The ‘Unicorn’ Dinosaur That Wasn’t: A New Reconstruction of the Crest of Tsintaosaurus and the Early Evolution of the Lambeosaurine Crest and Rostrum
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{"title"=>"The 'unicorn' dinosaur that wasn't: A new reconstruction of the crest of Tsintaosaurus and the early evolution of the lambeosaurine crest and rostrum", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Albert", "last_name"=>"Prieto-Márquez", "scopus_author_id"=>"12544776900"}, {"first_name"=>"Jonathan R.", "last_name"=>"Wagner", "scopus_author_id"=>"55456628000"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"24278478", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0082268", "pui"=>"372438048", "issn"=>"19326203", "sgr"=>"84896730709", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84896730709"}, "id"=>"b8701da8-aa23-3287-8bcd-ebbba8943dce", "abstract"=>"The lambeosaurine Tsintaosaurus spinorhinus has traditionally been reconstructed with an elevated, hollow, spike-like crest composed entirely of the nasal bones, although this has been disputed. Here, we provide a new reconstruction of the skull of this species based on reexamination and reinterpretation of the morphology and articular relationships of the type and Paratype skulls and a fragmentary crest. We confirm the presence of a supracranial crest composed of the elevated nasal bones, but also including the premaxillae. We hypothesize that the crest is a tall, lobate, hollow structure that projects dorsally and slightly caudally a distance greater than the height of the skull along the quadrate. In our reconstruction, the nasal passage passes through the crest, but enters the skull rostral to the tubular process of the nasals, not through it. Tsintaosaurus spinorhinus is rediagnosed on the basis of a suite of cranial autapomorphies including a circumnarial fossa subdivided into three accessory fossae, prefrontal with ascending rostral process and lateral flange, nasals fused sagittally to form elongate tubular process that rises dorsally from skull roof, each nasal being expanded rostrocaudally into a rhomboid distal process, and medial processes of premaxillae at the summit of the cranial crest inserted between rhomboid processes of nasals. Tsintaosaurus spinorhinus lacks characters that are present in more derived lambeosaurines (parasaurolophins and lambeosaurins), such as rotation of the caudal margin of the crest to an acute angle with the skull roof, lateral processes of the nasals that enclose part of the intracranial cavity and participate in the formation of the walls of the common median chamber, and a smooth narial fossa lacking ridges and accessory fossae. We hypothesize that ancestrally the rostrum of lambeosaurines may have been more similar to that in Saurolophinae, and became subsequently reduced in complexity during evolution of the group.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/unicorn-dinosaur-wasnt-new-reconstruction-crest-tsintaosaurus-early-evolution-lambeosaurine-crest-ro", "reader_count"=>17, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>6, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>3, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>6, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>3, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>7, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>10}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>10}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>7}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "Chile"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1293405"], "description"=>"<p>Topology based on [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0082268#B14\" target=\"_blank\">14</a>], with characters discussed in text optimized. In each hadrosaurid skull, light grey indicates premaxilla and black denotes nasal. The literature sources for each of the taxon’s datings are as follows: <i>Aralosaurus tuberiferus</i> [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0082268#B60\" target=\"_blank\">60</a>,<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0082268#B61\" target=\"_blank\">61</a>], <i>Jaxartosaurus aralensis</i> [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0082268#B62\" target=\"_blank\">62</a>], <i>Pararhabdodon isonensis</i> [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0082268#B21\" target=\"_blank\">21</a>], <i>Tsintaosaurus spinorhinus</i> [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0082268#B33\" target=\"_blank\">33</a>], and Lambeosaurini (oldest recorded age being that of <i>Corythosaurus casuarius</i>) and Parasaurolophini (oldest recorded age being that of <i>Parasaurolophus walkeri</i>) [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0082268#B63\" target=\"_blank\">63</a>]. Geochronological ages are from [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0082268#B64\" target=\"_blank\">64</a>].</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["time-calibrated", "phylogram"], "article_id"=>860670, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Albert Prieto-Márquez", "Jonathan R. Wagner"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0082268.g010", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Simplified_time_calibrated_phylogram_of_Lambeosaurinae_/860670", "title"=>"Simplified time-calibrated phylogram of Lambeosaurinae.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-22 02:55:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1293402"], "description"=>"<p>Based on the model in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0082268#pone-0082268-g007\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 7</a>. Red indicates cut bone; arrows indicate hypothetical direction of airflow. A. Air enters the nasal passage through the left pseudonaris. B. Air passes dorsally into the crest from the left pseudonaris. C. Air from the right pseudonaris enters the common median chamber and passes caudally. D. Air from the left pseudonaris passes ventrally along the caudal margin of the crest into the cranial cavity. </p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["crest", "anatomy"], "article_id"=>860667, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Albert Prieto-Márquez", "Jonathan R. Wagner"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0082268.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Model_of_internal_crest_anatomy_of_Tsintaosaurus_spinorhinus_/860667", "title"=>"Model of internal crest anatomy of <i>Tsintaosaurus spinorhinus</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-22 02:55:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1293401"], "description"=>"<p>A. Model of the skull in rostrolateral view. B. Lateral view of the model based on IVPP V723, V725, V829, and K107. C. Caudal view of the dorsal region of the crest. In B and C, grey areas indicate the available bones; white areas are missing bones and hypothesized reconstructions of missing parts of bones.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cranium", "supracranial", "crest"], "article_id"=>860666, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Albert Prieto-Márquez", "Jonathan R. Wagner"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0082268.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>29, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Anatomical_model_of_the_cranium_and_supracranial_crest_of_Tsintaosaurus_spinorhinus_/860666", "title"=>"Anatomical model of the cranium and supracranial crest of <i>Tsintaosaurus spinorhinus</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-22 02:55:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1293395"], "description"=>"<p>Paratype partial skull, IVPP 818. A. Rostral view. B. Rostrodorsal view. C. Dorsal view; note that the nasofrontal articulation is covered by the ecotcranial surface of the frontal. D. Left rostrodorsolateral view.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["articulation"], "article_id"=>860660, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Albert Prieto-Márquez", "Jonathan R. Wagner"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0082268.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Nasofrontal_articulation_of_Tsintaosaurus_spinorhinus_/860660", "title"=>"Nasofrontal articulation of <i>Tsintaosaurus spinorhinus</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-22 02:55:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1293392"], "description"=>"<p>A. Paired depressions for the nasal passage in rostroventral view. B. Distal rhomboid processes of the nasal of IVPP V725 in rostroventral view, showing areas of missing bone (white rectangle) and medial post-depositional displacement of the right process (double arrow). C. Composite skull in left lateral view. D. Rostral view of the sagittal ridge present on the rostral surface of the tubular processes of the fused nasals, interpreted here as the articular surface for the lateral process of the premaxilla.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anatomy"], "article_id"=>860657, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Albert Prieto-Márquez", "Jonathan R. Wagner"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0082268.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Nasal_anatomy_of_Tsintaosaurus_spinorhinus_IVPP_V725_/860657", "title"=>"Nasal anatomy of <i>Tsintaosaurus spinorhinus</i> (IVPP V725).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-22 02:55:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1293391"], "description"=>"<p>A. Partial distal nasal process of IVPP V725 in right lateral view. B. Lateral view of composite skull (reversed). C. partial premaxillonasal complex of IVPP V829 in right lateral view. D. Line drawing of (C) showing nasal-premaxilla articulation, and the displacement (arrow) experienced by the distal nasal process relative to its articular position. E. Mounted holotype skull (IVPP V725) of <i>T. spinorhinus</i> in left lateral view (reversed). F. Partial right distal nasal process (although catalogued as IVPP V725, this element corresponds to a different specimen than the type; reversed).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["distal", "nasal", "crest"], "article_id"=>860656, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Albert Prieto-Márquez", "Jonathan R. Wagner"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0082268.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Rhomboid_distal_nasal_process_of_the_crest_of_Tsintaosaurus_spinorhinus_/860656", "title"=>"Rhomboid distal nasal process of the crest of <i>Tsintaosaurus spinorhinus</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-22 02:55:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1293389"], "description"=>"<p>Specimen in (A) dorsal, (C) right lateral, (D) left lateral, (E) ventral, (F) rostroventral, and (G) rostral views. B. Insert of our reconstruction of the skull of <i>T. spinorhinus</i> showing the position of the prefrontal (solid black).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["premaxillae", "nasal"], "article_id"=>860654, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Albert Prieto-Márquez", "Jonathan R. Wagner"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0082268.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Partial_premaxillae_and_partial_right_nasal_of_Tsintaosaurus_spinorhinus_IVPP_V829_/860654", "title"=>"Partial premaxillae and partial right nasal of <i>Tsintaosaurus spinorhinus</i> (IVPP V829).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-22 02:55:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1293403"], "description"=>"<p>For each terminal taxon, the lower figure is a reconstruction of the skull roof in dorsal view and the upper figure is a schematic cross-section along the line of section (LOS) indicated. The frontal has been highlighted in dark blue for clarity, the nasal is orange in cross-sections (and omitted from dorsal view for clarity), and the nasofrontal/nasoprefrontal articulation surface is in light blue. Cut bone is red and missing bone is cross-hatched. <i>Gryposaurus notabilis</i>, AMNH 5350; <i>Tsintaosaurus spinorhinus</i>, combination of IVPP 725 and 818; <i>Jaxartosaurus aralensis</i>, PIN (Paleontological Institute, Moscow, Russia) 1/5009; <i>Amurosaurus riabinini</i>, AENM (Amur Natural History Museum, Blagoveschensk, Russia) 1/232; and <i>Parasaurolophus tubicen</i>, PMU (Paleontological Museum, Uppsala, Sweden) R222.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["articulation", "hadrosaurids", "phylogenetic"], "article_id"=>860668, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Albert Prieto-Márquez", "Jonathan R. Wagner"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0082268.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>20, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Nasofrontal_articulation_of_selected_hadrosaurids_in_phylogenetic_context_/860668", "title"=>"Nasofrontal articulation of selected hadrosaurids in phylogenetic context.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-22 02:55:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1293398"], "description"=>"<p>Premaxilla in (A) rostrodorsal and (C) rostral views. B. Insert of our reconstruction of the skull of <i>T. spinorhinus</i> showing the position of the prefrontal (solid black).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["premaxilla"], "article_id"=>860663, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Albert Prieto-Márquez", "Jonathan R. Wagner"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0082268.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>31, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Left_premaxilla_of_Tsintaosaurus_spinorhinus_IVPP_K107_/860663", "title"=>"Left premaxilla of <i>Tsintaosaurus spinorhinus</i> (IVPP K107).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-22 02:55:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1293399"], "description"=>"<p>Prefrontal in (A) dorsal, (B) lateral, (D) medial, and (E) medioventral views. C. Insert of our reconstruction of the skull of <i>T. spinorhinus</i> showing the position of the prefrontal (solid black).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["prefrontal"], "article_id"=>860664, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Albert Prieto-Márquez", "Jonathan R. Wagner"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0082268.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Left_prefrontal_of_Tsintaosaurus_spinorhinus_IVPP_V725_/860664", "title"=>"Left prefrontal of <i>Tsintaosaurus spinorhinus</i> (IVPP V725).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-22 02:55:52"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2013-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2013-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Anatomy and physiology", "average_usage"=>[256, 428]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Evolutionary biology", "average_usage"=>[302, 488, 607, 717, 832, 931, 1024, 1117, 1212, 1302, 1389, 1469, 1535]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Paleontology", "average_usage"=>[605, 959, 1140, 1273, 1412, 1552, 1709, 1830, 1959, 2077, 2241, 2360, 2456]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Taxonomy", "average_usage"=>[315, 535, 673, 799, 934, 1049, 1169, 1261, 1387, 1467, 1612, 1696, 1781]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Computer and information sciences", "average_usage"=>[297, 488, 616, 724, 828, 939, 1038, 1127, 1223, 1311, 1393, 1479, 1556]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Earth sciences/Paleontology", "average_usage"=>[591, 936, 1096, 1257, 1426, 1560, 1700, 1841, 1976, 2133, 2250, 2381, 2482]}]}
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