A Study of Early Afterdepolarizations in a Model for Human Ventricular Tissue
Publication Date
January 10, 2014
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Nele Vandersickel, Ivan V. Kazbanov, Anita Nuitermans, Louis D. Weise, et al
Volume
9
Issue
1
Pages
e84595
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0084595
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0084595
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24427289
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3888406
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/24427289
Web of Science
000329868200029
Scopus
84897523605
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/study-early-afterdepolarizations-model-human-ventricular-tissue
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Mendeley | Further Information

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Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1345158"], "description"=>"<p>(a) A line source with the parameter values and , in the frames for ms, ms, ms, ms, (b) spirals for the parameter values and , in the frame for ms, (c) fingers for the parameter values and , in the frame for ms. In comparison with <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0084595#pone-0084595-g012\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 12</a>, we have increased the contrast of all the frames to enhance the visibility of all the features in these gray-scale plots of V.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "electrophysiology", "biophysics", "Computational biology", "Biophysic al simulations", "Theoretical biology", "Computer modeling", "Computerized simulations", "Applied mathematics", "cardiovascular", "arrhythmias", "Biophysics simulations", "oscillatory"], "article_id"=>899328, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Mathematics", "Physics", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Nele Vandersickel", "Ivan V. Kazbanov", "Anita Nuitermans", "Louis D. Weise", "Rahul Pandit", "Alexander V. Panfilov"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0084595.g013", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Illustration_of_different_effects_in_the_oscillatory_patterns_/899328", "title"=>"Illustration of different effects in the oscillatory patterns.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-01-10 02:47:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1345138"], "description"=>"<p>A wave is initiated at the left of the tissue by stimulating a region of 6 200 points, located at the left boundary and propagates over the entire tissue.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "electrophysiology", "biophysics", "Computational biology", "Biophysic al simulations", "Theoretical biology", "Computer modeling", "Computerized simulations", "Applied mathematics", "cardiovascular", "arrhythmias", "Biophysics simulations"], "article_id"=>899308, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Mathematics", "Physics", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Nele Vandersickel", "Ivan V. Kazbanov", "Anita Nuitermans", "Louis D. Weise", "Rahul Pandit", "Alexander V. Panfilov"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0084595.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Protocol_P1_/899308", "title"=>"Protocol P1.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-01-10 02:47:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1345152"], "description"=>"<p>All notations the same as in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0084595#pone-0084595-g009\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 9</a>. The parameter values are , .</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "electrophysiology", "biophysics", "Computational biology", "Biophysic al simulations", "Theoretical biology", "Computer modeling", "Computerized simulations", "Applied mathematics", "cardiovascular", "arrhythmias", "Biophysics simulations"], "article_id"=>899322, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Mathematics", "Physics", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Nele Vandersickel", "Ivan V. Kazbanov", "Anita Nuitermans", "Louis D. Weise", "Rahul Pandit", "Alexander V. Panfilov"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0084595.g010", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Typical_forward_break_formation_due_to_EADs_/899322", "title"=>"Typical forward break formation due to EADs.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-01-10 02:47:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1345165", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1345166", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1345167", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1345168", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1345169", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1345170", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1345171", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1345172", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1345173", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1345174", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1345175"], "description"=>"<div><p>Sudden cardiac death is often caused by cardiac arrhythmias. Recently, special attention has been given to a certain arrhythmogenic condition, the long-QT syndrome, which occurs as a result of genetic mutations or drug toxicity. The underlying mechanisms of arrhythmias, caused by the long-QT syndrome, are not fully understood. However, arrhythmias are often connected to special excitations of cardiac cells, called early afterdepolarizations (EADs), which are depolarizations during the repolarizing phase of the action potential. So far, EADs have been studied mainly in isolated cardiac cells. However, the question on how EADs at the single-cell level can result in fibrillation at the tissue level, especially in human cell models, has not been widely studied yet. In this paper, we study wave patterns that result from single-cell EAD dynamics in a mathematical model for human ventricular cardiac tissue. We induce EADs by modeling experimental conditions which have been shown to evoke EADs at a single-cell level: by an increase of L-type Ca currents and a decrease of the delayed rectifier potassium currents. We show that, at the tissue level and depending on these parameters, three types of abnormal wave patterns emerge. We classify them into two types of spiral fibrillation and one type of oscillatory dynamics. Moreover, we find that the emergent wave patterns can be driven by calcium or sodium currents and we find phase waves in the oscillatory excitation regime. From our simulations we predict that arrhythmias caused by EADs can occur during normal wave propagation and do not require tissue heterogeneities. Experimental verification of our results is possible for experiments at the cell-culture level, where EADs can be induced by an increase of the L-type calcium conductance and by the application of I blockers, and the properties of the emergent patterns can be studied by optical mapping of the voltage and calcium.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "electrophysiology", "biophysics", "Computational biology", "Biophysic al simulations", "Theoretical biology", "Computer modeling", "Computerized simulations", "Applied mathematics", "cardiovascular", "arrhythmias", "Biophysics simulations", "afterdepolarizations", "ventricular"], "article_id"=>899335, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Mathematics", "Physics", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Nele Vandersickel", "Ivan V. Kazbanov", "Anita Nuitermans", "Louis D. Weise", "Rahul Pandit", "Alexander V. Panfilov"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0084595.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0084595.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0084595.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0084595.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0084595.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0084595.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0084595.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0084595.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0084595.s009", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0084595.s010", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0084595.s011"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_A_Study_of_Early_Afterdepolarizations_in_a_Model_for_Human_Ventricular_Tissue_/899335", "title"=>"A Study of Early Afterdepolarizations in a Model for Human Ventricular Tissue", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2014-01-10 02:47:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1345147"], "description"=>"<p>Protocol 1 is used with parameters , .</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "electrophysiology", "biophysics", "Computational biology", "Biophysic al simulations", "Theoretical biology", "Computer modeling", "Computerized simulations", "Applied mathematics", "cardiovascular", "arrhythmias", "Biophysics simulations", "spontaneous", "spiral", "fibrillation"], "article_id"=>899317, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Mathematics", "Physics", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Nele Vandersickel", "Ivan V. Kazbanov", "Anita Nuitermans", "Louis D. Weise", "Rahul Pandit", "Alexander V. Panfilov"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0084595.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Illustration_of_spontaneous_spiral_fibrillation_of_type_a_/899317", "title"=>"Illustration of spontaneous spiral fibrillation of type a.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-01-10 02:47:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1345164"], "description"=>"<p>In this table, we show the maximal conductances of the ionic channels which were altered in this paper. In “current”, one can find the corresponding current of this conductance. Notice that G is increased twice in comparison with <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0084595#pone.0084595-tenTusscher2\" target=\"_blank\">[30]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "electrophysiology", "biophysics", "Computational biology", "Biophysic al simulations", "Theoretical biology", "Computer modeling", "Computerized simulations", "Applied mathematics", "cardiovascular", "arrhythmias", "Biophysics simulations", "conductances"], "article_id"=>899334, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Mathematics", "Physics", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Nele Vandersickel", "Ivan V. Kazbanov", "Anita Nuitermans", "Louis D. Weise", "Rahul Pandit", "Alexander V. Panfilov"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0084595.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Maximal_conductances_of_the_relevant_channels_/899334", "title"=>"Maximal conductances of the relevant channels", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-01-10 02:47:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1345161"], "description"=>"<p>We show plots for the spiral fibrillation of type a (protocol P1 and the parameters and ), the spiral fibrillation type b (protocol P2 and the parameters and ), and the oscillatory fibrillation (protocol P1 and the parameters and ).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "electrophysiology", "biophysics", "Computational biology", "Biophysic al simulations", "Theoretical biology", "Computer modeling", "Computerized simulations", "Applied mathematics", "cardiovascular", "arrhythmias", "Biophysics simulations", "temporal", "fourier", "transforms"], "article_id"=>899331, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Mathematics", "Physics", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Nele Vandersickel", "Ivan V. Kazbanov", "Anita Nuitermans", "Louis D. Weise", "Rahul Pandit", "Alexander V. Panfilov"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0084595.g016", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_AP_ECG_and_temporal_Fourier_Transforms_of_for_the_three_different_patterns_/899331", "title"=>"The AP, ECG, and temporal Fourier Transforms of for the three different patterns.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-01-10 02:47:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1345146"], "description"=>"<p>This figure shows a phase diagrams, in a two-dimensional parameter space, of the different types of excitation patterns, obtained by using the stimulation protocols (a) P1 (56 simulations) and (b) P2 (134 simulations). The yellow, blue, and red colors indicate, respectively, no EAD, EAD, and oscillatory AP single-cell behaviors, as in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0084595#pone-0084595-g004\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 4a</a>. The symbols are as follows: SF (*), SF (+), oscillatory fibrillation (⊙), wave propagation without EAD (), wave propagation, in which the AP shows EADs, but there is no sustained electrical activity (), and a typical non-EAD pattern with a stable, single spiral wave (). The light-gray SF represents SF-type patterns which terminate themselves during our simulations, which happened in the first stages of the break up of the spiral.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "electrophysiology", "biophysics", "Computational biology", "Biophysic al simulations", "Theoretical biology", "Computer modeling", "Computerized simulations", "Applied mathematics", "cardiovascular", "arrhythmias", "Biophysics simulations", "eads", "caused", "spatial"], "article_id"=>899316, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Mathematics", "Physics", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Nele Vandersickel", "Ivan V. Kazbanov", "Anita Nuitermans", "Louis D. Weise", "Rahul Pandit", "Alexander V. Panfilov"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0084595.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Parametric_space_of_EADs_caused_spatial_patterning_/899316", "title"=>"Parametric space of EADs caused spatial patterning.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-01-10 02:47:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1345143"], "description"=>"<p>The numbers on the axis give the multiplication factor for the maximal calcium conductance, the axis for the maximal conductance of (a) (b) (c) . Yellow, red, and blue colors indicate, respectively, regions in which the AP has no EAD, the AP appears with EADs, and the AP does not return to the resting potential.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "electrophysiology", "biophysics", "Computational biology", "Biophysic al simulations", "Theoretical biology", "Computer modeling", "Computerized simulations", "Applied mathematics", "cardiovascular", "arrhythmias", "Biophysics simulations", "ap"], "article_id"=>899313, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Mathematics", "Physics", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Nele Vandersickel", "Ivan V. Kazbanov", "Anita Nuitermans", "Louis D. Weise", "Rahul Pandit", "Alexander V. Panfilov"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0084595.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Parametric_space_of_different_AP_behaviour_/899313", "title"=>"Parametric space of different AP behaviour.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-01-10 02:47:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1345160"], "description"=>"<p>If the gates are fully opened, the value on the picture is equal to 1 (white), if the gates are closes, the value is 0 (black). Ca-waves dominate in spiral fibrillation type a (Protocol: P1, parameters: , , time: 9600 ms.), while mostly sodium mediated waves precede most of the waves in spiral fibrillation type b (Protocol: P2, parameters: , , time: 9600 ms). For oscillatory fibrillation Ca-current induce the voltage oscillations of each cell (Protocol P1, Parameters: , , time: 2800 ms).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "electrophysiology", "biophysics", "Computational biology", "Biophysic al simulations", "Theoretical biology", "Computer modeling", "Computerized simulations", "Applied mathematics", "cardiovascular", "arrhythmias", "Biophysics simulations", "states", "patterns", "voltage", "ca-gates", "gates"], "article_id"=>899330, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Mathematics", "Physics", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Nele Vandersickel", "Ivan V. Kazbanov", "Anita Nuitermans", "Louis D. Weise", "Rahul Pandit", "Alexander V. Panfilov"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0084595.g015", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>24, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Final_states_for_the_different_patterns_with_voltage_up_opening_of_Ca_gates_middle_and_opening_of_sodium_gates_down_/899330", "title"=>"Final states for the different patterns with voltage (up), opening of Ca-gates (middle), and opening of sodium gates (down).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-01-10 02:47:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1345141"], "description"=>"<p>The channel conductivity of the L-type Ca is enhanced, while the slow delayed rectifier channel conductivity is reduced as indicated in the figures.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "electrophysiology", "biophysics", "Computational biology", "Biophysic al simulations", "Theoretical biology", "Computer modeling", "Computerized simulations", "Applied mathematics", "cardiovascular", "arrhythmias", "Biophysics simulations", "eads"], "article_id"=>899311, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Mathematics", "Physics", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Nele Vandersickel", "Ivan V. Kazbanov", "Anita Nuitermans", "Louis D. Weise", "Rahul Pandit", "Alexander V. Panfilov"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0084595.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_development_of_EADs_for_different_parameters_/899311", "title"=>"The development of EADs for different parameters.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-01-10 02:47:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1345140"], "description"=>"<p>We induce a spiral wave by using the standard S1–S2 stimulation protocol. We first stimulated the left side of the domain (a), as in protocol P1, to induce a plane wave that propagates from the left side of the domain to its right boundary (b). Once this wave has passed over the first half of the domain, we applied a second stimulus in the first quarter of the domain (c), which induces the spiral (d)–(e).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "electrophysiology", "biophysics", "Computational biology", "Biophysic al simulations", "Theoretical biology", "Computer modeling", "Computerized simulations", "Applied mathematics", "cardiovascular", "arrhythmias", "Biophysics simulations"], "article_id"=>899310, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Mathematics", "Physics", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Nele Vandersickel", "Ivan V. Kazbanov", "Anita Nuitermans", "Louis D. Weise", "Rahul Pandit", "Alexander V. Panfilov"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0084595.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>33, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Protocol_P2_/899310", "title"=>"Protocol P2.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-01-10 02:47:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1345154"], "description"=>"<p>All notations the same as in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0084595#pone-0084595-g009\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 9</a>. The parameter values are , .</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "electrophysiology", "biophysics", "Computational biology", "Biophysic al simulations", "Theoretical biology", "Computer modeling", "Computerized simulations", "Applied mathematics", "cardiovascular", "arrhythmias", "Biophysics simulations", "eads", "p2"], "article_id"=>899324, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Mathematics", "Physics", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Nele Vandersickel", "Ivan V. Kazbanov", "Anita Nuitermans", "Louis D. Weise", "Rahul Pandit", "Alexander V. Panfilov"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0084595.g011", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Typical_break_formation_due_to_EADs_in_P2_protocol_/899324", "title"=>"Typical break formation due to EADs in P2 protocol.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-01-10 02:47:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1345151"], "description"=>"<p>The left column- spatial pattern of voltage along the red line of 2D excitation pattern shown on the right. The parameter values are , .</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "electrophysiology", "biophysics", "Computational biology", "Biophysic al simulations", "Theoretical biology", "Computer modeling", "Computerized simulations", "Applied mathematics", "cardiovascular", "arrhythmias", "Biophysics simulations", "backward"], "article_id"=>899321, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Mathematics", "Physics", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Nele Vandersickel", "Ivan V. Kazbanov", "Anita Nuitermans", "Louis D. Weise", "Rahul Pandit", "Alexander V. Panfilov"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0084595.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Typical_backward_break_formation_due_to_EADs_/899321", "title"=>"Typical backward break formation due to EADs.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-01-10 02:47:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1345150"], "description"=>"<p>Protocal 2 is used with parameters , .</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "electrophysiology", "biophysics", "Computational biology", "Biophysic al simulations", "Theoretical biology", "Computer modeling", "Computerized simulations", "Applied mathematics", "cardiovascular", "arrhythmias", "Biophysics simulations", "spiral", "fibrillation"], "article_id"=>899320, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Mathematics", "Physics", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Nele Vandersickel", "Ivan V. Kazbanov", "Anita Nuitermans", "Louis D. Weise", "Rahul Pandit", "Alexander V. Panfilov"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0084595.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Illustration_of_spiral_fibrillation_type_b_/899320", "title"=>"Illustration of spiral fibrillation type b.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-01-10 02:47:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1345163"], "description"=>"<p>Our simulation is divided (see text) into blocks of unit cells. The first frame is taken after s for all patterns. The patterns have the following parameters. Spiral fibrillation type a: protocol P1 and parameters and , spiral fibrillation type b: protocol P2 and parameters and , oscillatory fibrillation, protocol P1, and parameters and .</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "electrophysiology", "biophysics", "Computational biology", "Biophysic al simulations", "Theoretical biology", "Computer modeling", "Computerized simulations", "Applied mathematics", "cardiovascular", "arrhythmias", "Biophysics simulations", "focal", "fibrillation"], "article_id"=>899333, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Mathematics", "Physics", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Nele Vandersickel", "Ivan V. Kazbanov", "Anita Nuitermans", "Louis D. Weise", "Rahul Pandit", "Alexander V. Panfilov"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0084595.g018", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Illustration_of_phase_wave_activity_in_focal_fibrillation_type_/899333", "title"=>"Illustration of phase wave activity in focal fibrillation type.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-01-10 02:47:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1345162"], "description"=>"<p>These power spectral densities are averaged over points in our simulation domain for the parameters and , and the P2 or S1-S2 protocol (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0084595#pone-0084595-g006\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 6b</a>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "electrophysiology", "biophysics", "Computational biology", "Biophysic al simulations", "Theoretical biology", "Computer modeling", "Computerized simulations", "Applied mathematics", "cardiovascular", "arrhythmias", "Biophysics simulations", "spectral", "densities"], "article_id"=>899332, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Mathematics", "Physics", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Nele Vandersickel", "Ivan V. Kazbanov", "Anita Nuitermans", "Louis D. Weise", "Rahul Pandit", "Alexander V. Panfilov"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0084595.g017", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Sum_of_the_power_spectral_densities_of_/899332", "title"=>"Sum of the power spectral densities of .", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-01-10 02:47:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1345159"], "description"=>"<p>We used protocol P1 for the parameters: , . Pictures are taken at 10 s ).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "electrophysiology", "biophysics", "Computational biology", "Biophysic al simulations", "Theoretical biology", "Computer modeling", "Computerized simulations", "Applied mathematics", "cardiovascular", "arrhythmias", "Biophysics simulations", "excitation", "developed", "stimulation", "frequencies"], "article_id"=>899329, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Mathematics", "Physics", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Nele Vandersickel", "Ivan V. Kazbanov", "Anita Nuitermans", "Louis D. Weise", "Rahul Pandit", "Alexander V. Panfilov"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0084595.g014", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Spatial_pattern_of_excitation_developed_after_initial_stimulation_of_the_tissue_with_various_frequencies_shown_at_the_top_of_the_figure_/899329", "title"=>"Spatial pattern of excitation developed after initial stimulation of the tissue with various frequencies (shown at the top of the figure).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-01-10 02:47:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1345144"], "description"=>"<p>The parameters of the red curves are , (EAD), while the parameters of the green curves are , (no EAD).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "electrophysiology", "biophysics", "Computational biology", "Biophysic al simulations", "Theoretical biology", "Computer modeling", "Computerized simulations", "Applied mathematics", "cardiovascular", "arrhythmias", "Biophysics simulations", "ionic", "currents", "ead"], "article_id"=>899314, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Mathematics", "Physics", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Nele Vandersickel", "Ivan V. Kazbanov", "Anita Nuitermans", "Louis D. Weise", "Rahul Pandit", "Alexander V. Panfilov"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0084595.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Important_ionic_currents_related_with_EAD_formation_/899314", "title"=>"Important ionic currents related with EAD formation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-01-10 02:47:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1345157"], "description"=>"<p>Protocol P1 is used with the following parameters: , .</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "electrophysiology", "biophysics", "Computational biology", "Biophysic al simulations", "Theoretical biology", "Computer modeling", "Computerized simulations", "Applied mathematics", "cardiovascular", "arrhythmias", "Biophysics simulations"], "article_id"=>899327, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Mathematics", "Physics", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Nele Vandersickel", "Ivan V. Kazbanov", "Anita Nuitermans", "Louis D. Weise", "Rahul Pandit", "Alexander V. Panfilov"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0084595.g012", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Focal_type_of_fibrillation_/899327", "title"=>"Focal type of fibrillation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-01-10 02:47:04"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2014-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2014-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Cell biology", "average_usage"=>[286]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Neuroscience", "average_usage"=>[289]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Engineering and technology", "average_usage"=>[282]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Engineering and technology/Electronics", "average_usage"=>[288, 440]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Physiology", "average_usage"=>[278]}]}
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