Exploring the Nitrogen Ingestion of Aphids — A New Method Using Electrical Penetration Graph and 15N Labelling
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{"title"=>"Exploring the nitrogen ingestion of aphids - A new method using electrical penetration graph and15N labelling", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Franziska", "last_name"=>"Kuhlmann", "scopus_author_id"=>"24352124900"}, {"first_name"=>"Sebastian E.W.", "last_name"=>"Opitz", "scopus_author_id"=>"57198366939"}, {"first_name"=>"Erich", "last_name"=>"Inselsbacher", "scopus_author_id"=>"16645940100"}, {"first_name"=>"Ulrika", "last_name"=>"Ganeteg", "scopus_author_id"=>"6505857233"}, {"first_name"=>"Torgny", "last_name"=>"Näsholm", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004404373"}, {"first_name"=>"Velemir", "last_name"=>"Ninkovic", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603183846"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"24376642", "sgr"=>"84893487482", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0083085", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84893487482", "pui"=>"372261505", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "issn"=>"19326203"}, "id"=>"02a80e67-647b-333a-94c8-89786a136005", "abstract"=>"Studying plant-aphid interactions is challenging as aphid feeding is a complex process hidden in the plant tissue. Here we propose a combination of two well established methods to study nutrient acquisition by aphids focusing on the uptake of isotopically labelled nitrogen (15N). We combined the Electrical Penetration Graph (EPG) technique that allows detailed recording of aphid feeding behaviour and stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) to precisely measure the uptake of nitrogen. Bird cherry-oat aphids Rhopalosiphum padi L. (Hemiptera, Aphididae) fed for 24 h on barley plants (Hordeum vulgare L., cultivar Lina, Poaceae) that were cultivated with a 15N enriched nutrient solution. The time aphids fed in the phloem was strongly positive correlated with their 15N uptake. All other single behavioural phases were not correlated with 15N enrichment in the aphids, which corroborates their classification as non-feeding EPG phases. In addition, phloem-feeding and 15N enrichment of aphids was divided into two groups. One group spent only short time in the phloem phase and was unsuccessful in nitrogen acquisition, while the other group displayed longer phloem-feeding phases and was successful in nitrogen acquisition. This suggests that several factors such as the right feeding site, time span of feeding and individual conditions play a role for the aphids to acquire nutrients successfully. The power of this combination of methods for studying plant-aphid interactions is discussed.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/exploring-nitrogen-ingestion-aphids-new-method-using-electrical-penetration-graph-and15n-labelling", "reader_count"=>12, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>5, "Professor"=>1, "Unspecified"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>5, "Professor"=>1, "Unspecified"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Environmental Science"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>8}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>8}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Mexico"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1327750"], "description"=>"<div><p>Studying plant-aphid interactions is challenging as aphid feeding is a complex process hidden in the plant tissue. Here we propose a combination of two well established methods to study nutrient acquisition by aphids focusing on the uptake of isotopically labelled nitrogen (<sup>15</sup>N). We combined the Electrical Penetration Graph (EPG) technique that allows detailed recording of aphid feeding behaviour and stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) to precisely measure the uptake of nitrogen. Bird cherry-oat aphids <i>Rhopalosiphum padi</i> L. (Hemiptera, Aphididae) fed for 24 h on barley plants (<i>Hordeum vulgare</i> L., cultivar Lina, Poaceae) that were cultivated with a <sup>15</sup>N enriched nutrient solution. The time aphids fed in the phloem was strongly positive correlated with their <sup>15</sup>N uptake. All other single behavioural phases were not correlated with <sup>15</sup>N enrichment in the aphids, which corroborates their classification as non-feeding EPG phases. In addition, phloem-feeding and <sup>15</sup>N enrichment of aphids was divided into two groups. One group spent only short time in the phloem phase and was unsuccessful in nitrogen acquisition, while the other group displayed longer phloem-feeding phases and was successful in nitrogen acquisition. This suggests that several factors such as the right feeding site, time span of feeding and individual conditions play a role for the aphids to acquire nutrients successfully. The power of this combination of methods for studying plant-aphid interactions is discussed.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["exploring", "nitrogen", "ingestion", "aphids", "penetration", "graph", "labelling"], "article_id"=>886060, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Franziska Kuhlmann", "Sebastian E. W. Opitz", "Erich Inselsbacher", "Ulrika Ganeteg", "Torgny Näsholm", "Velemir Ninkovic"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0083085", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>29, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Exploring_the_Nitrogen_Ingestion_of_Aphids_A_New_Method_Using_Electrical_Penetration_Graph_and_15_N_Labelling/886060", "title"=>"Exploring the Nitrogen Ingestion of Aphids — A New Method Using Electrical Penetration Graph and <sup>15</sup>N Labelling", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-12-23 04:21:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1327747"], "description"=>"<p>Different measures of nitrogen are presented as percentage of <sup>15</sup>N [atom%]; abundance of <sup>15</sup>N [δ<sup>15</sup>N ‰]; excess of <sup>15</sup>N [µg] per plant or aphid; amount of total N [µg] per plant or aphid as well as concentration of total N [mg gDW<sup>−1</sup>] and uptake of total N [%] (% of total plant nitrogen coming from fertiliser or total aphid nitrogen coming from plant). Calculated values subtracted by the natural background label are <sup>15</sup>N excess [µg] and total N uptake [%], therefore no values for control plants and aphids are given and rows are denoted by -.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["barley", "plants", "aphids"], "article_id"=>886057, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Franziska Kuhlmann", "Sebastian E. W. Opitz", "Erich Inselsbacher", "Ulrika Ganeteg", "Torgny Näsholm", "Velemir Ninkovic"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0083085.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Nitrogen_content_in_control_test_barley_plants_and_R_padi_aphids_Mean_standard_deviation_/886057", "title"=>"Nitrogen content in control/test barley plants and <i>R. padi</i> aphids (Mean ± standard deviation).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-12-23 04:21:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1327745"], "description"=>"<p>The µg excess <sup>15</sup>N uptake of individual <i>R. padi</i> aphids is plotted against the number of feeding interruptions. Green stars (N = 21), experimental time up to 24 hours. Orange stars (N = 8), experimental time from 4 to 6 hours. A zero value of no feeding behaviour is excluded in the plot and the statistical analyses. Pearson's product moment correlation for 20 hours, t<sub>(20)</sub> = −3.02, cor = −0.56, p = 0.007; for 4 to 6 hours, t<sub>(6)</sub> = −0.73, cor = −0.28, p = 0.495.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["enrichment", "characterised", "feeding"], "article_id"=>886055, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Franziska Kuhlmann", "Sebastian E. W. Opitz", "Erich Inselsbacher", "Ulrika Ganeteg", "Torgny Näsholm", "Velemir Ninkovic"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0083085.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_High_15_N_enrichment_is_characterised_by_few_feeding_interruptions_/886055", "title"=>"High <sup>15</sup>N enrichment is characterised by few feeding interruptions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-12-23 04:21:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1327746"], "description"=>"<p>The µg excess <sup>15</sup>N uptake of individual <i>R. padi</i> aphids (N = 22) are plotted against the time aphids had been feeding in the phloem phase (E2) on barley plants either during night (blue stars), day (orange stars) or total (day and night; dark green stars). Day (16 hours) and night (8 hours) values of phloem-feeding are extracted out of the total aphid phloem-feeding duration (E2). The feeding experiment was conducted for up to 24 hours and the feeding behaviour was recorded with the EPG method. The µg excess <sup>15</sup>N uptake of control aphids was zero.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["phloem-feeding", "times", "uptake"], "article_id"=>886056, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Franziska Kuhlmann", "Sebastian E. W. Opitz", "Erich Inselsbacher", "Ulrika Ganeteg", "Torgny Näsholm", "Velemir Ninkovic"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0083085.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Long_day_and_night_phloem_feeding_times_are_important_for_successful_15_N_uptake_by_aphids_/886056", "title"=>"Long day and night phloem-feeding times are important for successful <sup>15</sup>N uptake by aphids.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-12-23 04:21:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1327744"], "description"=>"<p>The calculated values of the µg excess <sup>15</sup>N uptake of <i>R. padi</i> aphids (N = 30) are plotted against the time that aphids spent in defined EPG phases on barley plants. Either the phloem-feeding phase E2 (A) or the sum of defined non-feeding phases are plotted (B). The non-feeding time includes the time aphids spent cell puncturing (C), had derailed stylet mechanics (F), were xylem drinking (G) and saliva injecting (E1). Pearson's product moment correlation between <sup>15</sup>N uptake and phloem-feeding A, t = 8.95, cor = 0.86, p<0.001 and <sup>15</sup>N uptake and non-feeding B, t = −2.03, cor = −0.36, p = 0.05 (<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0083085#pone-0083085-t002\" target=\"_blank\">Table 2</a>). The feeding experiment was conducted for up to 24 hours and the feeding behaviour was recorded with EPG. The µg excess <sup>15</sup>N uptake of control aphids was zero.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["enrichment", "aphids", "correlates", "phloem-feeding"], "article_id"=>886054, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Franziska Kuhlmann", "Sebastian E. W. Opitz", "Erich Inselsbacher", "Ulrika Ganeteg", "Torgny Näsholm", "Velemir Ninkovic"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0083085.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>21, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Stable_15_N_enrichment_of_aphids_correlates_with_phloem_feeding_duration_/886054", "title"=>"Stable <sup>15</sup>N enrichment of aphids correlates with phloem-feeding duration.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-12-23 04:21:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1327749"], "description"=>"<p>E2 = phloem feeding, E1 = pre-phloem, FI = feeding interruptions, G = xylem feeding, F = derailed stylet mechanics, C = pathway phase.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["simplification"], "article_id"=>886059, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Franziska Kuhlmann", "Sebastian E. W. Opitz", "Erich Inselsbacher", "Ulrika Ganeteg", "Torgny Näsholm", "Velemir Ninkovic"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0083085.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>51, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Steps_of_model_simplification_to_find_the_minimal_adequate_model_/886059", "title"=>"Steps of model simplification to find the minimal adequate model.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-12-23 04:21:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1327748"], "description"=>"<p>Significant correlation coefficients (p≤0.05) are written in bold numbers. Abbreviations: E2 = phloem feeding, E1 = pre-phloem, G = xylem feeding, C = pathway phase, F = derailed stylet mechanics, FI = feeding interruptions, non-feeding = sum of E1, G, C and F phase.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["coefficient"], "article_id"=>886058, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Franziska Kuhlmann", "Sebastian E. W. Opitz", "Erich Inselsbacher", "Ulrika Ganeteg", "Torgny Näsholm", "Velemir Ninkovic"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0083085.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Pearson_correlation_coefficient_matrix_/886058", "title"=>"Pearson correlation coefficient matrix.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-12-23 04:21:30"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2013-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2013-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Organisms", "average_usage"=>[281, 484, 611, 728, 835, 934, 1030, 1123, 1214, 1299, 1383, 1464]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences", "average_usage"=>[264, 460, 584, 692, 794, 887, 978, 1067, 1154, 1241, 1328, 1408, 1474]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Nutrition", "average_usage"=>[273, 476, 611, 714, 821, 911, 1005, 1103, 1201, 1287, 1388, 1478, 1557]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Physiology", "average_usage"=>[258, 449, 572, 679, 775, 866, 956, 1041, 1124, 1211, 1291, 1371, 1437]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Physical sciences", "average_usage"=>[254, 431, 547, 651, 748, 842, 932, 1017, 1098, 1178, 1259, 1336, 1404]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Physical sciences/Physics", "average_usage"=>[254, 421, 527, 626, 720, 813, 900, 983, 1063, 1136, 1210, 1283, 1342]}]}
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