Anticipatory Smooth Eye Movements in Autism Spectrum Disorder
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{"title"=>"Anticipatory smooth eye movements in autism spectrum disorder", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Cordelia D.", "last_name"=>"Aitkin", "scopus_author_id"=>"56027149500"}, {"first_name"=>"Elio M.", "last_name"=>"Santos", "scopus_author_id"=>"55505851000"}, {"first_name"=>"Eileen", "last_name"=>"Kowler", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004442181"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84893505911", "sgr"=>"84893505911", "pui"=>"372292881", "pmid"=>"24376667", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0083230"}, "id"=>"7244bbf7-860e-3708-b4bf-5eee1f3602e6", "abstract"=>"Smooth pursuit eye movements are important for vision because they maintain the line of sight on targets that move smoothly within the visual field. Smooth pursuit is driven by neural representations of motion, including a surprisingly strong influence of high-level signals representing expected motion. We studied anticipatory smooth eye movements (defined as smooth eye movements in the direction of expected future motion) produced by salient visual cues in a group of high-functioning observers with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), a condition that has been associated with difficulties in either generating predictions, or translating predictions into effective motor commands. Eye movements were recorded while participants pursued the motion of a disc that moved within an outline drawing of an inverted Y-shaped tube. The cue to the motion path was a visual barrier that blocked the untraveled branch (right or left) of the tube. ASD participants showed strong anticipatory smooth eye movements whose velocity was the same as that of a group of neurotypical participants. Anticipatory smooth eye movements appeared on the very first cued trial, indicating that trial-by-trial learning was not responsible for the responses. These results are significant because they show that anticipatory capacities are intact in high-functioning ASD in cases where the cue to the motion path is highly salient and unambiguous. Once the ability to generate anticipatory pursuit is demonstrated, the study of the anticipatory responses with a variety of types of cues provides a window into the perceptual or cognitive processes that underlie the interpretation of events in natural environments or social situations.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/anticipatory-smooth-eye-movements-autism-spectrum-disorder", "reader_count"=>45, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>6, "Researcher"=>10, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>4, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>13, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>6, "Researcher"=>10, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>4, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>13, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Engineering"=>3, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>3, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>6, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>1, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Neuroscience"=>6, "Sports and Recreations"=>1, "Psychology"=>17, "Computer Science"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>3}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>6}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>6}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>17}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>1}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>2}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>3}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>5}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Korea (South)"=>1, "Belgium"=>2, "France"=>1}, "group_count"=>4}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1326606"], "description"=>"<p>The disc moves down the tube and then travels down whichever branch (left or right) is not blocked by the visual barrier cue.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cued"], "article_id"=>885101, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Cordelia D. Aitkin", "Elio M. Santos", "Eileen Kowler"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0083230.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Stimulus_Display_for_Cued_Target_Motion_/885101", "title"=>"Stimulus Display for Cued Target Motion.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-12-23 03:20:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1326614"], "description"=>"<p>Eye velocities were taken over the interval from 150 ms before to 50 ms after the onset of horizontal target motion. Positive values represent eye velocities to the right; negative values to the left. The maximum number of trials/participant  = N(left)+N(right) = 40, except for ASD5 who was tested in 20 trials, and ASD9 who was tested in 60 trials</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["horizontal", "velocity", "anticipatory", "cued"], "article_id"=>885109, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Cordelia D. Aitkin", "Elio M. Santos", "Eileen Kowler"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0083230.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_horizontal_velocity_min_arc_s_of_anticipatory_pursuit_for_individual_participants_Cued_Condition_/885109", "title"=>"Mean horizontal velocity (min arc/s) of anticipatory pursuit for individual participants: Cued Condition.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-12-23 03:20:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1326613"], "description"=>"<p>Eye velocities were taken over the interval from 400 ms to 800 ms after the onset of horizontal target motion to the left or to the right. Positive values represent eye velocities to the right, negative to the left.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["velocity", "maintained", "uncued"], "article_id"=>885108, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Cordelia D. Aitkin", "Elio M. Santos", "Eileen Kowler"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0083230.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_eye_velocity_min_arc_s_during_maintained_pursuit_uncued_condition_/885108", "title"=>"Mean eye velocity (min arc/s) during maintained pursuit, uncued condition.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-12-23 03:20:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1326610"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Saccade vector sizes in ASD group (B) Saccade rates in ASD group. (C) Saccade sizes in Typical group. (D) Saccade rates in Typical group.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["maintained"], "article_id"=>885105, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Cordelia D. Aitkin", "Elio M. Santos", "Eileen Kowler"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0083230.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Saccades_During_Maintained_Fixation_/885105", "title"=>"Saccades During Maintained Fixation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-12-23 03:20:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1326608"], "description"=>"<p>Mean horizontal eye velocity (average of participant means) when the visual barrier cue indicated the future path of the moving disc (left or right), for ASD (blue and green lines) and typical (red and purple lines) participants. The dotted line indicates the horizontal velocity of the disc. The disc entered the oblique branch at time  = 0 and traveled either to the right (positive values) or left (negative values) Shading indicates +/− Standard Error.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["velocity", "cued"], "article_id"=>885103, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Cordelia D. Aitkin", "Elio M. Santos", "Eileen Kowler"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0083230.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_Eye_Velocity_Over_Time_Motion_in_Cued_Directions_/885103", "title"=>"Mean Eye Velocity Over Time, Motion in Cued Directions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-12-23 03:20:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1326609"], "description"=>"<p>Mean horizontal eye velocity (average of participant means) when no cue indicated the future path of the moving disc (left or right), for ASD (blue and green lines) and typical (red and purple lines) participants. The dotted line indicates the horizontal velocity of the disc. The disc entered the oblique branch at time  = 0 and traveled either to the right (positive values) or left (negative values) Shading indicates +/− Standard Error.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["velocity", "uncued"], "article_id"=>885104, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Cordelia D. Aitkin", "Elio M. Santos", "Eileen Kowler"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0083230.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_Eye_Velocity_Over_Time_Motion_in_Uncued_Directions_/885104", "title"=>"Mean Eye Velocity Over Time, Motion in Uncued Directions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-12-23 03:20:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1326607"], "description"=>"<p>(Left) Representative record showing horizontal (H) and vertical (V) eye movements over time during 5 seconds of fixation of the stationary target. Participant ASD7. (Right) Representative record showing horizontal (H) and vertical (V) eye movements during 1.3 seconds of smooth pursuit of the disc moving down the tube; cued condition. The disc entered the right oblique branch at time  =  0. Participant ASD4. The vertical lines represent computer-generated markers showing beginning and end of saccades. Upward deflections indicate movements to the right or up. The separation between tic marks on the ordinate are 1 degree (60 min arc). Horizontal anticipatory smooth eye movements to the right, in the direction of cued motion, can be seen prior to time = 0 in the graph on the right.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["traces", "fixation"], "article_id"=>885102, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Cordelia D. Aitkin", "Elio M. Santos", "Eileen Kowler"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0083230.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Representative_Eye_Traces_During_Fixation_and_During_Smooth_Pursuit_/885102", "title"=>"Representative Eye Traces During Fixation and During Smooth Pursuit.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-12-23 03:20:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1326616"], "description"=>"<p>ANOVA statistics on horizontal eye velocities at the onset of horizontal target motion.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["horizontal", "velocities", "onset"], "article_id"=>885111, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Cordelia D. Aitkin", "Elio M. Santos", "Eileen Kowler"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0083230.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_ANOVA_statistics_on_horizontal_eye_velocities_at_the_onset_of_horizontal_target_motion_/885111", "title"=>"ANOVA statistics on horizontal eye velocities at the onset of horizontal target motion.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-12-23 03:20:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1326617"], "description"=>"<div><p>Smooth pursuit eye movements are important for vision because they maintain the line of sight on targets that move smoothly within the visual field. Smooth pursuit is driven by neural representations of motion, including a surprisingly strong influence of high-level signals representing expected motion. We studied anticipatory smooth eye movements (defined as smooth eye movements in the direction of expected future motion) produced by salient visual cues in a group of high-functioning observers with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), a condition that has been associated with difficulties in either generating predictions, or translating predictions into effective motor commands. Eye movements were recorded while participants pursued the motion of a disc that moved within an outline drawing of an inverted Y-shaped tube. The cue to the motion path was a visual barrier that blocked the untraveled branch (right or left) of the tube. ASD participants showed strong anticipatory smooth eye movements whose velocity was the same as that of a group of neurotypical participants. Anticipatory smooth eye movements appeared on the very first cued trial, indicating that trial-by-trial learning was not responsible for the responses. These results are significant because they show that anticipatory capacities are intact in high-functioning ASD in cases where the cue to the motion path is highly salient and unambiguous. Once the ability to generate anticipatory pursuit is demonstrated, the study of the anticipatory responses with a variety of types of cues provides a window into the perceptual or cognitive processes that underlie the interpretation of events in natural environments or social situations.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["movements", "autism"], "article_id"=>885112, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Cordelia D. Aitkin", "Elio M. Santos", "Eileen Kowler"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0083230", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>22, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Anticipatory_Smooth_Eye_Movements_in_Autism_Spectrum_Disorder_/885112", "title"=>"Anticipatory Smooth Eye Movements in Autism Spectrum Disorder", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-12-23 03:20:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1326615"], "description"=>"<p>Eye velocities were taken over the interval from 150 ms before to 50 ms after the onset of horizontal target motion. Positive values represent eye velocities to the right, negative to the left.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["velocity", "trials", "cued"], "article_id"=>885110, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Cordelia D. Aitkin", "Elio M. Santos", "Eileen Kowler"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0083230.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Horizontal_eye_velocity_min_arc_s_during_first_trials_in_the_cued_condition_/885110", "title"=>"Horizontal eye velocity (min arc/s) during first trials in the cued condition.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-12-23 03:20:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1326612"], "description"=>"<p>Eye velocities were taken over the interval from 400 ms to 800 ms after the onset of horizontal target motion to the left or to the right. Positive values represent eye velocities to the right, negative to the left.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["velocity", "maintained", "cued"], "article_id"=>885107, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Cordelia D. Aitkin", "Elio M. Santos", "Eileen Kowler"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0083230.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_eye_velocity_min_arc_s_during_maintained_pursuit_cued_condition_/885107", "title"=>"Mean eye velocity (min arc/s) during maintained pursuit, cued condition.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-12-23 03:20:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1326611"], "description"=>"<p>Mean vector size (min arc) and frequency (saccade/s) of saccades of individual participants during maintained fixation.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["saccades", "maintained"], "article_id"=>885106, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Cordelia D. Aitkin", "Elio M. Santos", "Eileen Kowler"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0083230.t006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_size_min_arc_and_frequency_of_saccades_during_maintained_fixation_/885106", "title"=>"Mean size (min arc) and frequency of saccades during maintained fixation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-12-23 03:20:29"}

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"27", "full-text"=>"34", "pdf"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"25", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"34", "full-text"=>"42", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"4"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2013-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2013-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences", "average_usage"=>[269, 466, 588, 697, 800, 896, 988, 1076, 1165, 1254, 1340, 1417]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Anatomy", "average_usage"=>[248, 440, 562, 666, 765, 856, 944, 1028, 1112, 1198, 1282, 1362, 1430]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Neuroscience", "average_usage"=>[261, 444, 554, 655, 748, 834, 923, 1004, 1089, 1170, 1244, 1315, 1380]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Physiology", "average_usage"=>[256, 449, 572, 676, 775, 866, 955, 1041, 1127, 1213, 1290, 1370, 1437]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Computer and information sciences", "average_usage"=>[297, 488, 616, 724, 828, 939, 1038, 1127, 1223, 1311, 1393, 1479, 1556]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Anatomy", "average_usage"=>[248, 441, 564, 668, 769, 859, 948, 1034, 1117, 1202, 1290, 1368, 1437]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Physical sciences/Physics", "average_usage"=>[254, 421, 527, 626, 720, 813, 900, 983, 1063, 1136, 1210, 1283, 1342]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Social sciences", "average_usage"=>[289, 475, 593, 703, 805, 902, 990, 1078, 1158, 1250, 1336, 1417, 1482]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Social sciences/Psychology", "average_usage"=>[294, 460, 580, 683, 777, 868, 957, 1044, 1124, 1202, 1276, 1356, 1422]}]}
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