Quantifying Water Flow within Aquatic Ecosystems Using Load Cell Sensors: A Profile of Currents Experienced by Coral Reef Organisms around Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia
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{"title"=>"Quantifying water flow within aquatic ecosystems using load cell sensors: A profile of currents experienced by coral reef organisms around Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Jacob L.", "last_name"=>"Johansen", "scopus_author_id"=>"14010326400"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"372732201", "sgr"=>"84897410684", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"24421878", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84897410684", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0083240"}, "id"=>"724e6325-7332-385a-b1b3-e88b059f85f1", "abstract"=>"Current velocity in aquatic environments has major implications for the diversity, abundance and ecology of aquatic organisms, but quantifying these currents has proven difficult. This study utilises a simple and inexpensive instrument (<$150) to provide a detailed current velocity profile of the coral-reef system around Lizard Island (Great Barrier Reef, Australia) at a spatial and temporal scale relevant to the ecology of individual benthos and fish. The instrument uses load-cell sensors to provide a correlation between sensor output and ambient current velocity of 99%. Each instrument is able to continuously record current velocities to >500 cms⁻¹ and wave frequency to >100 Hz over several weeks. Sensor data are registered and processed at 16 MHz and 10 bit resolution, with a measuring precision of 0.06±0.04%, and accuracy of 0.51±0.65% (mean ±S.D.). Each instrument is also pressure rated to 120 m and shear stresses ≤20 kNm⁻² allowing deployment in harsh environments. The instrument was deployed across 27 coral reef sites covering the crest (3 m), mid-slope (6 m) and deep-slope (9 m depth) of habitats directly exposed, oblique or sheltered from prevailing winds. Measurements demonstrate that currents over the reef slope and crest varies immensely depending on depth and exposure: currents differ up to 9-fold within habitats only separated by 3 m depth and 15-fold between exposed, oblique and sheltered habitats. Comparisons to ambient weather conditions reveal that currents around Lizard Island are largely wind driven. Zero to 22.5 knot winds correspond directly to currents of 0 to >82 cms⁻¹, while tidal currents rarely exceed 5.5 cms⁻¹. Rather, current velocity increases exponentially as a function of wave height (0 to 1.6 m) and frequency (0.54 to 0.20 Hz), emphasizing the enormous effect of wind and waves on organisms in these shallow coral reef habitats.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/quantifying-water-flow-within-aquatic-ecosystems-using-load-cell-sensors-profile-currents-experience", "reader_count"=>26, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>4, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>12, "Student > Master"=>5, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>4, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>12, "Student > Master"=>5, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>6, "Environmental Science"=>8, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>9, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>6}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>9}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>8}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>1, "Tanzania"=>1, "Australia"=>1, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1343188", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1343189", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1343191"], "description"=>"<div><p>Current velocity in aquatic environments has major implications for the diversity, abundance and ecology of aquatic organisms, but quantifying these currents has proven difficult. This study utilises a simple and inexpensive instrument (<$150) to provide a detailed current velocity profile of the coral-reef system around Lizard Island (Great Barrier Reef, Australia) at a spatial and temporal scale relevant to the ecology of individual benthos and fish. The instrument uses load-cell sensors to provide a correlation between sensor output and ambient current velocity of 99%. Each instrument is able to continuously record current velocities to >500 cms<sup>−1</sup> and wave frequency to >100 Hz over several weeks. Sensor data are registered and processed at 16 MHz and 10 bit resolution, with a measuring precision of 0.06±0.04%, and accuracy of 0.51±0.65% (mean ±S.D.). Each instrument is also pressure rated to 120 m and shear stresses ≤20 kNm<sup>−2</sup> allowing deployment in harsh environments.</p><p>The instrument was deployed across 27 coral reef sites covering the crest (3 m), mid-slope (6 m) and deep-slope (9 m depth) of habitats directly exposed, oblique or sheltered from prevailing winds. Measurements demonstrate that currents over the reef slope and crest varies immensely depending on depth and exposure: Currents differ up to 9-fold within habitats only separated by 3 m depth and 15-fold between exposed, oblique and sheltered habitats. Comparisons to ambient weather conditions reveal that currents around Lizard Island are largely wind driven. Zero to 22.5 knot winds correspond directly to currents of 0 to >82 cms<sup>−1</sup>, while tidal currents rarely exceed 5.5 cms<sup>−1</sup>. Rather, current velocity increases exponentially as a function of wave height (0 to 1.6 m) and frequency (0.54 to 0.20 Hz), emphasizing the enormous effect of wind and waves on organisms in these shallow coral reef habitats.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Community Ecology", "community structure", "Ecological environments", "Aquatic environments", "Freshwater environments", "Marine environments", "ecosystems", "Ecosystem modeling", "Marine ecology", "Coral reefs", "biodiversity", "Freshwater ecology", "Marine biology", "Coastal ecology", "Marine monitoring", "Marine technology", "Limnology", "Physical limnology", "marine and aquatic sciences", "oceanography", "Biological oceanography", "Ocean circulation", "Ocean properties", "Physical oceanography", "Water column", "hydrology", "Environmental engineering", "Mechanical engineering", "signal processing", "aquatic", "currents", "coral", "reef", "organisms", "lizard"], "article_id"=>897883, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Engineering", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Jacob L. Johansen"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0083240.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0083240.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0083240.s003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>15, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Quantifying_Water_Flow_within_Aquatic_Ecosystems_Using_Load_Cell_Sensors_A_Profile_of_Currents_Experienced_by_Coral_Reef_Organisms_around_Lizard_Island_Great_Barrier_Reef_Australia_/897883", "title"=>"Quantifying Water Flow within Aquatic Ecosystems Using Load Cell Sensors: A Profile of Currents Experienced by Coral Reef Organisms around Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2014-01-08 04:52:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1343168"], "description"=>"<p>Calibrations for low velocity (0–50 cms<sup>−1</sup>) were made by placing the current meter in a unidirectional current within a flume, whilst high velocity (>50–400 cms<sup>−1</sup>) was calibrated next to a Vernier LabQuest Flow rate sensor following the boat-tow methodology of Utter and Denny <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0083240#pone.0083240-Utter1\" target=\"_blank\">[28]</a>. The log-linear correlation is highly significant (F = 12,090.7, p<0.0001).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Community Ecology", "community structure", "Ecological environments", "Aquatic environments", "Freshwater environments", "Marine environments", "ecosystems", "Ecosystem modeling", "Marine ecology", "Coral reefs", "biodiversity", "Freshwater ecology", "Marine biology", "Coastal ecology", "Marine monitoring", "Marine technology", "Limnology", "Physical limnology", "marine and aquatic sciences", "oceanography", "Biological oceanography", "Ocean circulation", "Ocean properties", "Physical oceanography", "Water column", "hydrology", "Environmental engineering", "Mechanical engineering", "signal processing", "forces", "velocity"], "article_id"=>897862, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Engineering", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Jacob L. Johansen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0083240.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Correlation_between_drag_forces_on_the_current_meter_sensor_and_water_velocity_cms_8722_1_/897862", "title"=>"Correlation between drag forces (%) on the current meter sensor and water velocity (cms<sup>−1</sup>).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-01-08 04:52:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1343181"], "description"=>"<p><b>A)</b> No significant differences in drag forces were found among locations of equal depth and exposure. <b>B)</b> When sites were pooled by habitat and depth (exposed, oblique and sheltered habitats each at 3, 6 and 9 m depth), multiple comparisons revealed significant differences among all habitats, except the exposed 9 m, oblique 6 m and sheltered 3 m habitats (z-values on lower section, P-values on upper section in <b>bold</b>). FDR corrections were used to avoid Type I errors (α = 0.025) (Benjamini and Hochberg 1995).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Community Ecology", "community structure", "Ecological environments", "Aquatic environments", "Freshwater environments", "Marine environments", "ecosystems", "Ecosystem modeling", "Marine ecology", "Coral reefs", "biodiversity", "Freshwater ecology", "Marine biology", "Coastal ecology", "Marine monitoring", "Marine technology", "Limnology", "Physical limnology", "marine and aquatic sciences", "oceanography", "Biological oceanography", "Ocean circulation", "Ocean properties", "Physical oceanography", "Water column", "hydrology", "Environmental engineering", "Mechanical engineering", "signal processing", "measures", "27", "sites", "coral", "reef", "spanning", "oblique", "depths"], "article_id"=>897876, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Engineering", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Jacob L. Johansen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0083240.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Statistical_comparison_of_current_measures_from_27_different_sites_on_a_coral_reef_spanning_3_levels_of_wind_exposure_exposed_oblique_and_sheltered_and_3_different_depths_3_6_and_9_m_/897876", "title"=>"Statistical comparison of current measures from 27 different sites on a coral reef spanning 3 levels of wind exposure (exposed, oblique and sheltered) and 3 different depths (3, 6 and 9 m).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-01-08 04:52:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1343178"], "description"=>"<p>Water velocity is measured as drag on the current meter drag-sphere and is here reported in Newton (N). In this data stream, drag forces were continuously measured at 16 MHz and for every 10 sec interval the single highest and single lowest measure were recorded. Notice how variation in drag forces increases with increasing current velocity. Notice also the stable minimum measures over time highlighting that no ascendible zero-drift occurred. The high measure (∼1.4 N) at the beginning of the data stream is a test pull made by the diver immediately after securing the current meter to the substratum, and indicates the start of data recording in the field location.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Community Ecology", "community structure", "Ecological environments", "Aquatic environments", "Freshwater environments", "Marine environments", "ecosystems", "Ecosystem modeling", "Marine ecology", "Coral reefs", "biodiversity", "Freshwater ecology", "Marine biology", "Coastal ecology", "Marine monitoring", "Marine technology", "Limnology", "Physical limnology", "marine and aquatic sciences", "oceanography", "Biological oceanography", "Ocean circulation", "Ocean properties", "Physical oceanography", "Water column", "hydrology", "Environmental engineering", "Mechanical engineering", "signal processing"], "article_id"=>897873, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Engineering", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Jacob L. Johansen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0083240.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_A_raw_data_stream_from_a_7_day_continuous_measure_of_current_velocity_/897873", "title"=>"A raw data stream from a 7 day continuous measure of current velocity.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-01-08 04:52:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1343176"], "description"=>"<p>Wave frequency (black markers) was measured on the exposed slope in front of Lizard Island, and wave amplitude (white markers) was estimated from marine forecasts for this location (<a href=\"http://www.bom.gov.au\" target=\"_blank\">www.bom.gov.au</a>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Community Ecology", "community structure", "Ecological environments", "Aquatic environments", "Freshwater environments", "Marine environments", "ecosystems", "Ecosystem modeling", "Marine ecology", "Coral reefs", "biodiversity", "Freshwater ecology", "Marine biology", "Coastal ecology", "Marine monitoring", "Marine technology", "Limnology", "Physical limnology", "marine and aquatic sciences", "oceanography", "Biological oceanography", "Ocean circulation", "Ocean properties", "Physical oceanography", "Water column", "hydrology", "Environmental engineering", "Mechanical engineering", "signal processing", "induced", "amplitude", "exposed", "coral", "reef"], "article_id"=>897871, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Engineering", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Jacob L. Johansen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0083240.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>23, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Wind_induced_wave_frequency_and_amplitude_in_an_exposed_coral_reef_habitat_mean_177_S_E_/897871", "title"=>"Wind induced wave frequency and amplitude in an exposed coral reef habitat (mean ±S.E.).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-01-08 04:52:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1343171"], "description"=>"<p>Maximum water velocities (cms<sup>−1</sup>) in exposed, oblique and sheltered habitats at 3, 6 and 9 m depth relative to a wind exposure of 0–22.5 knots hr<sup>−1</sup> are shown. Boundary lines indicate the 25<sup>th</sup> and 75<sup>th</sup> percentiles, lines within the boxes represent median velocity values and the error bars indicate the 90<sup>th</sup> and 10<sup>th</sup> percentiles. Stippled lines indicate the most commonly encountered current velocity in each habitat relative to average daily wind velocities.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Community Ecology", "community structure", "Ecological environments", "Aquatic environments", "Freshwater environments", "Marine environments", "ecosystems", "Ecosystem modeling", "Marine ecology", "Coral reefs", "biodiversity", "Freshwater ecology", "Marine biology", "Coastal ecology", "Marine monitoring", "Marine technology", "Limnology", "Physical limnology", "marine and aquatic sciences", "oceanography", "Biological oceanography", "Ocean circulation", "Ocean properties", "Physical oceanography", "Water column", "hydrology", "Environmental engineering", "Mechanical engineering", "signal processing", "velocity", "coral", "reefs", "lizard"], "article_id"=>897866, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Engineering", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Jacob L. Johansen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0083240.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Current_velocity_profile_of_the_coral_reefs_surrounding_Lizard_Island_Northern_Great_Barrier_Reef_Australia_/897866", "title"=>"Current velocity profile of the coral reefs surrounding Lizard Island, Northern Great Barrier Reef, Australia.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-01-08 04:52:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1343180"], "description"=>"<p>Load cells must be chosen to fit the conditions where the instrument will be used. Although creep is unavoidable in most high precisions sensors, the effect can be accounted for by choosing a low creep load cell and including zero measures in the logged data for continuous zero verification and adjustment. Zero creep affects bias only and has no effect on the scale factor ensuring measurement stability during long term deployment.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Community Ecology", "community structure", "Ecological environments", "Aquatic environments", "Freshwater environments", "Marine environments", "ecosystems", "Ecosystem modeling", "Marine ecology", "Coral reefs", "biodiversity", "Freshwater ecology", "Marine biology", "Coastal ecology", "Marine monitoring", "Marine technology", "Limnology", "Physical limnology", "marine and aquatic sciences", "oceanography", "Biological oceanography", "Ocean circulation", "Ocean properties", "Physical oceanography", "Water column", "hydrology", "Environmental engineering", "Mechanical engineering", "signal processing"], "article_id"=>897875, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Engineering", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Jacob L. Johansen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0083240.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Load_cell_performance_characteristics_/897875", "title"=>"Load cell performance characteristics.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-01-08 04:52:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1343165"], "description"=>"<p>An illustration of measuring locations (<b>A</b>) and current meter placement (<b>B</b>) on each reef slope around Lizard Island, Northern Great Barrier Reef, Australia (14°40S, 145°28E). Current meters were placed at 3, 6, and 9 m depths at mid-tide in exposed, oblique and sheltered habitats relative to the prevailing south-easterly trade winds. These placements followed the approximate depths of the crest, mid and deep-slope of each habitat.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Community Ecology", "community structure", "Ecological environments", "Aquatic environments", "Freshwater environments", "Marine environments", "ecosystems", "Ecosystem modeling", "Marine ecology", "Coral reefs", "biodiversity", "Freshwater ecology", "Marine biology", "Coastal ecology", "Marine monitoring", "Marine technology", "Limnology", "Physical limnology", "marine and aquatic sciences", "oceanography", "Biological oceanography", "Ocean circulation", "Ocean properties", "Physical oceanography", "Water column", "hydrology", "Environmental engineering", "Mechanical engineering", "signal processing"], "article_id"=>897860, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Engineering", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Jacob L. Johansen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0083240.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Figure_2_/897860", "title"=>"Figure 2", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-01-08 04:52:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1343161"], "description"=>"<p>Top <b>A</b> shows an instrument deployed on a sheltered reef location with clear depictions of the guide rod construction and drag-sphere placement. Bottom <b>B</b> illustrates the internal components of the current meter and wiring connections. Notice that the height above the substratum where current measures are conducted can be adjusted by increasing or decreasing the guide rod length.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Community Ecology", "community structure", "Ecological environments", "Aquatic environments", "Freshwater environments", "Marine environments", "ecosystems", "Ecosystem modeling", "Marine ecology", "Coral reefs", "biodiversity", "Freshwater ecology", "Marine biology", "Coastal ecology", "Marine monitoring", "Marine technology", "Limnology", "Physical limnology", "marine and aquatic sciences", "oceanography", "Biological oceanography", "Ocean circulation", "Ocean properties", "Physical oceanography", "Water column", "hydrology", "Environmental engineering", "Mechanical engineering", "signal processing", "diagram"], "article_id"=>897855, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Engineering", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Jacob L. Johansen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0083240.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_A_picture_and_a_diagram_of_current_meter_components_/897855", "title"=>"A picture and a diagram of current meter components.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-01-08 04:52:50"}

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Relative Metric

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