Real-Time, Transcranial Monitoring of Safe Blood-Brain Barrier Opening in Non-Human Primates
Events
Loading … Spinner

Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Real-time, transcranial monitoring of safe blood-brain barrier opening in non-human primates", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Fabrice", "last_name"=>"Marquet", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603721943"}, {"first_name"=>"Tobias", "last_name"=>"Teichert", "scopus_author_id"=>"16835327800"}, {"first_name"=>"Shih Ying", "last_name"=>"Wu", "scopus_author_id"=>"55577774800"}, {"first_name"=>"Yao Sheng", "last_name"=>"Tung", "scopus_author_id"=>"55575246100"}, {"first_name"=>"Matthew", "last_name"=>"Downs", "scopus_author_id"=>"38561157400"}, {"first_name"=>"Shutao", "last_name"=>"Wang", "scopus_author_id"=>"35747170400"}, {"first_name"=>"Cherry", "last_name"=>"Chen", "scopus_author_id"=>"15752607200"}, {"first_name"=>"Vincent", "last_name"=>"Ferrera", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003268921"}, {"first_name"=>"Elisa E.", "last_name"=>"Konofagou", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005877325"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84895551360", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0084310", "sgr"=>"84895551360", "isbn"=>"9781467345613", "pmid"=>"24505248", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"372535250"}, "id"=>"4e5cd06e-e358-3027-962c-b7c87a452661", "abstract"=>"The delivery of drugs to specific neural targets faces two fundamental problems: (1) most drugs do not cross the blood-brain barrier, and (2) those that do, spread to the entire brain. To date, there exists only one non-invasive methodology with the potential to solve these problems: selective blood-brain barrier (BBB) opening using micro-bubble enhanced focused ultrasound. We have recently developed a single-element 500-kHz spherical transducer ultrasound setup for targeted BBB opening in the non-human primate that does not require simultaneous MRI monitoring. So far, however, the targeting accuracy that can be achieved with this system has not been quantified systematically. In this paper, the accuracy of this system was tested by targeting caudate nucleus and putamen of the basal ganglia in two macaque monkeys. The average lateral targeting error of the system was ∼2.5 mm while the axial targeting error, i.e., along the ultrasound path, was ∼1.5 mm. We have also developed a real-time treatment monitoring technique based on cavitation spectral analysis. This technique also allowed for delineation of a safe and reliable acoustic parameter window for BBB opening. In summary, the targeting accuracy of the system was deemed to be suitable to reliably open the BBB in specific sub-structures of the basal ganglia even in the absence of MRI-based verification of opening volume and position. This establishes the method and the system as a potentially highly useful tool for brain drug delivery.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/realtime-transcranial-monitoring-safe-bloodbrain-barrier-opening-nonhuman-primates", "reader_count"=>65, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>16, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>18, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>9, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>16, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>18, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>9, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>26, "Unspecified"=>9, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>10, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>9, "Neuroscience"=>6, "Physics and Astronomy"=>3, "Chemistry"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>26}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>10}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>6}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>2}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>3}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>9}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>9}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>2, "United States"=>2, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>4}

CrossRef

Scopus | Further Information

{"@_fa"=>"true", "link"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"self", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84895551360"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"author-affiliation", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84895551360?field=author,affiliation"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=84895551360&origin=inward"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus-citedby", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=84895551360&origin=inward"}], "prism:url"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84895551360", "dc:identifier"=>"SCOPUS_ID:84895551360", "eid"=>"2-s2.0-84895551360", "dc:title"=>"Real-time, transcranial monitoring of safe blood-brain barrier opening in non-human primates", "dc:creator"=>"Marquet F.", "prism:publicationName"=>"PLoS ONE", "prism:eIssn"=>"19326203", "prism:volume"=>"9", "prism:issueIdentifier"=>"2", "prism:pageRange"=>nil, "prism:coverDate"=>"2014-02-05", "prism:coverDisplayDate"=>"5 February 2014", "prism:doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0084310", "citedby-count"=>"47", "affiliation"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "affilname"=>"Columbia University in the City of New York", "affiliation-city"=>"New York", "affiliation-country"=>"United States"}], "pubmed-id"=>"24505248", "prism:aggregationType"=>"Journal", "subtype"=>"ar", "subtypeDescription"=>"Article", "article-number"=>"e84310", "source-id"=>"10600153309", "openaccess"=>"1", "openaccessFlag"=>true}

Facebook

  • {"url"=>"http%3A%2F%2Fjournals.plos.org%2Fplosone%2Farticle%3Fid%3D10.1371%252Fjournal.pone.0084310", "share_count"=>0, "like_count"=>0, "comment_count"=>0, "click_count"=>0, "total_count"=>0}

Counter

  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"46", "xml_views"=>"8", "html_views"=>"242"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"65"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"18", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"78"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"72"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"48"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"27"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"26"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"50"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"64"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"35"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"29"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"25"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"13"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"37"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"40"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"43"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"23"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"17"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"15"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"73"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"104"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"95"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"91"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"95"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"0", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"26"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"86"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"29"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"13"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"72"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"21"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"16"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"26"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"29"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"25"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"24"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"18"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"23"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"25"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"36"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"30"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"22"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"17"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"14"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"23"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"32"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"58"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"17"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"23"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"5"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"20"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"19"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"11"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"9"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"5"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"4"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"5"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"14"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"6"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"7"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"8"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"9"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"5"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"7"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"7"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"10"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"6"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"8"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"12"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"8"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"9"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"8"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"14"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"2"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"5"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"6"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"18"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"7"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"11"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"3"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"0", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"3"}

Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1377701"], "description"=>"<p>The area with contrast agent diffusion is overlaid in blue. The BBB is restored between day 2 and 4.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Neurological system", "Central nervous system", "neuroanatomy", "neuroscience", "Bioengineering", "Medical devices", "Diagnostic medicine", "Test evaluation", "Drugs and devices", "neurology", "surgery", "neurosurgery", "Veterinary anatomy and physiology", "Animal neuroanatomy", "sagittal", "t1-weighted", "mr", "slices", "bbb"], "article_id"=>927369, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine", "Engineering"], "users"=>["Fabrice Marquet", "Tobias Teichert", "Shih-Ying Wu", "Yao-Sheng Tung", "Matthew Downs", "Shutao Wang", "Cherry Chen", "Vincent Ferrera", "Elisa E. Konofagou"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0084310.g010", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Coronal_left_row_and_sagittal_right_row_T1_weighted_MR_slices_showing_the_evolution_of_the_BBB_opening_volume_along_time_/927369", "title"=>"Coronal (left row) and sagittal (right row) T1-weighted MR slices showing the evolution of the BBB opening volume along time.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-02-05 03:43:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1377686"], "description"=>"<p>The panels in the first row show the color-coded fraction of activated voxels (>10% enhancement of T1 signal) as a function of medio-lateral and antero-posterior deviation from the intended focal point in the x-y-plane. The panels collapse across voxels that are between −5 and 10 mm in depth from the intended depth. In all instances the opening of the BBB either overlaps with or is in immediate vicinity of the intended target. To quantify targeting accuracy along the direction of the ultrasound propagation, panels in the second row show the fraction of activated voxels collapsed around a 2 by 2 mm square region around the measured focal point (block dots in panels in A). The dotted horizontal line corresponds to the depth of the geometric ultrasound focus. As predicted from in-vitro experiments, the actual focal depth (solid horizontal line) is shifted ∼5 mm towards the ultrasound transducer. Panels in the third row depict the backscattered acoustic energy of the microbubbles excited in the ultrasound focus as a function of time from injection of the microbubbles. The blue line to the desired harmonic oscillations of the microbubbles (HEI) that have been associated with safe BBB opening. The black line corresponds to inertial cavitation (BEI) that has been linked to extravasation of red blood cells and tissue damage. The red line corresponds to the BEI detection threshold.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Neurological system", "Central nervous system", "neuroanatomy", "neuroscience", "Bioengineering", "Medical devices", "Diagnostic medicine", "Test evaluation", "Drugs and devices", "neurology", "surgery", "neurosurgery", "Veterinary anatomy and physiology", "Animal neuroanatomy", "monkeys", "sonications", "caudate"], "article_id"=>927354, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine", "Engineering"], "users"=>["Fabrice Marquet", "Tobias Teichert", "Shih-Ying Wu", "Yao-Sheng Tung", "Matthew Downs", "Shutao Wang", "Cherry Chen", "Vincent Ferrera", "Elisa E. Konofagou"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0084310.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Targeting_accuracy_for_6_4_2_for_two_monkeys_O_and_N_sonications_of_caudate_nucleus_/927354", "title"=>"Targeting accuracy for 6 (4+2 for two monkeys O and N) sonications of caudate nucleus.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-02-05 03:43:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1377699"], "description"=>"<p>Two targets in the putamen and the caudate for two animal subjects (O and N) were marked separately. (<b>A</b>) There is a clear relationship between ultrasound pressure and opening size (r = 0.41). Due to the narrow range of pressures and low number of sonications, this effect does not reach significance. (<b>B</b>) There is no apparent relationship between average HEI and opening volume.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Neurological system", "Central nervous system", "neuroanatomy", "neuroscience", "Bioengineering", "Medical devices", "Diagnostic medicine", "Test evaluation", "Drugs and devices", "neurology", "surgery", "neurosurgery", "Veterinary anatomy and physiology", "Animal neuroanatomy", "harmonic", "hei"], "article_id"=>927367, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine", "Engineering"], "users"=>["Fabrice Marquet", "Tobias Teichert", "Shih-Ying Wu", "Yao-Sheng Tung", "Matthew Downs", "Shutao Wang", "Cherry Chen", "Vincent Ferrera", "Elisa E. Konofagou"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0084310.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_BBB_opening_volume_as_a_function_of_pressure_A_and_the_average_harmonic_energy_increase_HEI_B_/927367", "title"=>"BBB opening volume as a function of pressure (A) and the average harmonic energy increase, HEI (B).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-02-05 03:43:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1377700"], "description"=>"<p>Edemas should appear brighter in T2-weighted images; hemorrhages, as well as large vessels should appear in black in SWI images. No damage was detected on any of the experiments performed.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Neurological system", "Central nervous system", "neuroanatomy", "neuroscience", "Bioengineering", "Medical devices", "Diagnostic medicine", "Test evaluation", "Drugs and devices", "neurology", "surgery", "neurosurgery", "Veterinary anatomy and physiology", "Animal neuroanatomy", "t2-weighted", "swi", "mr", "images", "corresponding"], "article_id"=>927368, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine", "Engineering"], "users"=>["Fabrice Marquet", "Tobias Teichert", "Shih-Ying Wu", "Yao-Sheng Tung", "Matthew Downs", "Shutao Wang", "Cherry Chen", "Vincent Ferrera", "Elisa E. Konofagou"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0084310.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Example_of_T2_weighted_left_and_SWI_right_MR_images_corresponding_to_the_experiment_from_Figure_2_/927368", "title"=>"Example of T2-weighted (left) and SWI (right) MR images corresponding to the experiment from Figure 2.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-02-05 03:43:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1377680"], "description"=>"<p>Top picture is showing a large view of the operating room. On the right, the PC and amplifiers are used to drive the transducer-hydrophone assembly. The degassing system (vacuum pump+water circulation pump) ensures a constant flow of degassed water for acoustic coupling. The transducer-hydrophone assembly is mounted on a manipulator with 5 degrees of freedom (x, y, and z position of the focus, as well as two approach angles: azimuth and elevation). Bottom picture is depicting a close-up view. The membrane can be inflated regulating the water flow thanks to the degassing system. This ensures a maximal acoustic transmission in the animal brain.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Neurological system", "Central nervous system", "neuroanatomy", "neuroscience", "Bioengineering", "Medical devices", "Diagnostic medicine", "Test evaluation", "Drugs and devices", "neurology", "surgery", "neurosurgery", "Veterinary anatomy and physiology", "Animal neuroanatomy"], "article_id"=>927348, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine", "Engineering"], "users"=>["Fabrice Marquet", "Tobias Teichert", "Shih-Ying Wu", "Yao-Sheng Tung", "Matthew Downs", "Shutao Wang", "Cherry Chen", "Vincent Ferrera", "Elisa E. Konofagou"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0084310.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Preclinical_setup_/927348", "title"=>"Preclinical setup.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-02-05 03:43:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1377694"], "description"=>"<p>Conventions as in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0084310#pone-0084310-g004\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 4</a>. The PCD for sonication 12 06 23 shows immediately elevated HEI values because by accident, the microbubbles were injection before sonication onset.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Neurological system", "Central nervous system", "neuroanatomy", "neuroscience", "Bioengineering", "Medical devices", "Diagnostic medicine", "Test evaluation", "Drugs and devices", "neurology", "surgery", "neurosurgery", "Veterinary anatomy and physiology", "Animal neuroanatomy", "pcd", "responses", "sonications", "putamen"], "article_id"=>927362, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine", "Engineering"], "users"=>["Fabrice Marquet", "Tobias Teichert", "Shih-Ying Wu", "Yao-Sheng Tung", "Matthew Downs", "Shutao Wang", "Cherry Chen", "Vincent Ferrera", "Elisa E. Konofagou"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0084310.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Targeting_accuracy_and_PCD_responses_for_6_sonications_of_putamen_in_animal_one_/927362", "title"=>"Targeting accuracy and PCD responses for 6 sonications of putamen in animal one.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-02-05 03:43:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1377702"], "description"=>"<p>Voxels with a normalized pre-post enhancement of more than 10% were classified as “opened”. The total volume of opened voxels decreases as a function of time from the sonication. The opened volume in the contra-lateral control region is constant and close to the one predicted by a false detection rate of 5%.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Neurological system", "Central nervous system", "neuroanatomy", "neuroscience", "Bioengineering", "Medical devices", "Diagnostic medicine", "Test evaluation", "Drugs and devices", "neurology", "surgery", "neurosurgery", "Veterinary anatomy and physiology", "Animal neuroanatomy", "bbb", "closing", "low-pressure", "sonication", "depicted"], "article_id"=>927370, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine", "Engineering"], "users"=>["Fabrice Marquet", "Tobias Teichert", "Shih-Ying Wu", "Yao-Sheng Tung", "Matthew Downs", "Shutao Wang", "Cherry Chen", "Vincent Ferrera", "Elisa E. Konofagou"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0084310.g011", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Timeline_of_BBB_closing_for_a_single_low_pressure_sonication_depicted_in_Figure_10_/927370", "title"=>"Timeline of BBB closing for a single low-pressure sonication depicted in Figure 10.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-02-05 03:43:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1377684"], "description"=>"<p>After calculating the raw result image that provides a normalized estimate of the increase in T1 contrast (<b>A</b>), the image is shifted and rotated in to a new coordinate frame (<b>B</b>) whose origin is defined by the coordinates of the intended target, and the z-axis corresponds to the approach angle. A voxel is considered opened if its T1 value was enhanced by ≥10%. The in-plane targeting accuracy was assessed by averaging the fraction of opened voxels across the z-axis (<b>C</b>). Targeting in the depth axis along the ultrasound beam was quantified by collapsing across the x- and y-axis (<b>D</b>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Neurological system", "Central nervous system", "neuroanatomy", "neuroscience", "Bioengineering", "Medical devices", "Diagnostic medicine", "Test evaluation", "Drugs and devices", "neurology", "surgery", "neurosurgery", "Veterinary anatomy and physiology", "Animal neuroanatomy", "targeting"], "article_id"=>927352, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine", "Engineering"], "users"=>["Fabrice Marquet", "Tobias Teichert", "Shih-Ying Wu", "Yao-Sheng Tung", "Matthew Downs", "Shutao Wang", "Cherry Chen", "Vincent Ferrera", "Elisa E. Konofagou"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0084310.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Quantification_of_targeting_accuracy_/927352", "title"=>"Quantification of targeting accuracy.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-02-05 03:43:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1377698"], "description"=>"<p>Data was acquired using a series of brief pulses of ultrasound after the main sonication while micro-bubbles were still circulating. The blue dash line corresponds to the lowest pressure at which BBB opening was achieved, and the. The light blue area highlights the pressure range used in this study. The red line corresponds to the ultrasound pressure that would cause BEI to rise above levels that were found to be safe in the current set of sonications.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Neurological system", "Central nervous system", "neuroanatomy", "neuroscience", "Bioengineering", "Medical devices", "Diagnostic medicine", "Test evaluation", "Drugs and devices", "neurology", "surgery", "neurosurgery", "Veterinary anatomy and physiology", "Animal neuroanatomy", "broadband", "plotted", "ultrasound"], "article_id"=>927365, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine", "Engineering"], "users"=>["Fabrice Marquet", "Tobias Teichert", "Shih-Ying Wu", "Yao-Sheng Tung", "Matthew Downs", "Shutao Wang", "Cherry Chen", "Vincent Ferrera", "Elisa E. Konofagou"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0084310.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>20, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Harmonic_HEI_and_broadband_BEI_energy_increase_plotted_as_a_function_of_ultrasound_pressure_/927365", "title"=>"Harmonic (HEI) and broadband (BEI) energy increase plotted as a function of ultrasound pressure.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-02-05 03:43:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1377682"], "description"=>"<p>(<b>A&B</b>) Timeline of sonication experiment with subsequent MRI-based verification. Briefly, the animals are sonicated for two minutes using a 500-kHz focused ultrasound transducer following the systemic injection of microbubbles. The opening location is then analyzed using contrast-enhanced T1 images (see D for details). Additional clinical scans were performed to detect potential damage. (<b>C</b>) Geometric ultrasound focus overlaid on a T1 structural scan in stereotaxic coordinate frame. Due to the geometry of the ultrasound transducer, the focal region is elongated along the axis of ultrasound propagation. Here the ultrasound was applied at an angle of 26° from the upper right to provide a close to normal incidence angle of the ultrasound and skull. (<b>D</b>) Increased blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability for the T1 contrast agent gadodiamide following a single sonication of left caudate. Brighter colors indicate regions where gadodiamide was able to diffuse across the BBB into the brain tissue. The remaining regions of increased T1 signal indicate asymmetric vasculature. Note the close alignment between intended (C) and actual location (D) of the BBB opening. The axial shift in location of the BBB opening towards the transducer is close to the value predicted from in-vitro experiments.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Neurological system", "Central nervous system", "neuroanatomy", "neuroscience", "Bioengineering", "Medical devices", "Diagnostic medicine", "Test evaluation", "Drugs and devices", "neurology", "surgery", "neurosurgery", "Veterinary anatomy and physiology", "Animal neuroanatomy"], "article_id"=>927350, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine", "Engineering"], "users"=>["Fabrice Marquet", "Tobias Teichert", "Shih-Ying Wu", "Yao-Sheng Tung", "Matthew Downs", "Shutao Wang", "Cherry Chen", "Vincent Ferrera", "Elisa E. Konofagou"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0084310.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_BBB_opening_procedure_overview_/927350", "title"=>"BBB opening procedure overview.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-02-05 03:43:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1377696"], "description"=>"<p>Conventions as in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0084310#pone-0084310-g004\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 4</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Neurological system", "Central nervous system", "neuroanatomy", "neuroscience", "Bioengineering", "Medical devices", "Diagnostic medicine", "Test evaluation", "Drugs and devices", "neurology", "surgery", "neurosurgery", "Veterinary anatomy and physiology", "Animal neuroanatomy", "pcd", "responses", "sonications", "putamen"], "article_id"=>927364, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine", "Engineering"], "users"=>["Fabrice Marquet", "Tobias Teichert", "Shih-Ying Wu", "Yao-Sheng Tung", "Matthew Downs", "Shutao Wang", "Cherry Chen", "Vincent Ferrera", "Elisa E. Konofagou"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0084310.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Targeting_accuracy_and_PCD_responses_for_5_sonications_of_putamen_in_the_second_animal_/927364", "title"=>"Targeting accuracy and PCD responses for 5 sonications of putamen in the second animal.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-02-05 03:43:10"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"18", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"13", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"23", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"11", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"19", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"10", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"12", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"8"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2014-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2014-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences", "average_usage"=>[291]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Organisms", "average_usage"=>[310]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Engineering and technology", "average_usage"=>[282]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Engineering and technology/Equipment", "average_usage"=>[287, 444]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Anatomy", "average_usage"=>[266]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Diagnostic medicine", "average_usage"=>[257]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Pharmaceutics", "average_usage"=>[299, 467]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Physical sciences", "average_usage"=>[271]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Physical sciences/Physics", "average_usage"=>[266]}]}
Loading … Spinner
There are currently no alerts