_Time_Point_Post_Inoculation_/872365", "title"=>"Toll-like Receptor Related Gene Score Heat Map by Time Point Post-Inoculation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-12-09 03:40:53"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1308376"], "description"=>"<p>Thirty-seven pathways were identified as significantly perturbed (97.5% confidence) from the early stage of infection (15–60 m.p.i.). The darker red gradients indicate higher Bayesian activation scores (more up-regulated gene expression within the pathway) while the darker green gradients indicate more repressed pathway activity (more down-regulated gene expression).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["perturbed", "pathways", "scores", "bovine", "infected"], "article_id"=>872350, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Carlos A. Rossetti", "Kenneth L. Drake", "Prasad Siddavatam", "Sara D. Lawhon", "Jairo E. S. Nunes", "Tamara Gull", "Sangeeta Khare", "Robin E. Everts", "Harris A. Lewin", "Leslie Garry Adams"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081719.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Heatmap_of_Significantly_Perturbed_Pathways_Scores_in_Bovine_Peyer_s_Patch_Infected_with_B_melitensis_/872350", "title"=>"Heatmap of Significantly Perturbed Pathways Scores in Bovine Peyer's Patch Infected with <i>B. melitensis</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-12-09 03:40:53"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1308399"], "description"=>"<p>The table lists significantly perturbed (activated or repressed) genes at any time among the 5 different time points (0.25 h through 4 h p.i.).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["altered", "genes", "adhesion"], "article_id"=>872373, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Carlos A. Rossetti", "Kenneth L. Drake", "Prasad Siddavatam", "Sara D. Lawhon", "Jairo E. S. Nunes", "Tamara Gull", "Sangeeta Khare", "Robin E. Everts", "Harris A. Lewin", "Leslie Garry Adams"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081719.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Significantly_Altered_Genes_Bayesian_z_score_2_24_in_the_Cell_Molecule_Adhesion_CAM_pathway_/872373", "title"=>"Significantly Altered Genes (Bayesian <i>z</i>-score |2.24|) in the Cell Molecule Adhesion (CAM) pathway.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-12-09 03:40:53"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1308384"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Tight Junction pathway Bayesian network representation at 30 min post-inoculation. Gene nodes with orange circles on the network are those defined as mechanistic genes that surpass a threshold Bayesian z-score| >2.24|. The network shows gene nodes with gradient colors representing the level of expression (deeper red for higher up-regulated genes and deeper green for down-regulated). (B) The Bayesian score heat map for the gene expression of <i>Brucella</i> infected host Peyer's patch versus non-infected controls. The heat map is colorized and corresponds to the gene node expression levels. Grey color represents little to no expression difference between <i>Brucella</i>-infected and control loops. The heat map columns are by time post-infection in minutes.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["junction", "pathway", "bayesian"], "article_id"=>872358, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Carlos A. Rossetti", "Kenneth L. Drake", "Prasad Siddavatam", "Sara D. Lawhon", "Jairo E. S. Nunes", "Tamara Gull", "Sangeeta Khare", "Robin E. Everts", "Harris A. Lewin", "Leslie Garry Adams"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081719.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>18, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Tight_Junction_Pathway_Bayesian_Network_Model_and_Gene_Score_Heat_Map_/872358", "title"=>"Tight Junction Pathway Bayesian Network Model and Gene Score Heat Map.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-12-09 03:40:53"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1308398"], "description"=>"*<p>Categories - CC =  cell communication; CGD =  cell growth and death; CM =  cell motility; IS =  immune system; ID =  infectious disease; MT =  membrane transport; ST =  signal transduction; SM =  signaling molecule measured time points 15, 30, 60, 120, and 240 minutes p.i. The Bayeian <i>z</i>-scores represent the degree of perturbation of the group of pathway genes versus the controls. Positive <i>z</i>-scores represent activation of the pathway (pathway score is dominated by more up-regulated genes), while the negative <i>z</i>-score represents pathway repression (pathway score is dominated by down-regulated genes). <b>Bolded</b> pathways represent pathways highly perturbed at earlier time points (either activated or repressed) with decreased differential expression at later time points to near or non-statistical differences in comparison with control tissues.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["56", "pathways", "categories", "post-", "compared"], "article_id"=>872372, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Carlos A. Rossetti", "Kenneth L. Drake", "Prasad Siddavatam", "Sara D. Lawhon", "Jairo E. S. Nunes", "Tamara Gull", "Sangeeta Khare", "Robin E. Everts", "Harris A. Lewin", "Leslie Garry Adams"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081719.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Bayesian_z_score_of_56_Pathways_in_Eight_categories_post_B_melitensis_Infection_Compared_to_Controls_/872372", "title"=>"Bayesian <i>z</i>-score of 56 Pathways in Eight categories post- <i>B. melitensis</i> Infection Compared to Controls.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-12-09 03:40:53"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1308395"], "description"=>"<p>The table lists significantly perturbed (activated or repressed) genes at any time among the 5 different time points (0.25 h through 4 h p.i.).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["altered", "genes", "extra-cellular", "membrane"], "article_id"=>872369, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Carlos A. Rossetti", "Kenneth L. Drake", "Prasad Siddavatam", "Sara D. Lawhon", "Jairo E. S. Nunes", "Tamara Gull", "Sangeeta Khare", "Robin E. Everts", "Harris A. Lewin", "Leslie Garry Adams"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081719.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Significantly_Altered_Genes_Bayesian_z_score_2_24_in_the_Extra_Cellular_Membrane_ECM_pathway_/872369", "title"=>"Significantly Altered Genes (Bayesian <i>z</i>-score |2.24|) in the Extra-Cellular Membrane (ECM) pathway.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-12-09 03:40:53"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1308379"], "description"=>"<p>This heat map shows the repressed state of activity for the Tight Junction (TJ) and Trefoil Factors (TF) pathway in comparison to the Gap Junction, Integrin-mediated Cell Adhesion and Cell Adhesion Molecules pathways. Note that the TJ and TF pathways have a complex activation pattern. The TJ is tri-phasic in that it is highly repressed in the early stage, becomes moderately activated at 60 and 120 min p.i, and then becomes repressed at 240 min p.i. The TF pathway is bi-phasic in that it is highly repressed in the early stage but becomes moderately activated at 120 and 240 min p.i. The darker red gradients indicate higher Bayesian activation scores (more up-regulated gene expression within the pathway) while the darker green gradients indicate more repressed pathway activity (more down-regulated gene expression).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>[], "article_id"=>872353, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Carlos A. Rossetti", "Kenneth L. Drake", "Prasad Siddavatam", "Sara D. Lawhon", "Jairo E. S. Nunes", "Tamara Gull", "Sangeeta Khare", "Robin E. Everts", "Harris A. Lewin", "Leslie Garry Adams"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081719.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Pathway_Score_Heat_Map_for_Cell_Communication_Related_Pathways_/872353", "title"=>"Pathway Score Heat Map for Cell Communication Related Pathways.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-12-09 03:40:53"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1308394"], "description"=>"<p>The heat map shows a number of both up-regulated and down-regulated genes (15–240 minutes post-inoculation). The heat map shows that much of the up-regulation is short-lived for many of these genes and reversed expression direction or minimally expressed in later time points. Red indicates an activated state while green indicates repression and grey is no expression change from control.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>[], "article_id"=>872368, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Carlos A. Rossetti", "Kenneth L. Drake", "Prasad Siddavatam", "Sara D. Lawhon", "Jairo E. S. Nunes", "Tamara Gull", "Sangeeta Khare", "Robin E. Everts", "Harris A. Lewin", "Leslie Garry Adams"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081719.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Interleukin_Gene_Score_Heat_Map_by_Time_Point_Post_Inoculation_/872368", "title"=>"Interleukin Gene Score Heat Map by Time Point Post Inoculation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-12-09 03:40:53"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1308392"], "description"=>"<p>The heat map shows a number of both up-regulated and down-regulated genes (15–240 minutes post-inoculation). Note that there were large numbers of down-regulated and non-expressed chemokine genes. Red indicates an activated state while green indicates repression and grey is no expression change from control.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>[], "article_id"=>872366, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Carlos A. Rossetti", "Kenneth L. Drake", "Prasad Siddavatam", "Sara D. Lawhon", "Jairo E. S. Nunes", "Tamara Gull", "Sangeeta Khare", "Robin E. Everts", "Harris A. Lewin", "Leslie Garry Adams"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081719.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Chemokine_Gene_Score_Heat_Map_by_Time_Point_Post_Inoculation_/872366", "title"=>"Chemokine Gene Score Heat Map by Time Point Post-Inoculation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-12-09 03:40:53"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1308371"], "description"=>"<p>Squares  =  GO Biological processes; Squares with X  =  GO Molecular functions; Triangle  =  Cellular components; Diamond  =  Pathways.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pathways", "differentially", "15", "min"], "article_id"=>872345, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Carlos A. Rossetti", "Kenneth L. Drake", "Prasad Siddavatam", "Sara D. Lawhon", "Jairo E. S. Nunes", "Tamara Gull", "Sangeeta Khare", "Robin E. Everts", "Harris A. Lewin", "Leslie Garry Adams"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081719.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Graphic_Representation_of_Number_of_Pathways_and_GO_Terms_Differentially_Expressed_at_each_time_point_from_15_min_to_4_h_p_i_/872345", "title"=>"Graphic Representation of Number of Pathways and GO Terms Differentially Expressed at each time point from 15 min to 4 h p.i.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-12-09 03:40:53"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1308369"], "description"=>"<p>(DE  =  differentially expressed). Solid bars represent genes up-regulated; open bars represent genes down-regulated.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["bovine", "genes", "differentially"], "article_id"=>872343, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Carlos A. Rossetti", "Kenneth L. Drake", "Prasad Siddavatam", "Sara D. Lawhon", "Jairo E. S. Nunes", "Tamara Gull", "Sangeeta Khare", "Robin E. Everts", "Harris A. Lewin", "Leslie Garry Adams"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081719.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Graphic_Representation_of_Bovine_Genes_Differentially_Expressed_throughout_the_Experiment_/872343", "title"=>"Graphic Representation of Bovine Genes Differentially Expressed throughout the Experiment.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-12-09 03:40:53"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1308402"], "description"=>"<div><p><i>Brucella melitensis</i> causes the most severe and acute symptoms of all <i>Brucella</i> species in human beings and infects hosts primarily through the oral route. The epithelium covering domed villi of jejunal-ileal Peyer's patches is an important site of entry for several pathogens, including <i>Brucella</i>. Here, we use the calf ligated ileal loop model to study temporal <i>in vivo Brucella</i>-infected host molecular and morphological responses. Our results document <i>Brucella</i> bacteremia occurring within 30 min after intraluminal inoculation of the ileum without histopathologic traces of lesions. Based on a system biology Dynamic Bayesian Network modeling approach (DBN) of microarray data, a very early transient perturbation of the host enteric transcriptome was associated with the initial host response to <i>Brucella</i> contact that is rapidly averted allowing invasion and dissemination. A detailed analysis revealed active expression of Syndecan 2, Integrin alpha L and Integrin beta 2 genes, which may favor initial <i>Brucella</i> adhesion. Also, two intestinal barrier-related pathways (Tight Junction and Trefoil Factors Initiated Mucosal Healing) were significantly repressed in the early stage of infection, suggesting subversion of mucosal epithelial barrier function to facilitate <i>Brucella</i> transepithelial migration. Simultaneously, the strong activation of the innate immune response pathways would suggest that the host mounts an appropriate protective immune response; however, the expression of the two key genes that encode innate immunity anti-<i>Brucella</i> cytokines such as TNF-α and IL12p40 were not significantly changed throughout the study. Furthermore, the defective expression of Toll-Like Receptor Signaling pathways may partially explain the lack of proinflammatory cytokine production and consequently the absence of morphologically detectable inflammation at the site of infection. Cumulatively, our results indicate that the <i>in vivo</i> pathogenesis of the early infectious process of <i>Brucella</i> is primarily accomplished by compromising the mucosal immune barrier and subverting critical immune response mechanisms.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["brucella", "infected", "reveals", "transient", "perturbations"], "article_id"=>872376, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Carlos A. Rossetti", "Kenneth L. Drake", "Prasad Siddavatam", "Sara D. Lawhon", "Jairo E. S. Nunes", "Tamara Gull", "Sangeeta Khare", "Robin E. Everts", "Harris A. Lewin", "Leslie Garry Adams"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081719", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Systems_Biology_Analysis_of_Brucella_Infected_Peyer_s_Patch_Reveals_Rapid_Invasion_with_Modest_Transient_Perturbations_of_the_Host_Transcriptome_/872376", "title"=>"Systems Biology Analysis of Brucella Infected Peyer's Patch Reveals Rapid Invasion with Modest Transient Perturbations of the Host Transcriptome", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-12-09 03:40:53"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1308368"], "description"=>"<p>Jejunal-ileal loops were intraluminally inoculated in 3 ml containing 1×109 CFU of <i>B. melitensis</i> 16 M/ml. Tissue (Peyer's patch) samples of 0.1 g of mucosal tissue were extracted at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 h from every infected loop, intensively washed 3 times in PBS, macerated and diluted in 1 ml of distilled water. To evaluate the kinetics of the infection, macerated samples were serially diluted and cultured on Farrell's medium. Numbers of CFU recovered from bovine Peyer's patches are the average of 4 calves. Bars represent standard deviation.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["16"], "article_id"=>872342, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Carlos A. Rossetti", "Kenneth L. Drake", "Prasad Siddavatam", "Sara D. Lawhon", "Jairo E. S. Nunes", "Tamara Gull", "Sangeeta Khare", "Robin E. Everts", "Harris A. Lewin", "Leslie Garry Adams"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081719.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Kinetics_of_Peyer_s_Patch_Infection_with_B_melitensis_16_M_/872342", "title"=>"Kinetics of Peyer's Patch Infection with <i>B. melitensis</i> 16 M.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-12-09 03:40:53"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1308400"], "description"=>"<p>Primers for Real Time – PCR Analysis of Genes in <i>B. melitensis</i>-Infected Bovine Peyer's Patch.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pcr", "genes", "bovine"], "article_id"=>872374, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Carlos A. Rossetti", "Kenneth L. Drake", "Prasad Siddavatam", "Sara D. Lawhon", "Jairo E. S. Nunes", "Tamara Gull", "Sangeeta Khare", "Robin E. Everts", "Harris A. Lewin", "Leslie Garry Adams"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081719.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Primers_for_Real_Time_PCR_Analysis_of_Genes_in_B_melitensis_Infected_Bovine_Peyer_s_Patch_/872374", "title"=>"Primers for Real Time – PCR Analysis of Genes in <i>B. melitensis</i>-Infected Bovine Peyer's Patch.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-12-09 03:40:53"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1308396"], "description"=>"<p>The table lists significantly perturbed (activated or repressed) genes at any time among the 5 different time points (0.25 h through 4 h p.i.).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["tlrs", "pathway"], "article_id"=>872370, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Carlos A. Rossetti", "Kenneth L. Drake", "Prasad Siddavatam", "Sara D. Lawhon", "Jairo E. S. Nunes", "Tamara Gull", "Sangeeta Khare", "Robin E. Everts", "Harris A. Lewin", "Leslie Garry Adams"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081719.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Genes_Significantly_Expressed_in_the_TLRS_Pathway_z_score_2_24_/872370", "title"=>"Genes Significantly Expressed in the TLRS Pathway (<i>z</i>-score |2.24|).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-12-09 03:40:53"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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