High Intensity Interval Training in a Real World Setting: A Randomized Controlled Feasibility Study in Overweight Inactive Adults, Measuring Change in Maximal Oxygen Uptake
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{"title"=>"High intensity interval training in a real world setting: A randomized controlled feasibility study in overweight inactive adults, measuring change in maximal oxygen uptake", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Helen", "last_name"=>"Lunt", "scopus_author_id"=>"55882074600"}, {"first_name"=>"Nick", "last_name"=>"Draper", "scopus_author_id"=>"12902617900"}, {"first_name"=>"Helen C.", "last_name"=>"Marshall", "scopus_author_id"=>"56277698300"}, {"first_name"=>"Florence J.", "last_name"=>"Logan", "scopus_author_id"=>"55807992200"}, {"first_name"=>"Michael J.", "last_name"=>"Hamlin", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003762219"}, {"first_name"=>"Jeremy P.", "last_name"=>"Shearman", "scopus_author_id"=>"6604019391"}, {"first_name"=>"James D.", "last_name"=>"Cotter", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006104892"}, {"first_name"=>"Nicholas E.", "last_name"=>"Kimber", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602633578"}, {"first_name"=>"Gavin", "last_name"=>"Blackwell", "scopus_author_id"=>"25824644300"}, {"first_name"=>"Christopher M.A.", "last_name"=>"Frampton", "scopus_author_id"=>"18934387500"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"24454698", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0083256", "sgr"=>"84898000921", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84898000921", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"372801818"}, "id"=>"d29ccf70-665c-39dc-964d-72aadd51d1bc", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: In research clinic settings, overweight adults undertaking HIIT (high intensity interval training) improve their fitness as effectively as those undertaking conventional walking programs but can do so within a shorter time spent exercising. We undertook a randomized controlled feasibility (pilot) study aimed at extending HIIT into a real world setting by recruiting overweight/obese, inactive adults into a group based activity program, held in a community park.\\n\\nMETHODS: Participants were allocated into one of three groups. The two interventions, aerobic interval training and maximal volitional interval training, were compared with an active control group undertaking walking based exercise. Supervised group sessions (36 per intervention) were held outdoors. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured using VO2max (maximal oxygen uptake, results expressed in ml/min/kg), before and after the 12 week interventions.\\n\\nRESULTS: On ITT (intention to treat) analyses, baseline (N = 49) and exit (N = 39) [Formula: see text]O2 was 25.3±4.5 and 25.3±3.9, respectively. Participant allocation and baseline/exit VO2max by group was as follows: Aerobic interval training N =  16, 24.2±4.8/25.6±4.8; maximal volitional interval training N = 16, 25.0±2.8/25.2±3.4; walking N = 17, 26.5±5.3/25.2±3.6. The post intervention change in VO2max was +1.01 in the aerobic interval training, -0.06 in the maximal volitional interval training and -1.03 in the walking subgroups. The aerobic interval training subgroup increased VO2max compared to walking (p = 0.03). The actual (observed, rather than prescribed) time spent exercising (minutes per week, ITT analysis) was 74 for aerobic interval training, 45 for maximal volitional interval training and 116 for walking (p =  0.001). On descriptive analysis, the walking subgroup had the fewest adverse events.\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS: In contrast to earlier studies, the improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness in a cohort of overweight/obese participants undertaking aerobic interval training in a real world setting was modest. The most likely reason for this finding relates to reduced adherence to the exercise program, when moving beyond the research clinic setting.\\n\\nTRIAL REGISTRATION: ACTR.org.au ACTRN12610000295044.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/high-intensity-interval-training-real-world-setting-randomized-controlled-feasibility-study-overweig", "reader_count"=>191, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>10, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Researcher"=>11, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>9, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>21, "Student > Postgraduate"=>11, "Other"=>11, "Student > Master"=>52, "Student > Bachelor"=>49, "Lecturer"=>4, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>8}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>10, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Researcher"=>11, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>9, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>21, "Student > Postgraduate"=>11, "Other"=>11, "Student > Master"=>52, "Student > Bachelor"=>49, "Lecturer"=>4, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>8}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>16, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>14, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>40, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>14, "Philosophy"=>1, "Sports and Recreations"=>87, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Psychology"=>6, "Chemistry"=>2, "Social Sciences"=>7, "Computer Science"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>40}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>2}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>7}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>87}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>6}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>14}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>14}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>16}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Netherlands"=>1, "Norway"=>1, "Japan"=>1, "Brazil"=>5, "United Kingdom"=>2, "Chile"=>2, "France"=>1, "Portugal"=>3, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>17}

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1346051"], "description"=>"<p>Values are means (SD). Intention to treat population N = 49; WALK n = 17, AIT n = 16, MVIT n = 16. Per-protocol population N = 32; WALK n = 14, AIT n = 9, MVIT n = 9.</p><p><sup>a</sup> An increase in SF36 score indicates improved quality of life.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Respiratory system", "Respiratory physiology", "Musculoskeletal system", "Clinical research design", "clinical trials", "Endocrinology", "Diabetic endocrinology", "Diabetes mellitus type 2", "Non-clinical medicine", "Health care policy", "Quality of life", "nutrition", "obesity", "Public health", "Behavioral and social aspects of health", "Sports and exercise medicine", "outcomes", "12"], "article_id"=>900026, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Helen Lunt", "Nick Draper", "Helen C. Marshall", "Florence J. Logan", "Michael J. Hamlin", "Jeremy P. Shearman", "James D. Cotter", "Nicholas E. Kimber", "Gavin Blackwell", "Christopher M. A. Frampton"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0083256.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Primary_and_secondary_outcomes_and_other_relevant_parameters_before_and_after_the_12_week_exercise_program_for_the_entire_cohort_/900026", "title"=>"Primary and secondary outcomes and other relevant parameters before and after the 12 week exercise program for the entire cohort.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-01-13 02:51:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1346045"], "description"=>"<p>Intention-to-treat analysis thus data on exercise time includes data from ‘non-adheres’, unable or unwilling to complete the exercise prescription. Data are means and standard errors estimated from the general linear model.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Respiratory system", "Respiratory physiology", "Musculoskeletal system", "Clinical research design", "clinical trials", "Endocrinology", "Diabetic endocrinology", "Diabetes mellitus type 2", "Non-clinical medicine", "Health care policy", "Quality of life", "nutrition", "obesity", "Public health", "Behavioral and social aspects of health", "Sports and exercise medicine", "max"], "article_id"=>900020, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Helen Lunt", "Nick Draper", "Helen C. Marshall", "Florence J. Logan", "Michael J. Hamlin", "Jeremy P. Shearman", "James D. Cotter", "Nicholas E. Kimber", "Gavin Blackwell", "Christopher M. A. Frampton"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0083256.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Changes_in_V0_2_max_and_time_per_week_exercising_by_treatment_group_/900020", "title"=>"Changes in V0<sub>2</sub> max and time per week exercising, by treatment group.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-01-13 02:51:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1346053", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1346054", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1346055", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1346056"], "description"=>"<div><p>Background</p><p>In research clinic settings, overweight adults undertaking HIIT (high intensity interval training) improve their fitness as effectively as those undertaking conventional walking programs but can do so within a shorter time spent exercising. We undertook a randomized controlled feasibility (pilot) study aimed at extending HIIT into a real world setting by recruiting overweight/obese, inactive adults into a group based activity program, held in a community park.</p><p>Methods</p><p>Participants were allocated into one of three groups. The two interventions, aerobic interval training and maximal volitional interval training, were compared with an active control group undertaking walking based exercise. Supervised group sessions (36 per intervention) were held outdoors. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured using VO<sub>2</sub>max (maximal oxygen uptake, results expressed in ml/min/kg), before and after the 12 week interventions.</p><p>Results</p><p>On ITT (intention to treat) analyses, baseline (N = 49) and exit (N = 39) O<sub>2</sub> was 25.3±4.5 and 25.3±3.9, respectively. Participant allocation and baseline/exit VO<sub>2</sub>max by group was as follows: Aerobic interval training N =  16, 24.2±4.8/25.6±4.8; maximal volitional interval training N = 16, 25.0±2.8/25.2±3.4; walking N = 17, 26.5±5.3/25.2±3.6. The post intervention change in VO<sub>2</sub>max was +1.01 in the aerobic interval training, −0.06 in the maximal volitional interval training and −1.03 in the walking subgroups. The aerobic interval training subgroup increased VO<sub>2</sub>max compared to walking (p = 0.03). The actual (observed, rather than prescribed) time spent exercising (minutes per week, ITT analysis) was 74 for aerobic interval training, 45 for maximal volitional interval training and 116 for walking (p =  0.001). On descriptive analysis, the walking subgroup had the fewest adverse events.</p><p>Conclusions</p><p>In contrast to earlier studies, the improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness in a cohort of overweight/obese participants undertaking aerobic interval training in a real world setting was modest. The most likely reason for this finding relates to reduced adherence to the exercise program, when moving beyond the research clinic setting.</p><p>Trial Registration</p><p>ACTR.org.au <a href=\"http://www.anzctr.org.au/trialview.aspx?ID=335354\" target=\"_blank\">ACTRN12610000295044</a></p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Respiratory system", "Respiratory physiology", "Musculoskeletal system", "Clinical research design", "clinical trials", "Endocrinology", "Diabetic endocrinology", "Diabetes mellitus type 2", "Non-clinical medicine", "Health care policy", "Quality of life", "nutrition", "obesity", "Public health", "Behavioral and social aspects of health", "Sports and exercise medicine", "randomized", "controlled", "feasibility", "overweight", "inactive", "measuring", "maximal"], "article_id"=>900028, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Helen Lunt", "Nick Draper", "Helen C. Marshall", "Florence J. Logan", "Michael J. Hamlin", "Jeremy P. Shearman", "James D. Cotter", "Nicholas E. Kimber", "Gavin Blackwell", "Christopher M. A. Frampton"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0083256.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0083256.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0083256.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0083256.s004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>20, "page_views"=>20, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_High_Intensity_Interval_Training_in_a_Real_World_Setting_A_Randomized_Controlled_Feasibility_Study_in_Overweight_Inactive_Adults_Measuring_Change_in_Maximal_Oxygen_Uptake_/900028", "title"=>"High Intensity Interval Training in a Real World Setting: A Randomized Controlled Feasibility Study in Overweight Inactive Adults, Measuring Change in Maximal Oxygen Uptake", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2014-01-13 02:51:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1346050"], "description"=>"<p><sup>a</sup> WALK  =  Low intensity walking, AIT  =  Aerobic interval training, MVIT  =  Maximal volitional intensity training.</p><p><sup>b</sup> ITT (intention to treat) includes all 49 randomized participants, PP (per protocol) includes the 32 participants who completed >70% of their exercise prescription (see text for more detail).</p><p><sup>c</sup> A positive response indicates possible health problems, with the recommendation that a medical screen is undertaken prior to increased physical activity.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Respiratory system", "Respiratory physiology", "Musculoskeletal system", "Clinical research design", "clinical trials", "Endocrinology", "Diabetic endocrinology", "Diabetes mellitus type 2", "Non-clinical medicine", "Health care policy", "Quality of life", "nutrition", "obesity", "Public health", "Behavioral and social aspects of health", "Sports and exercise medicine", "cohort", "subgroup", "completing"], "article_id"=>900025, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Helen Lunt", "Nick Draper", "Helen C. Marshall", "Florence J. Logan", "Michael J. Hamlin", "Jeremy P. Shearman", "James D. Cotter", "Nicholas E. Kimber", "Gavin Blackwell", "Christopher M. A. Frampton"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0083256.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Baseline_characteristics_for_the_entire_cohort_and_the_subgroup_completing_the_exercise_protocol_/900025", "title"=>"Baseline characteristics for the entire cohort and the subgroup completing the exercise protocol.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-01-13 02:51:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1346048"], "description"=>"<p>Values are means (SD).</p><p><sup>a</sup> Per-protocol population WALK n = 14, AIT n = 9, MVIT n = 9.</p><p><sup>b</sup> Intention to treat population WALK n = 17, AIT n = 16, MVIT n = 16.</p><p><sup>c</sup> An increase in SF36 score indicates improved quality of life.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Respiratory system", "Respiratory physiology", "Musculoskeletal system", "Clinical research design", "clinical trials", "Endocrinology", "Diabetic endocrinology", "Diabetes mellitus type 2", "Non-clinical medicine", "Health care policy", "Quality of life", "nutrition", "obesity", "Public health", "Behavioral and social aspects of health", "Sports and exercise medicine", "outcomes", "12"], "article_id"=>900023, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Helen Lunt", "Nick Draper", "Helen C. Marshall", "Florence J. Logan", "Michael J. Hamlin", "Jeremy P. Shearman", "James D. Cotter", "Nicholas E. Kimber", "Gavin Blackwell", "Christopher M. A. Frampton"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0083256.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Primary_and_secondary_outcomes_and_other_relevant_parameters_before_and_after_the_12_week_exercise_program_by_group_/900023", "title"=>"Primary and secondary outcomes and other relevant parameters before and after the 12 week exercise program, by group.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-01-13 02:51:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1346049"], "description"=>"<p>Values are means (SD).</p><p><sup>a</sup> WALK  =  low intensity walking, AIT  =  aerobic interval training, MVIT  =  maximal volitional intensity training.</p><p><sup>b</sup> Per protocol population WALK n = 14, AIT n = 9, MVIT n = 9.</p><p><sup>c</sup> Intention to treat population WALK n = 17, AIT n = 16, MVIT n = 16.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Respiratory system", "Respiratory physiology", "Musculoskeletal system", "Clinical research design", "clinical trials", "Endocrinology", "Diabetic endocrinology", "Diabetes mellitus type 2", "Non-clinical medicine", "Health care policy", "Quality of life", "nutrition", "obesity", "Public health", "Behavioral and social aspects of health", "Sports and exercise medicine", "minus", "measures", "maximal", "volitional"], "article_id"=>900024, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Helen Lunt", "Nick Draper", "Helen C. Marshall", "Florence J. Logan", "Michael J. Hamlin", "Jeremy P. Shearman", "James D. Cotter", "Nicholas E. Kimber", "Gavin Blackwell", "Christopher M. A. Frampton"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0083256.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Changes_post_minus_pre_in_primary_and_secondary_outcome_measures_and_comparison_between_low_intensity_exercise_and_high_intensity_interval_and_maximal_volitional_intensity_training_/900024", "title"=>"Changes (post minus pre) in primary and secondary outcome measures and comparison between low intensity exercise and high intensity interval and maximal volitional intensity training.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-01-13 02:51:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1346047"], "description"=>"<p><sup>a</sup> Includes the 10 minute warm up and 5 minute cool down undertaken by all three groups, but excludes time spent exercising outside scheduled exercise groups.</p><p><sup>b</sup> MVIT participants progressively increased repetitions during the 12 weeks of training. This value is therefore an estimate only.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Respiratory system", "Respiratory physiology", "Musculoskeletal system", "Clinical research design", "clinical trials", "Endocrinology", "Diabetic endocrinology", "Diabetes mellitus type 2", "Non-clinical medicine", "Health care policy", "Quality of life", "nutrition", "obesity", "Public health", "Behavioral and social aspects of health", "Sports and exercise medicine", "sessions", "spent", "exercising", "12", "randomized"], "article_id"=>900022, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Helen Lunt", "Nick Draper", "Helen C. Marshall", "Florence J. Logan", "Michael J. Hamlin", "Jeremy P. Shearman", "James D. Cotter", "Nicholas E. Kimber", "Gavin Blackwell", "Christopher M. A. Frampton"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0083256.t006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Attendance_at_exercise_sessions_and_time_spent_exercising_over_12_weeks_for_all_randomized_participants_n_8202_8202_49_/900022", "title"=>"Attendance at exercise sessions and time spent exercising over 12 weeks, for all randomized participants (n = 49).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-01-13 02:51:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1346044"], "description"=>"<p><sup>§</sup> Number of repetitions in MVIT group increased over twelve weeks, as participant's fitness levels improved. WALK  =  walking, AIT  =  aerobic interval training, MVIT  =  maximal volitional intensity training.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Respiratory system", "Respiratory physiology", "Musculoskeletal system", "Clinical research design", "clinical trials", "Endocrinology", "Diabetic endocrinology", "Diabetes mellitus type 2", "Non-clinical medicine", "Health care policy", "Quality of life", "nutrition", "obesity", "Public health", "Behavioral and social aspects of health", "Sports and exercise medicine", "prescriptions", "allocated"], "article_id"=>900019, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Helen Lunt", "Nick Draper", "Helen C. Marshall", "Florence J. Logan", "Michael J. Hamlin", "Jeremy P. Shearman", "James D. Cotter", "Nicholas E. Kimber", "Gavin Blackwell", "Christopher M. A. Frampton"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0083256.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Schematic_representation_of_the_three_exercise_prescriptions_allocated_1_1_8758_1_at_randomisation_/900019", "title"=>"Schematic representation of the three exercise prescriptions allocated 1:1∶1 at randomisation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-01-13 02:51:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1346041"], "description"=>"<p><sup>a</sup> WALK  =  walking to 65–75% of heart rate max, AIT  =  aerobic interval training to a 85–95% of heart rate max MVIT  =  Maximal volitional intensity training (‘all out’ exercise). <sup>b</sup> Participant unable to undertake exit VO<sub>2</sub>max because of injury unrelated to the study. <sup>c</sup> Four participants did not undertake exit VO<sub>2</sub>max: Exercise related injury n = 1, chest infection n = 2, participant exited early as dissatisfied with exercise program n = 1.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Respiratory system", "Respiratory physiology", "Musculoskeletal system", "Clinical research design", "clinical trials", "Endocrinology", "Diabetic endocrinology", "Diabetes mellitus type 2", "Non-clinical medicine", "Health care policy", "Quality of life", "nutrition", "obesity", "Public health", "Behavioral and social aspects of health", "Sports and exercise medicine"], "article_id"=>900018, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Helen Lunt", "Nick Draper", "Helen C. Marshall", "Florence J. Logan", "Michael J. Hamlin", "Jeremy P. Shearman", "James D. Cotter", "Nicholas E. Kimber", "Gavin Blackwell", "Christopher M. A. Frampton"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0083256.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Flow_of_participants_through_each_stage_of_the_trial_/900018", "title"=>"Flow of participants through each stage of the trial.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-01-13 02:51:20"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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