Probiotic Supplementation Promotes Calcification in Danio rerio Larvae: A Molecular Study
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{"title"=>"Probiotic supplementation promotes calcification in Danio rerio larvae: A molecular study", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Francesca", "last_name"=>"Maradonna", "scopus_author_id"=>"6505758835"}, {"first_name"=>"Giorgia", "last_name"=>"Gioacchini", "scopus_author_id"=>"23004112500"}, {"first_name"=>"Silvia", "last_name"=>"Falcinelli", "scopus_author_id"=>"56014508200"}, {"first_name"=>"Daniela", "last_name"=>"Bertotto", "scopus_author_id"=>"6507648526"}, {"first_name"=>"Giuseppe", "last_name"=>"Radaelli", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005039673"}, {"first_name"=>"Ike", "last_name"=>"Olivotto", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005289079"}, {"first_name"=>"Oliana", "last_name"=>"Carnevali", "scopus_author_id"=>"55861380700"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"372190813", "sgr"=>"84892921829", "pmid"=>"24358259", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84892921829", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0083155", "issn"=>"19326203"}, "id"=>"bb73cab3-7208-3436-9948-7e42b160d360", "abstract"=>"A growing number of studies have been showing that dietary probiotics can exert beneficial health effects in both humans and animals. We previously demonstrated that dietary supplementation with Lactobacillus rhamnosus - a component of the human gut microflora - enhances reproduction, larval development, and the biomineralization process in Danio rerio (zebrafish). The aim of this study was to identify the pathways affected by L. rhamnosus during zebrafish larval development. Our morphological and histochemical findings show that L. rhamnosus accelerates bone deposition through stimulation of the expression of key genes involved in ossification, e.g. runt-related transcription factor 2 (runx2), Sp7 transcription factor (sp7), matrix Gla protein (mgp), and bone gamma-carboxyglutamate (gla) protein (bglap) as well as through inhibition of sclerostin (sost), a bone formation inhibitor. Western blot analysis of mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 and 3-(Mapk1 and Mapk3), which are involved in osteoblast and osteocyte differentiation, documented an increase in Mapk1 16 days post fertilization (dpf) and of Mapk3 23 dpf in individuals receiving L. rhamnosus supplementation. Interestingly, a reduction of sost detected in the same individuals suggests that the probiotic may help treat bone disorders.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/probiotic-supplementation-promotes-calcification-danio-rerio-larvae-molecular-study", "reader_count"=>45, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>12, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>15, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Other"=>2, "Student > Master"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>12, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>15, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Other"=>2, "Student > Master"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Engineering"=>2, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>4, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>26, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>4, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1, "Chemistry"=>1, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>2}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>4}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>26}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>2}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>4}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Netherlands"=>1, "Italy"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1318823"], "description"=>"<p><i>sost</i> mRNA levels normalized <i>actb and rplp</i> in control and <i>L.rhamnosus</i> treated fingerlings sampled 9,16and 23dpf. Error bars indicate mean ± S.D. Different letters denote statistical significant differences among experimental groups (p<0.05), analyzed using ANOVA followed by Bonferroni multiple comparison test.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mrna"], "article_id"=>879840, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Francesca Maradonna", "Giorgia Gioacchini", "Silvia Falcinelli", "Daniela Bertotto", "Giuseppe Radaelli", "Ike Olivotto", "Oliana Carnevali"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0083155.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_sost_mRNA_levels_/879840", "title"=>"<i>sost</i> mRNA levels.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-12-17 02:49:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1318821"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Control zebrafish larva showing the mineral deposits around the notochord. (B) Higher magnification of image A. Arrows indicate the mineral deposits. (C) <i>L.rhamnosus</i> treated larva showing the mineral deposits around the vertebral bodies. (D) Higher magnification of image C. Arrows indicate the mineral deposits. Scale bars: A–C = 100 µm; B–D = 40 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["kossa", "histochemical", "staining", "larvae", "samples", "23"], "article_id"=>879838, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Francesca Maradonna", "Giorgia Gioacchini", "Silvia Falcinelli", "Daniela Bertotto", "Giuseppe Radaelli", "Ike Olivotto", "Oliana Carnevali"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0083155.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Von_Kossa_histochemical_staining_in_larvae_samples_at_23_dpf_/879838", "title"=>"Von Kossa histochemical staining in larvae samples at 23 dpf.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-12-17 02:49:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1318825"], "description"=>"<p>Proposed model of the role of <i>L. rhamnosus</i> in the regulation of osteoblast and chondrocyte differentiation.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["osteoblast", "chondrocyte"], "article_id"=>879842, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Francesca Maradonna", "Giorgia Gioacchini", "Silvia Falcinelli", "Daniela Bertotto", "Giuseppe Radaelli", "Ike Olivotto", "Oliana Carnevali"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0083155.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Proposed_model_of_the_role_of_L_rhamnosus_in_the_regulation_of_osteoblast_and_chondrocyte_differentiation_/879842", "title"=>"Proposed model of the role of <i>L. rhamnosus</i> in the regulation of osteoblast and chondrocyte differentiation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-12-17 02:49:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1318805"], "description"=>"<p>A 9 dpf zebrafish control larvae head skeleton presenting calcified calcified pharyngeal teeth (CPT)while other structures like Meckel's cartilage (MC) and ceratohyal (CH) remain as cartilage); (B–C) 9 dpf control zebrafish head (B) and trunk (C) presenting no signals of bone calcification.(A) A 9 dpf <i>L. rhamnosus</i> fed zebrafish larvae head skeleton presenting calcification of the opercula (OP), cleithrum (CL) and basioccipital articulatory process (BOP). Meckel's cartilage (MC) and ceratohyal (CH) remain as cartilage; (E) 9 dpf <i>L. rhamnosus</i> fed zebrafish presenting the first hypurals (HYP) developing. Scale bar: 30 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["zebrafish", "alcian", "blue-alizarin"], "article_id"=>879822, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Francesca Maradonna", "Giorgia Gioacchini", "Silvia Falcinelli", "Daniela Bertotto", "Giuseppe Radaelli", "Ike Olivotto", "Oliana Carnevali"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0083155.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>30, "page_views"=>374, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Skeletal_development_in_zebrafish_using_alcian_blue_Alizarin_red_double_staining_/879822", "title"=>"Skeletal development in zebrafish using alcian blue-Alizarin red double staining.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-12-17 02:49:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1318819"], "description"=>"<p>(A–D) Images showing significant aspects of skeleton development in control zebrafish larvae. Neural arches (NA) and sketches of hemal arches (HA) are evidenced. Caudal skeleton still presents cartilaginous structures evidenced by a circle. (E–H) Representative images showing the development of the skeleton in zebrafish fed <i>L. rhamnosus</i>. (E) Presence of calcified mandibular (M). Neural arches (NA) and hemal arches (HA) are detected in the whole trunk of the larvae. (G) Complete formation of dorsal and anal pterygium.(H) Caudal skeleton is complete. Scale bar: 30 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["staining", "skeleton", "larvae", "sampled", "23"], "article_id"=>879836, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Francesca Maradonna", "Giorgia Gioacchini", "Silvia Falcinelli", "Daniela Bertotto", "Giuseppe Radaelli", "Ike Olivotto", "Oliana Carnevali"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0083155.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Whole_mount_double_staining_of_the_skeleton_in_larvae_sampled_at_23_dpf_/879836", "title"=>"Whole mount double staining of the skeleton in larvae sampled at 23 dpf.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-12-17 02:49:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1318828"], "description"=>"<p>Primer list.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>[], "article_id"=>879845, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Francesca Maradonna", "Giorgia Gioacchini", "Silvia Falcinelli", "Daniela Bertotto", "Giuseppe Radaelli", "Ike Olivotto", "Oliana Carnevali"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0083155.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Primer_list_/879845", "title"=>"Primer list.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-12-17 02:49:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1318809"], "description"=>"<p>(A–D) Images showing significant aspects of skeleton development in control zebrafish larvae. (B) Formation of first vertebrae (V). (D) Caudal hypuralia aquires final number of structures with modified hemal arches (MHA) and caudal fin rays (CR). (E–H) representative images showing the development of the skeleton in zebrafish fed <i>L. rhamnosus</i>. (E) presence of calcified pharyngeal teeth (PT) and ceratohyal (CH). (F–G) Vertebrae formation (in an anterior-posterior direction) toward the posterior end of the notochord. Formation of the first neural arches (NA) is observed dorsally in the anterior vertebrae. (H) Beginning of calcification of the hypurals (HYP) under the urostyle (UR) and presence of calcified caudal fin rays. Scale bar: 30 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mounts", "staining", "skeleton", "larvae", "sampled", "16"], "article_id"=>879827, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Francesca Maradonna", "Giorgia Gioacchini", "Silvia Falcinelli", "Daniela Bertotto", "Giuseppe Radaelli", "Ike Olivotto", "Oliana Carnevali"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0083155.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>27, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Whole_mounts_double_staining_of_the_skeleton_in_larvae_sampled_at_16_dpf_/879827", "title"=>"Whole mounts double staining of the skeleton in larvae sampled at 16 dpf.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-12-17 02:49:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1318827"], "description"=>"<p> = 15) and probiotic (n = 15) groups, collected at 9, 16 and 23 days post fertilization (3 replicates). Asterisks indicate significant differences (P<0.05).<sup></sup> Total length (TL) and wet weight (WW) of zebrafish larvae from control (n</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>[], "article_id"=>879844, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Francesca Maradonna", "Giorgia Gioacchini", "Silvia Falcinelli", "Daniela Bertotto", "Giuseppe Radaelli", "Ike Olivotto", "Oliana Carnevali"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0083155.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Total_length_and_wet_weight_/879844", "title"=>"Total length and wet weight.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-12-17 02:49:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1318824"], "description"=>"<p>A) Insert shows a representative Mapk1/3 and Tuba1b Western blot in control and <i>L. rhamnosus</i> treated fingerlings sampled 9, 16 and 23 dpf. C- control P-probiotic. B) Densitometric analysis of 3 independent experiments a.u. (arbitrary units). Statistical significant differences (P<0.05) were found for Mapk2 levels at 16 dpf P respect to control and for Mapk3 levels at 23 dpf P respect to control.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>[], "article_id"=>879841, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Francesca Maradonna", "Giorgia Gioacchini", "Silvia Falcinelli", "Daniela Bertotto", "Giuseppe Radaelli", "Ike Olivotto", "Oliana Carnevali"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0083155.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mapk1_3_Western_blot_/879841", "title"=>"Mapk1/3 Western blot.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-12-17 02:49:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1318822"], "description"=>"<p>mRNA levels normalized against <i>actb</i> and <i>rplp</i> in control and <i>L. rhamnosus</i> treated fingerlings sampled 9, 16 and 23 dpf. Error bars indicate mean ± S.D. Different letters denote statistical significant differences among experimental groups (p<0.05), analyzed using ANOVA followed by Bonferroni multiple comparison test.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mrna"], "article_id"=>879839, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Francesca Maradonna", "Giorgia Gioacchini", "Silvia Falcinelli", "Daniela Bertotto", "Giuseppe Radaelli", "Ike Olivotto", "Oliana Carnevali"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0083155.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_runx2_A_sp7_B_mgp_C_bglap_D_mRNA_levels_/879839", "title"=>"<i>runx2</i> (A), <i>sp7</i>(B), <i>mgp</i> (C), <i>bglap</i> (D) mRNA levels.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-12-17 02:49:41"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"12", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"14", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"15", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"11", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"11", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"12", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"14", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"15", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2013-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2013-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences", "average_usage"=>[269, 466, 588, 697, 800, 896, 988, 1076, 1165, 1254, 1340, 1417]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Developmental biology", "average_usage"=>[275, 472, 605, 720, 822, 921, 1013, 1106, 1200, 1289, 1378, 1459, 1531]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Microbiology", "average_usage"=>[293, 503, 638, 755, 861, 960, 1056, 1146, 1239, 1323, 1403, 1491, 1568]}]}
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