Effect of Replacing Sugar with Non-Caloric Sweeteners in Beverages on the Reward Value after Repeated Exposure
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{"title"=>"Effect of replacing sugar with non-caloric sweeteners in beverages on the reward value after repeated exposure", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Sanne", "last_name"=>"Griffioen-Roose", "scopus_author_id"=>"24471537600"}, {"first_name"=>"Paul A M", "last_name"=>"Smeets", "scopus_author_id"=>"8872437900"}, {"first_name"=>"Pascalle L G", "last_name"=>"Weijzen", "scopus_author_id"=>"23062414300"}, {"first_name"=>"Inge", "last_name"=>"Van Rijn", "scopus_author_id"=>"56080168300"}, {"first_name"=>"Iris", "last_name"=>"Van Den Bosch", "scopus_author_id"=>"55653621900"}, {"first_name"=>"Cees", "last_name"=>"De Graaf", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006392466"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"24312382", "issn"=>"19326203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0081924", "pui"=>"372438328", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84896713952", "sgr"=>"84896713952"}, "id"=>"f07d67d4-6a71-304a-b8c1-4b72a84aba54", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND The reward value of food is partly dependent on learned associations. It is not yet known whether replacing sugar with non-caloric sweeteners in food is affecting long-term acceptance. OBJECTIVE To determine the effect of replacing sugar with non-caloric sweeteners in a nutrient-empty drink (soft drink) versus nutrient-rich drink (yoghurt drink) on reward value after repeated exposure. DESIGN We used a randomized crossover design whereby forty subjects (15 men, 25 women) with a mean ± SD age of 21 ± 2 y and BMI of 21.5 ± 1.7 kg/m(2) consumed a fixed portion of a non-caloric sweetened (NS) and sugar sweetened (SS) versions of either a soft drink or a yoghurt drink (counterbalanced) for breakfast which were distinguishable by means of colored labels. Each version of a drink was offered 10 times in semi-random order. Before and after conditioning the reward value of the drinks was assessed using behavioral tasks on wanting, liking, and expected satiety. In a subgroup (n=18) fMRI was performed to assess brain reward responses to the drinks. RESULTS Outcomes of both the behavioral tasks and fMRI showed that conditioning did not affect the reward value of the NS and SS versions of the drinks significantly. Overall, subjects preferred the yoghurt drinks to the soft drinks and the ss drinks to the NS drinks. In addition, they expected the yoghurt drinks to be more satiating, they reduced hunger more, and delayed the first eating episode more. Conditioning did not influence these effects. CONCLUSION Our study showed that repeated consumption of a non-caloric sweetened beverage, instead of a sugar sweetened version, appears not to result in changes in the reward value. It cannot be ruled out that learned associations between sensory attributes and food satiating capacity which developed preceding the conditioning period, during lifetime, affected the reward value of the drinks.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/effect-replacing-sugar-noncaloric-sweeteners-beverages-reward-value-after-repeated-exposure", "reader_count"=>56, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>20, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>9, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>20, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>9, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>7, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>14, "Chemistry"=>1, "Engineering"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>3, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>12, "Neuroscience"=>6, "Sports and Recreations"=>1, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Psychology"=>4, "Social Sciences"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>12}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>4}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>4}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>7}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>6}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>14}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>3}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Netherlands"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1298304"], "description"=>"<p>The study consisted of two periods, and each period had three parts: a pre-measurement, a conditioning period, and a post-measurement. In the conditioning period, subjects were offered a non-caloric sweetened (NS) and sugar sweetened (SS) versions of either a soft drink or a yoghurt drink. In period 1, subjects received either the NS and the SS versions of the soft drinks or the NS and SS versions of the yoghurt drinks. In period 2 these conditions were counterbalanced. The pre- and post-measurements assessed reward value of the drinks using behavioral tasks and fMRI. A randomized crossover design was used. The NS and SS versions of a drink were offered in semi-random order, i.e. each product was offered not more than two days in a row.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["overview"], "article_id"=>864680, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Sanne Griffioen-Roose", "Paul A. M. Smeets", "Pascalle L. G. Weijzen", "Inge van Rijn", "Iris van den Bosch", "Cees de Graaf"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081924.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Schematic_overview_of_study_design_/864680", "title"=>"Schematic overview of study design.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-28 02:51:09"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1298307"], "description"=>"<p>(B) the left caudate: there was a significant interaction between sweetener type and time (p<0.05): however post-hoc analyses showed that the difference between the NS and SS version after conditioning was a non-significant trend (p=0.09). (C) the right caudate: no significant differences (D) the middle cingulum: there was a significant main effect of sweetener type (p<0.05). (E) right precuneus: there was a significant interaction between sweetener type and time (p<0.05): post-hoc analyses showed that taste activation was increased for the SS soft drink after conditioning (p<0.01). (F) left precentral gyrus: there was a significant main effect of sweetener type (p<0.05). (G) right precentral gyrus: there was a significant main effect of sweetener type (p<0.05). (H) left rolandic operculum: no significant differences (I) right rolandic operculum: there was a significant main effect of sweetener type (p<0.05). Values are means ± SEM (n=16). Analyses were performed by means of ANOVA (mixed model procedure). Next to each graph the corresponding fROI is shown in black on a representative slice of the mean anatomical MRI of all fMRI subjects.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["beta", "froi", "tasting", "ns", "ss", "drinks", "conditioning", "sweetener", "non-significant"], "article_id"=>864683, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Sanne Griffioen-Roose", "Paul A. M. Smeets", "Pascalle L. G. Weijzen", "Inge van Rijn", "Iris van den Bosch", "Cees de Graaf"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081924.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>42, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_beta_value_for_each_fROI_after_tasting_the_NS_9723_and_SS_9724_soft_drinks_before_and_after_conditioning_for_A_the_thalamus_the_main_effect_of_sweetener_type_was_a_non_significant_trend_p_0_05_/864683", "title"=>"Mean beta value for each fROI after tasting the NS (◻) and SS (◼) soft drinks before and after conditioning for (A) the thalamus: the main effect of sweetener type was a non-significant trend (p=0.05).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-28 02:51:09"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1298308", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1298309", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1298310", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1298311"], "description"=>"<div><p>Background</p><p>The reward value of food is partly dependent on learned associations. It is not yet known whether replacing sugar with non-caloric sweeteners in food is affecting long-term acceptance. </p> <p>Objective</p><p>To determine the effect of replacing sugar with non-caloric sweeteners in a nutrient-empty drink (soft drink) versus nutrient-rich drink (yoghurt drink) on reward value after repeated exposure. </p> <p>Design</p><p>We used a randomized crossover design whereby forty subjects (15 men, 25 women) with a mean±SD age of 21±2 y and BMI of 21.5±1.7 kg/m<sup>2</sup> consumed a fixed portion of a non-caloric sweetened (NS) and sugar sweetened (SS) versions of either a soft drink or a yoghurt drink (counterbalanced) for breakfast which were distinguishable by means of colored labels. Each version of a drink was offered 10 times in semi-random order. Before and after conditioning the reward value of the drinks was assessed using behavioral tasks on wanting, liking, and expected satiety. In a subgroup (n=18) fMRI was performed to assess brain reward responses to the drinks.</p> <p>Results</p><p>Outcomes of both the behavioral tasks and fMRI showed that conditioning did not affect the reward value of the NS and SS versions of the drinks significantly. Overall, subjects preferred the yoghurt drinks to the soft drinks and the ss drinks to the NS drinks. In addition, they expected the yoghurt drinks to be more satiating, they reduced hunger more, and delayed the first eating episode more. Conditioning did not influence these effects.</p> <p>Conclusion</p><p>Our study showed that repeated consumption of a non-caloric sweetened beverage, instead of a sugar sweetened version, appears not to result in changes in the reward value. It cannot be ruled out that learned associations between sensory attributes and food satiating capacity which developed preceding the conditioning period, during lifetime, affected the reward value of the drinks.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["replacing", "non-caloric", "sweeteners", "beverages", "repeated"], "article_id"=>864684, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Sanne Griffioen-Roose", "Paul A. M. Smeets", "Pascalle L. G. Weijzen", "Inge van Rijn", "Iris van den Bosch", "Cees de Graaf"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081924.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081924.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081924.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081924.s004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>14, "page_views"=>21, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_of_Replacing_Sugar_with_Non_Caloric_Sweeteners_in_Beverages_on_the_Reward_Value_after_Repeated_Exposure_/864684", "title"=>"Effect of Replacing Sugar with Non-Caloric Sweeteners in Beverages on the Reward Value after Repeated Exposure", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-11-28 02:51:09"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1298305"], "description"=>"<p>(B) Total (implicit) intake (g): there was a main significant effect of time (p<0.05): intake was greater after the conditioning period than before. (C) Explicit liking: there was a main significant effect of drink type (p<0.01): the yoghurt drinks were more explicitly liked than the soft drinks. There was a significant interaction between drink type and sweetener type: the SS soft drink was more liked than the NS soft drink (p<0.05). (D) Expected satiety: there was a significant main effect of drink type (p<0.0001): the yoghurts drinks were expected to be more satiating than the soft drinks. There was a significant interaction between drink type and time (p<0.01): after the conditioning period the soft drinks were rated as more satiating. Values are means ± SEMs (n=40). For the choice tasks chi-squared analyses were performed. All others were analyzed by means of ANOVA (mixed model procedure).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["tasks", "ns", "ss", "drinks", "yoghurt", "sweetener", "chosen"], "article_id"=>864681, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Sanne Griffioen-Roose", "Paul A. M. Smeets", "Pascalle L. G. Weijzen", "Inge van Rijn", "Iris van den Bosch", "Cees de Graaf"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081924.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>21, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Results_of_the_behavioral_tasks_for_the_NS_9723_and_SS_9724_soft_drinks_and_yoghurt_dinks_A_Choice_there_was_a_main_significant_effect_for_sweetener_type_p_lt_0_05_the_SS_drinks_were_chosen_more_often_than_the_NS_drinks_/864681", "title"=>"Results of the behavioral tasks for the NS (◻) and SS (◼) soft drinks and yoghurt dinks. (A) Choice: there was a main significant effect for sweetener type (p<0.05): the SS drinks were chosen more often than the NS drinks.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-28 02:51:09"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1298306"], "description"=>"<p>(B) The average time until subjects ate their first item after consumption in the conditioning period for NS (◻) and SS (◼) soft drinks and the yoghurt drinks: there was a significant main effect of drink type (p<0.0001): after the yoghurt drinks the average time was longer than after the soft drinks. Values are means ± SEMs (n=40). Analyses were performed by means of ANOVA (mixed model procedure).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["scores", "conditioning", "delta", "ratings", "minus", "ns", "ss", "drinks", "yoghurt", "reduced"], "article_id"=>864682, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Sanne Griffioen-Roose", "Paul A. M. Smeets", "Pascalle L. G. Weijzen", "Inge van Rijn", "Iris van den Bosch", "Cees de Graaf"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081924.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Satiety_scores_in_the_conditioning_period_A_The_average_delta_scores_of_the_hunger_ratings_in_the_conditioning_period_hunger_rating_after_consumption_minus_hunger_rating_before_consumption_for_the_NS_9723_and_SS_9724_soft_drinks_and_the_yoghurt_drinks_th/864682", "title"=>"Satiety scores in the conditioning period (A) The average delta scores of the hunger ratings in the conditioning period (hunger rating after consumption minus hunger rating before consumption) for the NS (◻) and SS (◼) soft drinks and the yoghurt drinks: there was a significant main effect of drink type (p<0.0001): the yoghurt drinks reduced hunger more than the soft drinks.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-28 02:51:09"}

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2013-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2013-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Behavior", "average_usage"=>[306, 490, 611, 718, 817, 916, 999, 1091, 1185, 1258, 1341, 1412, 1476]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences", "average_usage"=>[264, 460, 584, 692, 794, 887, 978, 1067, 1154, 1241, 1328, 1408, 1474]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Radiology and imaging", "average_usage"=>[230, 403, 513, 618, 711, 806, 896, 985, 1065, 1141, 1225, 1296, 1360]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Social sciences", "average_usage"=>[289, 475, 593, 703, 805, 902, 990, 1078, 1158, 1250, 1336, 1417, 1482]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Social sciences/Psychology", "average_usage"=>[294, 460, 580, 683, 777, 868, 957, 1044, 1124, 1202, 1276, 1356, 1422]}]}
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