Spatial Analysis of Factors Influencing Long-Term Stress in the Grizzly Bear (Ursus arctos) Population of Alberta, Canada
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{"title"=>"Spatial analysis of factors influencing long-term stress in the grizzly bear (ursus arctos) population of alberta, canada", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Mathieu L.", "last_name"=>"Bourbonnais", "scopus_author_id"=>"55945356000"}, {"first_name"=>"Trisalyn A.", "last_name"=>"Nelson", "scopus_author_id"=>"7401431323"}, {"first_name"=>"Marc R L", "last_name"=>"Cattet", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701349250"}, {"first_name"=>"Chris T.", "last_name"=>"Darimont", "scopus_author_id"=>"36832400400"}, {"first_name"=>"Gordon B.", "last_name"=>"Stenhouse", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701835524"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84893542751", "pui"=>"372309759", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0083768", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\n1932-6203 (Linking)", "sgr"=>"84893542751", "pmid"=>"24386273"}, "id"=>"25019675-08cb-3d7b-8209-fa01fca17d21", "abstract"=>"Non-invasive measures for assessing long-term stress in free ranging mammals are an increasingly important approach for understanding physiological responses to landscape conditions. Using a spatially and temporally expansive dataset of hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) generated from a threatened grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) population in Alberta, Canada, we quantified how variables representing habitat conditions and anthropogenic disturbance impact long-term stress in grizzly bears. We characterized spatial variability in male and female HCC point data using kernel density estimation and quantified variable influence on spatial patterns of male and female HCC stress surfaces using random forests. Separate models were developed for regions inside and outside of parks and protected areas to account for substantial differences in anthropogenic activity and disturbance within the study area. Variance explained in the random forest models ranged from 55.34% to 74.96% for males and 58.15% to 68.46% for females. Predicted HCC levels were higher for females compared to males. Generally, high spatially continuous female HCC levels were associated with parks and protected areas while low-to-moderate levels were associated with increased anthropogenic disturbance. In contrast, male HCC levels were low in parks and protected areas and low-to-moderate in areas with increased anthropogenic disturbance. Spatial variability in gender-specific HCC levels reveal that the type and intensity of external stressors are not uniform across the landscape and that male and female grizzly bears may be exposed to, or perceive, potential stressors differently. We suggest observed spatial patterns of long-term stress may be the result of the availability and distribution of foods related to disturbance features, potential sexual segregation in available habitat selection, and may not be influenced by sources of mortality which represent acute traumas. In this wildlife system and others, conservation and management efforts can benefit by understanding spatial- and gender-based stress responses to landscape conditions.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/spatial-analysis-factors-influencing-longterm-stress-grizzly-bear-ursus-arctos-population-alberta-ca-2", "reader_count"=>60, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>10, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>19, "Student > Master"=>14, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>8, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>10, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>19, "Student > Master"=>14, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>8, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Environmental Science"=>15, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>32, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>2, "Design"=>1, "Psychology"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>3, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Design"=>{"Design"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>3}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>3}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>32}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>3}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>15}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>2, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>4}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1330356"], "description"=>"<p>HCC kernel density estimation validation results by bear management unit (BMU).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Conservation science", "Physiological ecology", "Spatial and landscape ecology", "Environmental sciences", "Environmental geography", "geography", "Cartography", "gis", "Animal types", "Large animals", "wildlife", "kernel", "estimation", "validation"], "article_id"=>887913, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine", "Sociology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Mathieu L. Bourbonnais", "Trisalyn A. Nelson", "Marc R. L. Cattet", "Chris T. Darimont", "Gordon B. Stenhouse"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0083768.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_HCC_kernel_density_estimation_validation_results_by_bear_management_unit_BMU_/887913", "title"=>"HCC kernel density estimation validation results by bear management unit (BMU).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-12-27 03:18:09"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1330354"], "description"=>"<p>Percent spatial coverage of predicted HCC values associated with (A – males; C – females) parks and protected areas, core conservation areas, and secondary conservation areas, as well as (B – males, D – females) secure, sink, and non-critical habitat states.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Conservation science", "Physiological ecology", "Spatial and landscape ecology", "Environmental sciences", "Environmental geography", "geography", "Cartography", "gis", "Animal types", "Large animals", "wildlife", "distributions", "hcc", "units"], "article_id"=>887911, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine", "Sociology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Mathieu L. Bourbonnais", "Trisalyn A. Nelson", "Marc R. L. Cattet", "Chris T. Darimont", "Gordon B. Stenhouse"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0083768.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Frequency_distributions_of_predicted_HCC_values_associated_with_conservation_management_units_and_habitat_states_/887911", "title"=>"Frequency distributions of predicted HCC values associated with conservation management units and habitat states.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-12-27 03:18:09"}
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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1330344"], "description"=>"<p>Grizzly bear hair samples were collected in each bear management unit during a single summer (Yellowhead – 2004; Clearwater – 2005; Livingstone – 2006; Castle – 2007; Grande Cache – 2008).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Conservation science", "Physiological ecology", "Spatial and landscape ecology", "Environmental sciences", "Environmental geography", "geography", "Cartography", "gis", "Animal types", "Large animals", "wildlife"], "article_id"=>887901, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine", "Sociology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Mathieu L. Bourbonnais", "Trisalyn A. Nelson", "Marc R. L. Cattet", "Chris T. Darimont", "Gordon B. Stenhouse"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0083768.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Study_area_location_in_Alberta_Canada_/887901", "title"=>"Study area location in Alberta, Canada.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-12-27 03:18:09"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1330358"], "description"=>"<p>Percent area of the bear management units (BMU) and study area classified as low, moderate, and high HCC based on the geographic distribution of predicted male and female HCC values.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Conservation science", "Physiological ecology", "Spatial and landscape ecology", "Environmental sciences", "Environmental geography", "geography", "Cartography", "gis", "Animal types", "Large animals", "wildlife", "units", "classified", "hcc", "geographic"], "article_id"=>887915, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine", "Sociology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Mathieu L. Bourbonnais", "Trisalyn A. Nelson", "Marc R. L. Cattet", "Chris T. Darimont", "Gordon B. Stenhouse"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0083768.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Percent_area_of_the_bear_management_units_BMU_and_study_area_classified_as_low_moderate_and_high_HCC_based_on_the_geographic_distribution_of_predicted_male_and_female_HCC_values_/887915", "title"=>"Percent area of the bear management units (BMU) and study area classified as low, moderate, and high HCC based on the geographic distribution of predicted male and female HCC values.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-12-27 03:18:09"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1330357"], "description"=>"<p>Mean values of the 10 most influential variables in the total random models associated with lower, mid, and upper quartiles of the predicted HCC levels in male and female grizzly bears.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Conservation science", "Physiological ecology", "Spatial and landscape ecology", "Environmental sciences", "Environmental geography", "geography", "Cartography", "gis", "Animal types", "Large animals", "wildlife", "10", "variables", "quartiles", "hcc", "grizzly"], "article_id"=>887914, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine", "Sociology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Mathieu L. Bourbonnais", "Trisalyn A. Nelson", "Marc R. L. Cattet", "Chris T. Darimont", "Gordon B. Stenhouse"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0083768.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_values_of_the_10_most_influential_variables_in_the_total_random_models_associated_with_lower_mid_and_upper_quartiles_of_the_predicted_HCC_levels_in_male_and_female_grizzly_bears_/887914", "title"=>"Mean values of the 10 most influential variables in the total random models associated with lower, mid, and upper quartiles of the predicted HCC levels in male and female grizzly bears.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-12-27 03:18:09"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1330352"], "description"=>"<p>Predicted HCC values for (A) male and (B) female grizzly bears. Parks and protected areas are shown in red. Regions of non-habitat (e.g., rock and ice) are shown in grey.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Conservation science", "Physiological ecology", "Spatial and landscape ecology", "Environmental sciences", "Environmental geography", "geography", "Cartography", "gis", "Animal types", "Large animals", "wildlife", "hcc", "gender-specific"], "article_id"=>887909, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine", "Sociology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Mathieu L. Bourbonnais", "Trisalyn A. Nelson", "Marc R. L. Cattet", "Chris T. Darimont", "Gordon B. Stenhouse"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0083768.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Geographic_distribution_of_the_predicted_HCC_levels_from_gender_specific_total_random_forest_models_/887909", "title"=>"Geographic distribution of the predicted HCC levels from gender-specific total random forest models.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-12-27 03:18:09"}
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