Increased Incidence of Tuberculosis in Zimbabwe, in Association with Food Insecurity, and Economic Collapse: An Ecological Analysis
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{"title"=>"Increased incidence of tuberculosis in Zimbabwe, in association with food insecurity, and economic collapse: An ecological analysis", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Stephen J.", "last_name"=>"Burke", "scopus_author_id"=>"56058010300"}, {"first_name"=>"Elliot", "last_name"=>"Lass", "scopus_author_id"=>"57142298700"}, {"first_name"=>"Paul", "last_name"=>"Thistle", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603959344"}, {"first_name"=>"Lovemore", "last_name"=>"Katumbe", "scopus_author_id"=>"56058309700"}, {"first_name"=>"Arif", "last_name"=>"Jetha", "scopus_author_id"=>"36059284400"}, {"first_name"=>"Dan", "last_name"=>"Schwarz", "scopus_author_id"=>"35270085900"}, {"first_name"=>"Shelly", "last_name"=>"Bolotin", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003486724"}, {"first_name"=>"R. D.", "last_name"=>"Barker", "scopus_author_id"=>"15041659700"}, {"first_name"=>"Andrew", "last_name"=>"Simor", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102427049"}, {"first_name"=>"Michael", "last_name"=>"Silverman", "scopus_author_id"=>"16488848700"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic) 1932-6203 (Linking)", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84895546486", "pui"=>"372535247", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0083387", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"24505245", "sgr"=>"84895546486"}, "id"=>"b2b3ef55-750c-30a2-a775-13c76348510f", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Zimbabwe underwent a socioeconomic crisis and resultant increase in food insecurity in 2008-9. The impact of the crisis on Tuberculosis (TB) incidence is unknown.\\n\\nMETHODS: Prospective databases from two mission hospitals, which were geographically widely separated, and remained open during the crisis, were reviewed.\\n\\nRESULTS: At the Howard Hospital (HH) in northern Zimbabwe, TB incidence increased 35% in 2008 from baseline rates in 2003-2007 (p<0.01) and remained at that level in 2009. Murambinda Hospital (MH) in Eastern Zimbabwe also demonstrated a 29% rise in TB incidence from 2007 to 2008 (p<0.01) and remained at that level in 2009. Data collected post-crisis at HH showed a decrease of 33% in TB incidence between 2009 to 2010 (p<0.001) and 2010/2011 TB incidence remained below that of the crisis years of 2008/2009 (p<0.01). Antenatal clinic HIV seroprevalence at HH decreased between 2001(23%) to 2011(11%) (p<0.001). Seasonality of TB incidence was analyzed at both MH and HH. There was a higher TB incidence in the dry season when food is least available (September-November) compared to post harvest (April-June) (p<0.001).\\n\\nCONCLUSION: This study suggests that an epidemic of TB mirrored socioeconomic collapse and recovery in Zimbabwe. The seasonal data suggests that food security may have been associated with TB incidence both annually and during the crisis in this high HIV prevalence country.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/increased-incidence-tuberculosis-zimbabwe-association-food-insecurity-economic-collapse-ecological-a", "reader_count"=>35, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Researcher"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>5, "Student > Master"=>11, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Researcher"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>5, "Student > Master"=>11, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Environmental Science"=>2, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>3, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>12, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>5, "Psychology"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>6, "Computer Science"=>1, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>12}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>6}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>5}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>3}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>1, "Brazil"=>1, "Italy"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Australia"=>1, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

Scopus | Further Information

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1376784"], "description"=>"<p><i>Note</i>, + denotes missing data.</p>*<p>Data from January 1–May 31, 2009 estimate at annualized rate (×12/5).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["epidemiology", "Conflict epidemiology", "Economic epidemiology", "Environmental epidemiology", "Infectious disease epidemiology", "Social epidemiology", "Global health", "Infectious diseases", "Tropical diseases (non-neglected)", "tuberculosis", "Infectious disease control", "Sexually transmitted diseases", "nutrition", "malnutrition", "Public health", "Socioeconomic aspects of health", "Pulmonology", "Respiratory infections", "patients", "presenting", "nutritional", "deficiencies", "diarrhea", "howard"], "article_id"=>926605, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Stephen J. Burke", "Elliot Lass", "Paul Thistle", "Lovemore Katumbe", "Arif Jetha", "Dan Schwarz", "Shelly Bolotin", "R. D. Barker", "Andrew Simor", "Michael Silverman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0083387.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Annual_number_of_patients_presenting_with_nutritional_deficiencies_or_diarrhea_at_Howard_Hospital_/926605", "title"=>"Annual number of patients presenting with nutritional deficiencies or diarrhea at Howard Hospital.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-02-05 02:47:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1376783"], "description"=>"<p>Data sources: GDP per capita (In US dollars) <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0083387#pone.0083387-The1\" target=\"_blank\">[11]</a>, Zimbabwe Population <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0083387#pone.0083387-Meldrum1\" target=\"_blank\">[20]</a>, Rural Population (Rural % of population) <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0083387#pone.0083387-Meldrum1\" target=\"_blank\">[20]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["epidemiology", "Conflict epidemiology", "Economic epidemiology", "Environmental epidemiology", "Infectious disease epidemiology", "Social epidemiology", "Global health", "Infectious diseases", "Tropical diseases (non-neglected)", "tuberculosis", "Infectious disease control", "Sexually transmitted diseases", "nutrition", "malnutrition", "Public health", "Socioeconomic aspects of health", "Pulmonology", "Respiratory infections", "gdp"], "article_id"=>926604, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Stephen J. Burke", "Elliot Lass", "Paul Thistle", "Lovemore Katumbe", "Arif Jetha", "Dan Schwarz", "Shelly Bolotin", "R. D. Barker", "Andrew Simor", "Michael Silverman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0083387.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Zimbabwe_Population_Rural_Population_Urban_percentage_of_population_and_GDP_per_capita_/926604", "title"=>"Zimbabwe Population, Rural Population, Urban percentage of population, and GDP per capita.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-02-05 02:47:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1376786"], "description"=>"<p>Sources: national case notifications/100,000 <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0083387#pone.0083387-World2\" target=\"_blank\">[9]</a> estimated national case detection rate <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0083387#pone.0083387-World2\" target=\"_blank\">[9]</a>, Howard Hospital HIV sero-prevalence in the Antenatal Clinic from 2000–2011 and National HIV Prevalence <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0083387#pone.0083387-The1\" target=\"_blank\">[11]</a>. All incomplete data is given the symbol +.</p>*<p>Data missing from end of 2010 and beginning of 2011. Data during these two years were therefore combined and averaged.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["epidemiology", "Conflict epidemiology", "Economic epidemiology", "Environmental epidemiology", "Infectious disease epidemiology", "Social epidemiology", "Global health", "Infectious diseases", "Tropical diseases (non-neglected)", "tuberculosis", "Infectious disease control", "Sexually transmitted diseases", "nutrition", "malnutrition", "Public health", "Socioeconomic aspects of health", "Pulmonology", "Respiratory infections", "cases", "tb", "hh", "mh", "incidence"], "article_id"=>926607, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Stephen J. Burke", "Elliot Lass", "Paul Thistle", "Lovemore Katumbe", "Arif Jetha", "Dan Schwarz", "Shelly Bolotin", "R. D. Barker", "Andrew Simor", "Michael Silverman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0083387.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_TB_cases_and_TB_cases_100_000_HH_1995_8211_2012_MH_2005_8211_2009_estimated_national_TB_incidence_reported_to_the_WHO_1997_8211_2011_/926607", "title"=>"TB cases and TB cases/100,000 HH (1995–2012), MH (2005–2009), estimated national TB incidence reported to the WHO (1997–2011).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-02-05 02:47:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1376785"], "description"=>"<p><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0083387#pone.0083387-World2\" target=\"_blank\">[9]</a> Estimated National HIV seroprevalence in TB Patients. + Data unavailable.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["epidemiology", "Conflict epidemiology", "Economic epidemiology", "Environmental epidemiology", "Infectious disease epidemiology", "Social epidemiology", "Global health", "Infectious diseases", "Tropical diseases (non-neglected)", "tuberculosis", "Infectious disease control", "Sexually transmitted diseases", "nutrition", "malnutrition", "Public health", "Socioeconomic aspects of health", "Pulmonology", "Respiratory infections", "seroprevalence", "tb", "patients", "howard", "murabinda"], "article_id"=>926606, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Stephen J. Burke", "Elliot Lass", "Paul Thistle", "Lovemore Katumbe", "Arif Jetha", "Dan Schwarz", "Shelly Bolotin", "R. D. Barker", "Andrew Simor", "Michael Silverman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0083387.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_HIV_seroprevalence_in_TB_patients_at_Howard_Hospital_HH_2008_8211_2011_and_Murabinda_Hospital_MH_2008_and_nationally_/926606", "title"=>"HIV seroprevalence in TB patients at Howard Hospital (HH) (2008–2011) and Murabinda Hospital (MH) (2008) and nationally.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-02-05 02:47:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1376782"], "description"=>"<p>Consistent with the belief that food insecurity contributed to rise in TB, the figure shows an increase in food insecurity during the crisis and then a fall afterwards in urban environments. This parallels the rise in TB incidence during the crisis and the decrease seen after. Rural food insecurity was also seen falling after the crisis. Data for rural food insecurity during the crisis was not available. Source Urban and Rural food insecurity: Famine Early Warning Network <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0083387#pone.0083387-Zimbabwe1\" target=\"_blank\">[12]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["epidemiology", "Conflict epidemiology", "Economic epidemiology", "Environmental epidemiology", "Infectious disease epidemiology", "Social epidemiology", "Global health", "Infectious diseases", "Tropical diseases (non-neglected)", "tuberculosis", "Infectious disease control", "Sexually transmitted diseases", "nutrition", "malnutrition", "Public health", "Socioeconomic aspects of health", "Pulmonology", "Respiratory infections", "incidence", "hh", "mh"], "article_id"=>926603, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Stephen J. Burke", "Elliot Lass", "Paul Thistle", "Lovemore Katumbe", "Arif Jetha", "Dan Schwarz", "Shelly Bolotin", "R. D. Barker", "Andrew Simor", "Michael Silverman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0083387.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_TB_incidence_at_HH_and_MH_versus_rural_and_urban_food_insecurity_/926603", "title"=>"TB incidence at HH and MH versus rural and urban food insecurity.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-02-05 02:47:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1376781"], "description"=>"<p>GDP per capita is used to measure the average economic wellbeing of the Zimbabwean population. Source GDP per capita (In US dollars): World Bank <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0083387#pone.0083387-The1\" target=\"_blank\">[11]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["epidemiology", "Conflict epidemiology", "Economic epidemiology", "Environmental epidemiology", "Infectious disease epidemiology", "Social epidemiology", "Global health", "Infectious diseases", "Tropical diseases (non-neglected)", "tuberculosis", "Infectious disease control", "Sexually transmitted diseases", "nutrition", "malnutrition", "Public health", "Socioeconomic aspects of health", "Pulmonology", "Respiratory infections", "incidence", "hh", "mh", "gdp", "capita"], "article_id"=>926602, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Stephen J. Burke", "Elliot Lass", "Paul Thistle", "Lovemore Katumbe", "Arif Jetha", "Dan Schwarz", "Shelly Bolotin", "R. D. Barker", "Andrew Simor", "Michael Silverman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0083387.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_TB_incidence_at_HH_and_MH_versus_GDP_per_capita_in_US_dollars_/926602", "title"=>"TB incidence at HH and MH versus GDP per capita in US dollars.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-02-05 02:47:07"}

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Relative Metric

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