Food Selectivity and Diet Switch Can Explain the Slow Feeding of Herbivorous Coral-Reef Fishes during the Morning
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{"title"=>"Food selectivity and diet switch can explain the slow feeding of herbivorous coral-reef fishes during the morning", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Ruth", "last_name"=>"Khait", "scopus_author_id"=>"55351010800"}, {"first_name"=>"Uri", "last_name"=>"Obolski", "scopus_author_id"=>"54080015500"}, {"first_name"=>"Lilach", "last_name"=>"Hadany", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602351456"}, {"first_name"=>"Amatzia", "last_name"=>"Genin", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005653397"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"24358178", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0082391", "sgr"=>"84893038667", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84893038667", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"372207764"}, "id"=>"f6d665f9-b4d6-3bac-ba2f-bde93d923838", "abstract"=>"Most herbivorous coral-reef fishes feed slower in the morning than in the afternoon. Given the typical scarcity of algae in coral reefs, this behavior seems maladaptive. Here we suggest that the fishes' slow feeding during the morning is an outcome of highly selective feeding on scarcely found green algae. The rarity of the food requires longer search time and extended swimming tracks, resulting in lower bite rates. According to our findings by noon the fish seem to stop their search and switch to indiscriminative consumption of benthic algae, resulting in apparent higher feeding rates. The abundance of the rare preferable algae gradually declines from morning to noon and seems to reach its lowest levels around the switch time. Using in situ experiments we found that the feeding pattern is flexible, with the fish exhibiting fast feeding rates when presented with ample supply of preferable algae, regardless of the time of day. Analyses of the fish's esophagus content corroborated our conclusion that their feeding was highly selective in the morning and non-selective in the afternoon. Modeling of the fishes' behavior predicted that the fish should perform a diel diet shift when the preferred food is relatively rare, a situation common in most coral reefs found in a warm, oligotrophic ocean.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/food-selectivity-diet-switch-explain-slow-feeding-herbivorous-coralreef-fishes-during-morning", "reader_count"=>29, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>7, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Other"=>3, "Student > Master"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>7, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Other"=>3, "Student > Master"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>7, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>17, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1, "Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>17}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>7}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>1, "Brazil"=>1, "South Africa"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1318892"], "description"=>"<p>Average change (±SE) in the abundance of <i>Ulva</i> sp. (number of “spots” per 10×10 cm plate) of <i>Ulva</i> sp. on non-manipulated and caged plates between 7:00 to 12:00 (am, open bars) and between 12:00 to 17:00 (pm, full bars).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["abundance", "areas", "exposed", "grazing", "decreases"], "article_id"=>879901, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Ruth Khait", "Uri Obolski", "Lilach Hadany", "Amatzia Genin"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0082391.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_abundance_of_Ulva_sp_at_areas_exposed_to_grazing_decreases_only_at_morning_hours_/879901", "title"=>"The abundance of <i>Ulva</i> sp. at areas exposed to grazing decreases only at morning hours.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-12-17 02:56:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1318893"], "description"=>"<p><b>A</b> Average (±SE) ratio between green algae (Chlorophytes) and the red alga <i>J. rubens</i> (Jr) in the esophagi of <i>A. nigrofuscus</i> (diet) and on ambient rocks at 10:00 (am) and 17:00 (pm). The rocks were collected at the same time and site where the fish were captured at the shallow reef (*** - P<0.005; NS – non significant; Tukey Post hoc). <b>B</b> Average (±SE) of consumed algae (dry weight) in the esophagi of <i>A. nigrofuscus</i>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["selectively"], "article_id"=>879902, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Ruth Khait", "Uri Obolski", "Lilach Hadany", "Amatzia Genin"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0082391.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_fish_selectively_feed_on_Ulva_sp_in_the_morning_hours_/879902", "title"=>"The fish selectively feed on <i>Ulva</i> sp. in the morning hours.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-12-17 02:56:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1318890"], "description"=>"<p>Average length (±SE) of swimming tracks (full line) and number of bites (dashes line) exhibited by <b>A</b> Z. <i>xanthurum</i> and <b>B </b><i>A. nigrofuscus</i> during 5 min intervals in different times of the day at the shallow reef (<3 m). Post hoc analysis (Tukey) indicated that the data points marked on the figure with the same letters were not significantly different (<i>P</i>>0.9), whereas the differences between those marked with different letters were highly significant (<i>P</i><0.001).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["longer", "distances", "biting", "rates"], "article_id"=>879899, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Ruth Khait", "Uri Obolski", "Lilach Hadany", "Amatzia Genin"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0082391.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_fish_swim_longer_distances_and_exhibit_lower_biting_rates_at_early_day_hours_/879899", "title"=>"The fish swim longer distances and exhibit lower biting rates at early day hours.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-12-17 02:56:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1318891"], "description"=>"<p>Average feeding rate (±SE) of <i>A. nigrofuscus</i> and <i>Z. xanthurum</i> on <b>A</b> non-manipulated and <b>B</b> protected plates measured 0.5–1.5 hr (AM, open bars) and 6–7 hrs (PM, full bars) after sunrise. Note the order of magnitude difference in scale between A and B, indicating the much higher bite rate on the protected plates.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["diel", "feeding", "disappears", "algae", "grown", "protected"], "article_id"=>879900, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Ruth Khait", "Uri Obolski", "Lilach Hadany", "Amatzia Genin"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0082391.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_diel_feeding_pattern_disappears_when_the_fish_feed_on_algae_grown_protected_from_grazing_/879900", "title"=>"The diel feeding pattern disappears when the fish feed on algae grown protected from grazing.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-12-17 02:56:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1318894"], "description"=>"<p>The horizontal axis is taken as the overall edible algae frequency in the fish's habitat (), and the vertical axis is taken as the relative frequency of a highly nutritious alga amongst all algae verities . White areas define parameter ranges under which a switch from selective feeding to bulk feeding is favorable even when diminishing benefit is not assumed (); gray areas are the additional parameter ranges under which a switch between strategies is favorable when adding a diminishing benefit function to the nutritional value of the rare, preferable alga, as defined in the main text; black areas represent conditions under which selective feeding is not an optimal strategy even at the beginning of the day. Panel A is plotted under the assumption of a constant energy content (V) during the day, while panel B is plotted under the assumption of an increasing energy content function. The parameters used to produce the figures are: .</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["alternating", "selective", "non-selective", "feeding", "seems"], "article_id"=>879903, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Ruth Khait", "Uri Obolski", "Lilach Hadany", "Amatzia Genin"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0082391.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Model_results_alternating_between_selective_and_non_selective_feeding_seems_to_be_a_good_strategy_for_a_wide_range_of_conditions_/879903", "title"=>"Model results: alternating between selective and non-selective feeding seems to be a good strategy for a wide range of conditions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-12-17 02:56:13"}

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Relative Metric

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