Failure of Sterne- and Pasteur-Like Strains of Bacillus anthracis to Replicate and Survive in the Urban Bluebottle Blow Fly Calliphora vicina under Laboratory Conditions
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{"title"=>"Failure of sterne- and pasteur-like strains of Bacillus anthracis to replicate and survive in the Urban bluebottle blow fly Calliphora vicina under laboratory conditions", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Britta", "last_name"=>"Von Terzi", "scopus_author_id"=>"56057262000"}, {"first_name"=>"Peter C B", "last_name"=>"Turnbull", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005278231"}, {"first_name"=>"Steve E.", "last_name"=>"Bellan", "scopus_author_id"=>"36459684100"}, {"first_name"=>"Wolfgang", "last_name"=>"Beyer", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102979416"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "pui"=>"372520321", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"24392098", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0083860", "sgr"=>"84895464175", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84895464175"}, "id"=>"90ba84c2-e580-3375-91b2-bd583f407222", "abstract"=>"This study aimed to elucidate the bacteriological events occurring within the gut of Calliphora vicina, selected as the European representative of blow flies held responsible for the spread of anthrax during epidemics in certain parts of the world. Green-fluorescent-protein-carrying derivatives of Bacillus anthracis were used. These lacked either one of the virulence plasmids pXO1 and pXO2 and were infected, or not infected, with a worm intestine phage (Wip4) known to influence the phenotype and survival of the pathogen. Blood meals were prepared for the flies by inoculation of sheep blood with germinated and, in case of pXO2+ strains, encapsulated cells of the four B. anthracis strains. After being fed for 4 h an initial 10 flies were externally disinfected with peracetic acid to ensure subsequent quantitation representing ingested B. anthracis only. Following neutralization, they were crushed in sterile saline. Over each of the ensuing 7 to 10 days, 10 flies were removed and processed the same way. In the absence of Wip4, strains showed steady declines to undetectable in the total B. anthracis counts, within 7-9 days. With the phage infected strains, the falls in viable counts were significantly more rapid than in their uninfected counterparts. Spores were detectable in flies for longer periods than vegetative bacteria. In line with the findings in both biting and non-biting flies of early workers our results indicate that B. anthracis does not multiply in the guts of blow flies and survival is limited to a matter of days.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/failure-sterne-pasteurlike-strains-bacillus-anthracis-replicate-survive-urban-bluebottle-blow-fly-ca", "reader_count"=>10, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Researcher"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>4, "Student > Master"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Researcher"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>4, "Student > Master"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>5, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>5}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}}, "group_count"=>1}

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1336814"], "description"=>"<p>Feeding flies with the infected blood.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "microbiology", "bacteriology", "Bacterial physiology", "Applied microbiology", "Bacterial pathogens", "microbial ecology", "Vector biology", "Population biology", "epidemiology", "Infectious disease epidemiology", "Infectious diseases", "Bacterial diseases", "anthrax", "Vectors and hosts", "Veterinary diseases", "Zoonotic diseases", "flies", "infected"], "article_id"=>892710, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Britta von Terzi", "Peter C. B. Turnbull", "Steve E. Bellan", "Wolfgang Beyer"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0083860.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Feeding_flies_with_the_infected_blood_/892710", "title"=>"Feeding flies with the infected blood.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-01-02 03:08:15"}
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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1336817"], "description"=>"<p>M: Magnification, 60× or 100× oil immersion objectives. Arrows indicate spores.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "microbiology", "bacteriology", "Bacterial physiology", "Applied microbiology", "Bacterial pathogens", "microbial ecology", "Vector biology", "Population biology", "epidemiology", "Infectious disease epidemiology", "Infectious diseases", "Bacterial diseases", "anthrax", "Vectors and hosts", "Veterinary diseases", "Zoonotic diseases", "days", "1after"], "article_id"=>892713, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Britta von Terzi", "Peter C. B. Turnbull", "Steve E. Bellan", "Wolfgang Beyer"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0083860.g004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Crop_content_of_one_fly_each_at_days_0_and_1after_infection_/892713", "title"=>"Crop content of one fly each at days 0 and 1after infection.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-01-02 03:08:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1336818"], "description"=>"<p>Total viable (pre-heating) and spore (post 65°C for 30 min) counts in the blood meal.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "microbiology", "bacteriology", "Bacterial physiology", "Applied microbiology", "Bacterial pathogens", "microbial ecology", "Vector biology", "Population biology", "epidemiology", "Infectious disease epidemiology", "Infectious diseases", "Bacterial diseases", "anthrax", "Vectors and hosts", "Veterinary diseases", "Zoonotic diseases", "viable", "spore", "30", "counts"], "article_id"=>892714, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Britta von Terzi", "Peter C. B. Turnbull", "Steve E. Bellan", "Wolfgang Beyer"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0083860.t001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Total_viable_pre_heating_and_spore_post_65_176_C_for_30_min_counts_in_the_blood_meal_/892714", "title"=>"Total viable (pre-heating) and spore (post 65°C for 30 min) counts in the blood meal.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-01-02 03:08:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1336819"], "description"=>"<p>Generalized estimating equations with an exchangeable correlation structure and quasipoisson log-link were fit to log(counts+1) of spores and cells. The best model amongst the below competing model formulas was chosen using the Quasilikelihood Information Criteria (QIC). In the formulas, ‘*’ indicate an interaction and ‘df’ indicates the numbers of degrees of freedom. Only models with a QIC ≤2 greater than the best model should be considered along with the best model, thus model 1 is the single best fitting model.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "microbiology", "bacteriology", "Bacterial physiology", "Applied microbiology", "Bacterial pathogens", "microbial ecology", "Vector biology", "Population biology", "epidemiology", "Infectious disease epidemiology", "Infectious diseases", "Bacterial diseases", "anthrax", "Vectors and hosts", "Veterinary diseases", "Zoonotic diseases"], "article_id"=>892715, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Britta von Terzi", "Peter C. B. Turnbull", "Steve E. Bellan", "Wolfgang Beyer"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0083860.t002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Model_selection_table_/892715", "title"=>"Model selection table.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-01-02 03:08:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1336820"], "description"=>"<div><p>This study aimed to elucidate the bacteriological events occurring within the gut of <i>Calliphora vicina</i>, selected as the European representative of blow flies held responsible for the spread of anthrax during epidemics in certain parts of the world. Green-fluorescent-protein-carrying derivatives of <i>Bacillus anthracis</i> were used. These lacked either one of the virulence plasmids pXO1 and pXO2 and were infected, or not infected, with a worm intestine phage (Wip4) known to influence the phenotype and survival of the pathogen. Blood meals were prepared for the flies by inoculation of sheep blood with germinated and, in case of pXO2+ strains, encapsulated cells of the four <i>B. anthracis</i> strains. After being fed for 4 h an initial 10 flies were externally disinfected with peracetic acid to ensure subsequent quantitation representing ingested <i>B. anthracis</i> only. Following neutralization, they were crushed in sterile saline. Over each of the ensuing 7 to 10 days, 10 flies were removed and processed the same way. In the absence of Wip4, strains showed steady declines to undetectable in the total <i>B. anthracis</i> counts, within 7–9 days. With the phage infected strains, the falls in viable counts were significantly more rapid than in their uninfected counterparts. Spores were detectable in flies for longer periods than vegetative bacteria. In line with the findings in both biting and non-biting flies of early workers our results indicate that <i>B. anthracis</i> does not multiply in the guts of blow flies and survival is limited to a matter of days.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "microbiology", "bacteriology", "Bacterial physiology", "Applied microbiology", "Bacterial pathogens", "microbial ecology", "Vector biology", "Population biology", "epidemiology", "Infectious disease epidemiology", "Infectious diseases", "Bacterial diseases", "anthrax", "Vectors and hosts", "Veterinary diseases", "Zoonotic diseases", "sterne-", "pasteur-like", "strains", "replicate", "bluebottle"], "article_id"=>892716, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Britta von Terzi", "Peter C. B. Turnbull", "Steve E. Bellan", "Wolfgang Beyer"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0083860"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Failure_of_Sterne_and_Pasteur_Like_Strains_of_Bacillus_anthracis_to_Replicate_and_Survive_in_the_Urban_Bluebottle_Blow_Fly_Calliphora_vicina_under_Laboratory_Conditions/892716", "title"=>"Failure of Sterne- and Pasteur-Like Strains of <i>Bacillus anthracis</i> to Replicate and Survive in the Urban Bluebottle Blow Fly <i>Calliphora vicina</i> under Laboratory Conditions", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-01-02 03:08:15"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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