Sloth Hair as a Novel Source of Fungi with Potent Anti-Parasitic, Anti-Cancer and Anti-Bacterial Bioactivity
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{"title"=>"Sloth hair as a novel source of fungi with potent anti-parasitic, anti-cancer and anti-bacterial bioactivity", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Sarah", "last_name"=>"Higginbotham", "scopus_author_id"=>"35484187100"}, {"first_name"=>"Weng Ruh", "last_name"=>"Wong", "scopus_author_id"=>"55204702700"}, {"first_name"=>"Roger G.", "last_name"=>"Linington", "scopus_author_id"=>"6508105568"}, {"first_name"=>"Carmenza", "last_name"=>"Spadafora", "scopus_author_id"=>"15768389800"}, {"first_name"=>"Liliana", "last_name"=>"Iturrado", "scopus_author_id"=>"56114709900"}, {"first_name"=>"A. Elizabeth", "last_name"=>"Arnold", "scopus_author_id"=>"7201370843"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"24454729", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0084549", "sgr"=>"84898623240", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84898623240", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"372838379"}, "id"=>"2b6a3fa4-bc7a-3440-b7b1-160bd8f7dc88", "abstract"=>"The extraordinary biological diversity of tropical forests harbors a rich chemical diversity with enormous potential as a source of novel bioactive compounds. Of particular interest are new environments for microbial discovery. Sloths - arboreal mammals commonly found in the lowland forests of Panama - carry a wide variety of micro- and macro-organisms on their coarse outer hair. Here we report for the first time the isolation of diverse and bioactive strains of fungi from sloth hair, and their taxonomic placement. Eighty-four isolates of fungi were obtained in culture from the surface of hair that was collected from living three-toed sloths (Bradypus variegatus, Bradypodidae) in Soberania National Park, Republic of Panama. Phylogenetic analyses revealed a diverse group of Ascomycota belonging to 28 distinct operational taxonomic units (OTUs), several of which are divergent from previously known taxa. Seventy-four isolates were cultivated in liquid broth and crude extracts were tested for bioactivity in vitro. We found a broad range of activities against strains of the parasites that cause malaria (Plasmodium falciparum) and Chagas disease (Trypanosoma cruzi), and against the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Fifty fungal extracts were tested for antibacterial activity in a new antibiotic profile screen called BioMAP; of these, 20 were active against at least one bacterial strain, and one had an unusual pattern of bioactivity against Gram-negative bacteria that suggests a potentially new mode of action. Together our results reveal the importance of exploring novel environments for bioactive fungi, and demonstrate for the first time the taxonomic composition and bioactivity of fungi from sloth hair.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/sloth-hair-novel-source-fungi-potent-antiparasitic-anticancer-antibacterial-bioactivity", "reader_count"=>101, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>17, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. 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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1348240"], "description"=>"<p>Bioactive fungi (A) are those causing ≥50% inhibition of growth of parasite or cancer cells in <i>in vitro</i> assays.</p><p>-  =  extract not tested in this bioassay; empty cell  =  not highly active.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Biochemistry", "drug discovery", "biotechnology", "ecology", "Ecological environments", "Terrestrial environments", "biodiversity", "Chemical ecology", "microbial ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary systematics", "phylogenetics", "microbiology", "Mycology", "fungi", "Applied microbiology", "Microbial control", "Drugs and devices", "Drug research and development", "sloth", "dextrose", "agar", "malt", "extract", "causative", "agents", "malaria", "chagas", "mcf-7", "cancer"], "article_id"=>901805, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Sarah Higginbotham", "Weng Ruh Wong", "Roger G. Linington", "Carmenza Spadafora", "Liliana Iturrado", "A. Elizabeth Arnold"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0084549.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Bioactivity_of_sloth_hair_surface_associated_fungi_isolated_on_potato_dextrose_agar_PDA_or_2_malt_extract_agar_MEA_against_causative_agents_of_malaria_P_falciparum_and_Chagas_disease_T_cruzi_and_against_the_MCF_7_breast_cancer_cell_line_/901805", "title"=>"Bioactivity of sloth hair surface associated fungi isolated on potato dextrose agar (PDA) or 2% malt extract agar (MEA) against causative agents of malaria (<i>P. falciparum</i>) and Chagas disease (<i>T. cruzi</i>), and against the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-01-15 03:33:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1348239"], "description"=>"<p>OTU codes indicate operational taxonomic units based on 95% sequence similarity. Order and family level identifications were confidently assigned to 82 isolates and genus level identifications were confidently assigned to 80 isolates.</p><p>Unpublished strains.</p><p>*OTUs occurring only once (singletons).</p><p>Tentative phylogenetic placement.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Biochemistry", "drug discovery", "biotechnology", "ecology", "Ecological environments", "Terrestrial environments", "biodiversity", "Chemical ecology", "microbial ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary systematics", "phylogenetics", "microbiology", "Mycology", "fungi", "Applied microbiology", "Microbial control", "Drugs and devices", "Drug research and development", "fungal", "isolates", "coarse", "individuals", "sloths", "id", "revealing", "phylogenetic", "taxonomic", "genus"], "article_id"=>901804, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Sarah Higginbotham", "Weng Ruh Wong", "Roger G. Linington", "Carmenza Spadafora", "Liliana Iturrado", "A. Elizabeth Arnold"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0084549.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Eighty_four_fungal_isolates_from_the_coarse_outer_hair_of_nine_individuals_sloths_B_varieagatus_their_top_BLAST_matches_and_maximum_identity_value_from_BLAST_searches_group_ID_and_tree_Fig_1_revealing_phylogenetic_placement_and_taxonomic_placement_based_/901804", "title"=>"Eighty-four fungal isolates from the coarse outer hair of nine individuals sloths (<i>B. varieagatus</i>), their top BLAST matches, and maximum identity value from BLAST searches; group ID and tree (Fig. 1) revealing phylogenetic placement; and taxonomic placement based on phylogenetic analyses at the family (order) and genus levels (Fig. 1).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-01-15 03:33:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1348242"], "description"=>"<div><p>The extraordinary biological diversity of tropical forests harbors a rich chemical diversity with enormous potential as a source of novel bioactive compounds. Of particular interest are new environments for microbial discovery. Sloths – arboreal mammals commonly found in the lowland forests of Panama – carry a wide variety of micro- and macro-organisms on their coarse outer hair. Here we report for the first time the isolation of diverse and bioactive strains of fungi from sloth hair, and their taxonomic placement. Eighty-four isolates of fungi were obtained in culture from the surface of hair that was collected from living three-toed sloths (<i>Bradypus variegatus</i>, Bradypodidae) in Soberanía National Park, Republic of Panama. Phylogenetic analyses revealed a diverse group of Ascomycota belonging to 28 distinct operational taxonomic units (OTUs), several of which are divergent from previously known taxa. Seventy-four isolates were cultivated in liquid broth and crude extracts were tested for bioactivity <i>in vitro</i>. We found a broad range of activities against strains of the parasites that cause malaria (<i>Plasmodium falciparum</i>) and Chagas disease (<i>Trypanosoma cruzi</i>), and against the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Fifty fungal extracts were tested for antibacterial activity in a new antibiotic profile screen called BioMAP; of these, 20 were active against at least one bacterial strain, and one had an unusual pattern of bioactivity against Gram-negative bacteria that suggests a potentially new mode of action. Together our results reveal the importance of exploring novel environments for bioactive fungi, and demonstrate for the first time the taxonomic composition and bioactivity of fungi from sloth hair.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Biochemistry", "drug discovery", "biotechnology", "ecology", "Ecological environments", "Terrestrial environments", "biodiversity", "Chemical ecology", "microbial ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary systematics", "phylogenetics", "microbiology", "Mycology", "fungi", "Applied microbiology", "Microbial control", "Drugs and devices", "Drug research and development", "potent", "anti-cancer", "anti-bacterial"], "article_id"=>901807, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Sarah Higginbotham", "Weng Ruh Wong", "Roger G. Linington", "Carmenza Spadafora", "Liliana Iturrado", "A. Elizabeth Arnold"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0084549", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Sloth_Hair_as_a_Novel_Source_of_Fungi_with_Potent_Anti_Parasitic_Anti_Cancer_and_Anti_Bacterial_Bioactivity_/901807", "title"=>"Sloth Hair as a Novel Source of Fungi with Potent Anti-Parasitic, Anti-Cancer and Anti-Bacterial Bioactivity", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-01-15 03:33:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1348241"], "description"=>"<p>Fungi with particularly potent bioactivity were selected for further study and are marked with an asterisk (*). Fungal extracts causing full cell death are marked ‘A’ and those causing partial cell death are marked ‘WA’.</p><p>B. sub  =  Bacillus subtilis 168; E. fae  =  Enterococcus faecium ATCC 6569; L. iva  =  Listeria ivanovii BAA-139; S. epi  =  Staphylococcus epidermis ATCC 14990; S. au  =  Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213; MRSA  =  Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus BAA-44; Y. pse  =  Yersinia pseudotuberculosis IP2666 pIBI; P. aer  =  Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27835; S. typ  =  Salmonella typhimerium LT2; V. chol  =  Vibrio cholerae O1 (biotype El Tor A1552); E. coli  =  Escherichia coli K12 (BW 25113); A. baum  =  Acinetobacteria baumanii NCIMB 12457; E. aero  =  Enterobacter aerogenes ATCC 35029; O. ant  =  Ochrobactrum anthropi ATCC 49687; P. alc  =  Providencia alcallifaciens ATCC 9886.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Biochemistry", "drug discovery", "biotechnology", "ecology", "Ecological environments", "Terrestrial environments", "biodiversity", "Chemical ecology", "microbial ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary systematics", "phylogenetics", "microbiology", "Mycology", "fungi", "Applied microbiology", "Microbial control", "Drugs and devices", "Drug research and development", "sloth", "dextrose", "agar", "malt", "extract", "gram-positive", "gram-negative", "biomap", "assay"], "article_id"=>901806, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Sarah Higginbotham", "Weng Ruh Wong", "Roger G. Linington", "Carmenza Spadafora", "Liliana Iturrado", "A. Elizabeth Arnold"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0084549.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Bioactivity_of_fungi_from_sloth_hair_isolated_on_potato_dextrose_agar_PDA_or_malt_extract_agar_2_MEA_against_a_range_of_Gram_positive_and_Gram_negative_bacteria_in_the_BioMAP_assay_30_/901806", "title"=>"Bioactivity of fungi from sloth hair isolated on potato dextrose agar (PDA) or malt extract agar (2%; MEA) against a range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in the BioMAP assay [30].", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-01-15 03:33:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1348238"], "description"=>"<p>To generate a concentration- independent bioactivity profile, raw assay results were normalized giving a range of values from 0 (inactive) to 1 (most bioactive). These bioactivity fingerprints were then compared to fingerprints of known antibiotics from all the major structural classes, which had previously been tested in the BioMAP assay. The bioactivity fingerprint of F4807 was of particular interest as it did not match that of any antibiotic previously tested in the BioMAP screen.</p><p>-  =  Test failed, data not available.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Biochemistry", "drug discovery", "biotechnology", "ecology", "Ecological environments", "Terrestrial environments", "biodiversity", "Chemical ecology", "microbial ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary systematics", "phylogenetics", "microbiology", "Mycology", "fungi", "Applied microbiology", "Microbial control", "Drugs and devices", "Drug research and development", "inhibitory", "concentrations", "sloth", "fungal", "extracts", "biomap", "antibiotic"], "article_id"=>901803, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Sarah Higginbotham", "Weng Ruh Wong", "Roger G. Linington", "Carmenza Spadafora", "Liliana Iturrado", "A. Elizabeth Arnold"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0084549.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Minimum_inhibitory_concentrations_MIC_of_5_sloth_hair_associated_fungal_extracts_in_the_BioMAP_antibiotic_profile_screen_30_/901803", "title"=>"Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 5 sloth hair associated fungal extracts in the BioMAP antibiotic profile screen [30].", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-01-15 03:33:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1348237"], "description"=>"<p>Topology of each tree reflects ML analysis, and values above branches indicate ML bootstrap values and Bayesian posterior probabilities (>0.50 and >0.75, respectively). Outgroups and taxon sampling for each tree were validated by literature surveys (see methods). Taxonomic conclusions are presented in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0084549#pone-0084549-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a>. <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0084549#pone-0084549-g001\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 1(A)</a>: Placement of F5073 in group 17; (B) F4847 in group 18; (C) F4831a in group 19; (D) F4819 in group 20; (E) F4801 in group 5; (F) F4806 in group 7; (G) F4886 in group 8; (H) F5071 in group 15; (I) F4812–F4816, F4830, F4831, F4845, F4852–F4856, F4860, F4873, F4882, F4883 and F4900–F4902 in group 1; (J) F4803, F4817, F4820, F4823, F4824, F4826, F4827, F4829, F4837, F4841, F4842, F4846, F4848, F4857, F4858, F4861, F4862, F4870, F4872, F4875, F4878, F4879, F4894–F4896, F4908, F4909, F5069 and F5074 in group 2; (K) F4818 and F4839 in group 10; (L) F4877, F4890 and F4897 in group 11; (M) F4828 and F4898 in group 12; (N) F4876 and F4881 in group 13; (O) F4863 and F4884 in group 6; (P) F4821, F4874, F4889 and F4913 in group 3; (Q) F4802, F4807, F4825, F4844, F4906 and F5068 in group 4; (R) F4850 and F4891 in group 9; (S) F4904 and F4905 in group 14; and (T) F5070 and F5072 in group 16.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Biochemistry", "drug discovery", "biotechnology", "ecology", "Ecological environments", "Terrestrial environments", "biodiversity", "Chemical ecology", "microbial ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary systematics", "phylogenetics", "microbiology", "Mycology", "fungi", "Applied microbiology", "Microbial control", "Drugs and devices", "Drug research and development", "bayesian", "itsrdna", "three-toed", "sloths"], "article_id"=>901802, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Sarah Higginbotham", "Weng Ruh Wong", "Roger G. Linington", "Carmenza Spadafora", "Liliana Iturrado", "A. Elizabeth Arnold"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0084549.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Results_of_maximum_likelihood_and_Bayesian_analyses_of_ITSrDNA_data_for_fungi_isolated_in_culture_from_coarse_outer_hair_of_three_toed_sloths_in_Soberan_237_a_National_Park_Panama_/901802", "title"=>"Results of maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses of ITSrDNA data for fungi isolated in culture from coarse, outer hair of three-toed sloths in Soberanía National Park, Panama.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-01-15 03:33:26"}

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Relative Metric

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