The Dynamics of Latifundia Formation
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{"title"=>"The dynamics of latifundia formation", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Luis Fernando", "last_name"=>"Chaves", "scopus_author_id"=>"12789694000"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"372245397", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "issn"=>"19326203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0082863", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84893364961", "pmid"=>"24376597", "sgr"=>"84893364961"}, "id"=>"bbfa8354-2e68-3bf7-9dca-07ecbc29d79b", "abstract"=>"Land tenure inequity is a major social problem in developing nations worldwide. In societies, where land is a commodity, inequities in land tenure are associated with gaps in income distribution, poverty and biodiversity loss. A common pattern of land tenure inequities through the history of civilization has been the formation of latifundia [Zhuāngyuán in chinese], i.e., a pattern where land ownership is concentrated by a small fraction of the whole population. Here, we use simple Markov chain models to study the dynamics of latifundia formation in a heterogeneous landscape where land can transition between forest, agriculture and recovering land. We systematically study the likelihood of latifundia formation under the assumption of pre-capitalist trade, where trade is based on the average utility of land parcels belonging to each individual landowner during a discrete time step. By restricting land trade to that under recovery, we found the likelihood of latifundia formation to increase with the size of the system, i.e., the amount of land and individuals in the society. We found that an increase of the transition rate for land use changes, i.e., how quickly land use changes, promotes more equitable patterns of land ownership. Disease introduction in the system, which reduced land profitability for infected individual landowners, promoted the formation of latifundia, with an increased likelihood for latifundia formation when there were heterogeneities in the susceptibility to infection. Finally, our model suggests that land ownership reforms need to guarantee an equitative distribution of land among individuals in a society to avoid the formation of latifundia.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/dynamics-latifundia-formation", "reader_count"=>10, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Researcher"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>1, "Student > Master"=>1, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Researcher"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>1, "Student > Master"=>1, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>2, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>2, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Brazil"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Thailand"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1324897"], "description"=>"<p>In top of each panel the relations between the utilities is presented: <i>a</i> = forest, <i>b</i> = agriculture and <i>c</i> = empty (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0082863#pone.0082863.e005\" target=\"_blank\">equation 3</a> for further details). In each panel, the y axis represents the log<sub>2</sub> of the number of parcels (<b>m</b>) per individual and the x axes present the log<sub>2</sub> of the number individuals (<b>n</b>). Simulations were run 100 times for each combination of <b>n</b> and <b>m</b>, where the values of n and m were 2 to the power of the values in the x and y axes respectively. Contour lines give the probability of equity as equilibrium for a given parameter combination. Contour lines were obtained with a generalized additive model where the probability of latifundia formation was a smoothed function of the number of parcels and individuals in the model. In all the simulations run to draw this figure the transition rates across land use types were fixed equal to 0.5, i.e, <i>μ = η = r = </i>0.5. Regarding the utilities of each land type they were always 3, 2 and 1 for any sequence of <i>u<sub>k1</sub>>u<sub>k2</sub>>u<sub>k3</sub></i>, where and . In all panels blue corresponds to low probability of equity and green to high probability of equity.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["combinations"], "article_id"=>883776, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Luis Fernando Chaves"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0082863.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Impact_of_utility_combinations_on_the_likelihood_of_equity_as_equilibrium_/883776", "title"=>"Impact of utility combinations on the likelihood of equity as equilibrium.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-12-20 03:41:42"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1324892"], "description"=>"<p>At the beginning of the simulations all landowners have the same amount of land, however the state of the parcels is randomly assigned, after k iterations the model can converge to: (<b>A</b>) an equilibrium of equity, where all landowners have the same amount of land which is at equilibrium regarding the land use transitions, which implies (<b>B</b>) an uniform distribution in land ownership or (<b>C</b>) a Latifudium equilibrium, where all the land (in equilibrium regarding land use transitions) belongs to a single landowner, which implies (<b>D</b>) a skewed distribution with one (or a few) landowners accumulating land ownership. In (A) and (C) letters represent different landowners, and colors the land use, see figure legend for further details.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["simulation"], "article_id"=>883771, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Luis Fernando Chaves"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0082863.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Model_simulation_scheme_/883771", "title"=>"Model simulation scheme.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-12-20 03:41:42"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1324906"], "description"=>"<p>Panels (A) to (D) show the patterns of latifundia formation (i.e., a low ratio of initial to final landowners) under epidemic conditions (<i>R<sub>0</sub></i> = 1), panels (E) to (H) under endemic conditions (<i>R<sub>0</sub></i> = 2). In Panels (A) and (E) there is no discount rate (DR = 0, h = 1 in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0082863#pone.0082863.e017\" target=\"_blank\">equation 13</a>), in panels (B) and (F) there is 100% discount rate (DR = 100, h = 0 in eq. 14), in panels (C) and (G) there a 99.9% DR (h = 0.01 in eq. 14) and panels (D) and (H) show the results for DR<99.9. In all panels the x represents the proportion of landowners that were protected from disease transmission (0, 10, 20) and the control simulation ran under conditions that do not lead to latifundia formation (i.e., perfect equity on land ownership and use, ND in the x axis). In all simulations, parameters for land use change were set up equal to 0.5, number of landowners (n) was 64 and parcels for landowner (m) was also 64. In all the simulations run to draw this figure the transition rates across land use types were fixed equal to 0.5, i.e, <i>μ = η = r = </i>0.5. Utilities were as follows: <i>c</i> = 3, <i>b</i> = 2, <i>a</i> = 1.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["landowners"], "article_id"=>883785, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Luis Fernando Chaves"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0082863.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Ratio_of_initial_to_final_landowners_under_disease_transmission_/883785", "title"=>"Ratio of initial to final landowners under disease transmission.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-12-20 03:41:42"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1324891"], "description"=>"<p>Graph of land use transition and trade between Owner <i>i</i> and Owner <i>j</i>, for a detailed explanation of the transitions see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0082863#pone.0082863.e001\" target=\"_blank\">equations 1</a> & <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0082863#pone.0082863.e003\" target=\"_blank\">2</a> in the methods section.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>[], "article_id"=>883770, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Luis Fernando Chaves"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0082863.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Model_description_/883770", "title"=>"Model description.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-12-20 03:41:42"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1324905"], "description"=>"<p>In the top of each panel the degraded land recovery into forest rate (<i>μ</i>) is presented, the x axis represents the agricultural land degradation rate (<i>η</i>) and y axis deforestation rate into agricultural land (<i>r</i>). Simulations were run 100 times for each combination of <i>μ, η</i> and <i>r.</i> Contour lines indicate the probability of equity for a given parameter combination. Contour lines were obtained with a generalized additive model where the probability of latifundia formation was a smoothed function of the rates considered in the x and y axis. In all the simulations run to draw this figure the number of parcels per individual (m) and the number of individuals in the population were fixed to 64, a quantity that we assume to reflect the structure of rural communities in ancient Rome <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0082863#pone.0082863-Turchin1\" target=\"_blank\">[19]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0082863#pone.0082863-Turchin2\" target=\"_blank\">[22]</a> (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0082863#pone.0082863.s004\" target=\"_blank\">Figures S4</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0082863#pone.0082863.s005\" target=\"_blank\">S5</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0082863#pone.0082863.s006\" target=\"_blank\">S6</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0082863#pone.0082863.s007\" target=\"_blank\">S7</a> for results with other values of m and n). Utilities were as follows: <i>c</i> = 3, <i>b</i> = 2, <i>a</i> = 1. In all panels blue corresponds to low probability of equity and green to high probability of equity.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["rates"], "article_id"=>883784, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Luis Fernando Chaves"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0082863.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Sensitivity_analysis_to_changes_in_the_transition_rates_between_land_use_/883784", "title"=>"Sensitivity analysis to changes in the transition rates between land use.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-12-20 03:41:42"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1324890"], "description"=>"<p>(<b>A</b>) Percent of land properties that were latifundia, i.e., land properties larger than 25 hectares (<b>B</b>) Malaria endemicity (Endemic>Intense>Minimal>Absent) (<b>C</b>) Correspondence analysis between malaria endemicity classes (Obtained from a partition around medoids cluster analysis, see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0082863#pone.0082863.s008\" target=\"_blank\">Protocol S1</a> Appendix A for further details) and the percent of latifundia. Malaria categories are (End = endemic, Int = intense, Min = minimal and Abs = absent) (<b>D</b>) Percent of Land in Latifundia as function of malaria endemicity indices (the indices were based on the first component of a principal components analysis, PCA or Multidimensional Scaling, MDS, see legend for color and symbol explanation, see also <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0082863#pone.0082863.s008\" target=\"_blank\">Protocol S1</a> Appendix B for further details). (A) and (B) are re-drawn from Beauchamp <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0082863#pone.0082863-Beauchamp1\" target=\"_blank\">[13]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["malaria", "patterns", "spain"], "article_id"=>883769, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Luis Fernando Chaves"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0082863.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Latifundia_malaria_and_their_association_patterns_in_Spain_during_the_1930s_/883769", "title"=>"Latifundia, malaria and their association patterns in Spain during the 1930s.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-12-20 03:41:42"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1324907", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1324908", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1324909", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1324910", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1324911", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1324912", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1324913", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1324914"], "description"=>"<div><p>Land tenure inequity is a major social problem in developing nations worldwide. In societies, where land is a commodity, inequities in land tenure are associated with gaps in income distribution, poverty and biodiversity loss. A common pattern of land tenure inequities through the history of civilization has been the formation of latifundia [Zhuāngyuán in chinese], i.e., a pattern where land ownership is concentrated by a small fraction of the whole population. Here, we use simple Markov chain models to study the dynamics of latifundia formation in a heterogeneous landscape where land can transition between forest, agriculture and recovering land. We systematically study the likelihood of latifundia formation under the assumption of pre-capitalist trade, where trade is based on the average utility of land parcels belonging to each individual landowner during a discrete time step. By restricting land trade to that under recovery, we found the likelihood of latifundia formation to increase with the size of the system, i.e., the amount of land and individuals in the society. We found that an increase of the transition rate for land use changes, i.e., how quickly land use changes, promotes more equitable patterns of land ownership. Disease introduction in the system, which reduced land profitability for infected individual landowners, promoted the formation of latifundia, with an increased likelihood for latifundia formation when there were heterogeneities in the susceptibility to infection. Finally, our model suggests that land ownership reforms need to guarantee an equitative distribution of land among individuals in a society to avoid the formation of latifundia.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["latifundia"], "article_id"=>883786, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Luis Fernando Chaves"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0082863.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0082863.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0082863.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0082863.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0082863.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0082863.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0082863.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0082863.s008"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_Dynamics_of_Latifundia_Formation_/883786", "title"=>"The Dynamics of Latifundia Formation", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-12-20 03:41:42"}

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"8", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2013-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2013-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences", "average_usage"=>[269, 466, 588, 697, 800, 896, 988, 1076, 1165, 1254, 1340, 1417]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Earth sciences/Geography", "average_usage"=>[285, 472, 614, 714, 817, 928, 1028, 1122, 1225, 1327, 1410, 1482, 1549]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Ecology and environmental sciences/Ecology", "average_usage"=>[298, 487, 610, 722, 827, 929, 1029, 1125, 1217, 1306, 1388, 1464, 1535]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Ecology and environmental sciences/Terrestrial environments", "average_usage"=>[250, 412, 522, 634, 716, 804, 892, 973, 1056, 1147, 1211, 1284, 1345]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences", "average_usage"=>[264, 460, 584, 692, 794, 887, 978, 1067, 1154, 1241, 1328, 1408, 1474]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Epidemiology", "average_usage"=>[263, 452, 568, 671, 758, 847, 921, 1023, 1101, 1187, 1264, 1340, 1394]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Social sciences", "average_usage"=>[289, 475, 593, 703, 805, 902, 990, 1078, 1158, 1250, 1336, 1417, 1482]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Social sciences/Human geography", "average_usage"=>[260, 446, 573, 690, 792, 899, 988, 1069, 1160, 1252, 1311, 1380, 1445]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Social sciences/Sociology", "average_usage"=>[310, 523, 656, 780, 900, 1024, 1120, 1219, 1308, 1395, 1468, 1570, 1642]}]}
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