Development of a New Method to Track Multiple Honey Bees with Complex Behaviors on a Flat Laboratory Arena
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{"title"=>"Development of a new method to track multiple honey bees with complex behaviors on a flat laboratory arena", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Toshifumi", "last_name"=>"Kimura", "scopus_author_id"=>"55358275500"}, {"first_name"=>"Mizue", "last_name"=>"Ohashi", "scopus_author_id"=>"14054461800"}, {"first_name"=>"Karl", "last_name"=>"Crailsheim", "scopus_author_id"=>"23391692100"}, {"first_name"=>"Thomas", "last_name"=>"Schmickl", "scopus_author_id"=>"6507768024"}, {"first_name"=>"Ryuichi", "last_name"=>"Okada", "scopus_author_id"=>"35576725600"}, {"first_name"=>"Gerald", "last_name"=>"Radspieler", "scopus_author_id"=>"24492644500"}, {"first_name"=>"Hidetoshi", "last_name"=>"Ikeno", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003566847"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84922262671", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0084656", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"372852987", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pmid"=>"24465422", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84922262671"}, "id"=>"d507d85f-f15d-3abd-aec0-1e775f4cff04", "abstract"=>"A computer program that tracks animal behavior, thereby revealing various features and mechanisms of social animals, is a powerful tool in ethological research. Because honeybee colonies are populated by thousands of bees, individuals co-exist in high physical densities and are difficult to track unless specifically tagged, which can affect behavior. In addition, honeybees react to light and recordings must be made under special red-light conditions, which the eyes of bees perceive as darkness. The resulting video images are scarcely distinguishable. We have developed a new algorithm, K-Track, for tracking numerous bees in a flat laboratory arena. Our program implements three main processes: (A) The object (bee's) region is detected by simple threshold processing on gray scale images, (B) Individuals are identified by size, shape and spatiotemporal positional changes, and (C) Centers of mass of identified individuals are connected through all movie frames to yield individual behavioral trajectories. The tracking performance of our software was evaluated on movies of mobile multi-artificial agents and of 16 bees walking around a circular arena. K-Track accurately traced the trajectories of both artificial agents and bees. In the latter case, K-track outperformed Ctrax, well-known software for tracking multiple animals. To investigate interaction events in detail, we manually identified five interaction categories; 'crossing', 'touching', 'passing', 'overlapping' and 'waiting', and examined the extent to which the models accurately identified these categories from bee's interactions. All 7 identified failures occurred near a wall at the outer edge of the arena. Finally, K-Track and Ctrax successfully tracked 77 and 60 of 84 recorded interactive events, respectively. K-Track identified multiple bees on a flat surface and tracked their speed changes and encounters with other bees, with good performance.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/development-new-method-track-multiple-honey-bees-complex-behaviors-flat-laboratory-arena", "reader_count"=>60, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Researcher"=>10, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>17, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>11, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Researcher"=>10, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>17, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>11, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>4, "Unspecified"=>5, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>28, "Neuroscience"=>5, "Physics and Astronomy"=>2, "Chemistry"=>1, "Psychology"=>1, "Computer Science"=>10}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>4}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>5}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>2}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>28}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>10}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>5}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Iran"=>1, "United States"=>2, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Germany"=>5}, "group_count"=>2}

Scopus | Further Information

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1351868", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1351869", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1351870"], "description"=>"<div><p>A computer program that tracks animal behavior, thereby revealing various features and mechanisms of social animals, is a powerful tool in ethological research. Because honeybee colonies are populated by thousands of bees, individuals co-exist in high physical densities and are difficult to track unless specifically tagged, which can affect behavior. In addition, honeybees react to light and recordings must be made under special red-light conditions, which the eyes of bees perceive as darkness. The resulting video images are scarcely distinguishable. We have developed a new algorithm, K-Track, for tracking numerous bees in a flat laboratory arena. Our program implements three main processes: (A) The object (bee's) region is detected by simple threshold processing on gray scale images, (B) Individuals are identified by size, shape and spatiotemporal positional changes, and (C) Centers of mass of identified individuals are connected through all movie frames to yield individual behavioral trajectories. The tracking performance of our software was evaluated on movies of mobile multi-artificial agents and of 16 bees walking around a circular arena. K-Track accurately traced the trajectories of both artificial agents and bees. In the latter case, K-track outperformed Ctrax, well-known software for tracking multiple animals. To investigate interaction events in detail, we manually identified five interaction categories; ‘crossing’, ‘touching’, ‘passing’, ‘overlapping’ and ‘waiting’, and examined the extent to which the models accurately identified these categories from bee's interactions. All 7 identified failures occurred near a wall at the outer edge of the arena. Finally, K-Track and Ctrax successfully tracked 77 and 60 of 84 recorded interactive events, respectively. K-Track identified multiple bees on a flat surface and tracked their speed changes and encounters with other bees, with good performance.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "Population modeling", "Model organisms", "Animal models", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "Computer applications", "geography", "Human geography", "Spatial analysis", "Sociology", "Social research", "Animal management", "Animal types", "bees", "behaviors"], "article_id"=>904539, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Medicine", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Toshifumi Kimura", "Mizue Ohashi", "Karl Crailsheim", "Thomas Schmickl", "Ryuichi Okada", "Gerald Radspieler", "Hidetoshi Ikeno"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0084656.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0084656.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0084656.s003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>30, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Development_of_a_New_Method_to_Track_Multiple_Honey_Bees_with_Complex_Behaviors_on_a_Flat_Laboratory_Arena_/904539", "title"=>"Development of a New Method to Track Multiple Honey Bees with Complex Behaviors on a Flat Laboratory Arena", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2014-01-20 03:33:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1351845"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Single bee moves straight ahead. Region size is within range of single-bee size (SBS) and overlap is one-bee region (OBR). (B) Two bees appear as a merged entity in the source image. Region size is SBS and overlap is two-or-more bee region (TBR). (C) Two bees bump into each other. Region size exceeds range of single-bee size (PBS) and overlap is TBR.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "Population modeling", "Model organisms", "Animal models", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "Computer applications", "geography", "Human geography", "Spatial analysis", "Sociology", "Social research", "Animal management", "Animal types", "overlapping", "patterns", "classified"], "article_id"=>904521, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Medicine", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Toshifumi Kimura", "Mizue Ohashi", "Karl Crailsheim", "Thomas Schmickl", "Ryuichi Okada", "Gerald Radspieler", "Hidetoshi Ikeno"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0084656.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Spatial_overlapping_patterns_are_classified_by_size_changes_between_current_and_former_regions_/904521", "title"=>"Spatial overlapping patterns are classified by size changes between current and former regions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-01-20 03:33:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1351844"], "description"=>"<p>(A) original image, (B) background image to make from original images, (C) the image to process background subtraction, (D) the image to process the binarization, (E) the result image of identification of bees and (F) the tracjectories of every individuals.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "Population modeling", "Model organisms", "Animal models", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "Computer applications", "geography", "Human geography", "Spatial analysis", "Sociology", "Social research", "Animal management", "Animal types", "shots"], "article_id"=>904520, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Medicine", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Toshifumi Kimura", "Mizue Ohashi", "Karl Crailsheim", "Thomas Schmickl", "Ryuichi Okada", "Gerald Radspieler", "Hidetoshi Ikeno"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0084656.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>21, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Snap_shots_to_illustrate_each_step_of_the_data_analysis_/904520", "title"=>"Snap shots to illustrate each step of the data analysis.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-01-20 03:33:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1351862"], "description"=>"<p>The movements from crossing to waiting are represented in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0084656#pone-0084656-g004\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 4</a>. The “Multiple” indicates that three or more bees interact. Failure occurs when two or more bees interact near the edge of the arena. The high false rate of the “Overlapping” state may be caused by motion rather than by the interaction pattern. Our program K-Track outperforms “Ctrax” in terms of tracking accuracy.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "Population modeling", "Model organisms", "Animal models", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "Computer applications", "geography", "Human geography", "Spatial analysis", "Sociology", "Social research", "Animal management", "Animal types", "numbers", "errors", "patterns"], "article_id"=>904533, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Medicine", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Toshifumi Kimura", "Mizue Ohashi", "Karl Crailsheim", "Thomas Schmickl", "Ryuichi Okada", "Gerald Radspieler", "Hidetoshi Ikeno"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0084656.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_numbers_and_errors_of_interaction_patterns_detected_from_experimental_movies_/904533", "title"=>"The numbers and errors of interaction patterns detected from experimental movies.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-01-20 03:33:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1351861"], "description"=>"<p>(A) The distance between bee “ID = 9” and bees “ID = 2” and “ID = 6”, which contact bee “ID = 9”. (B) The area spans less than 20 pixels. The dotted-line shows the length of the bee's major axis. Below the dotted line, the two bees are assumed touching. In the lower part of the figure, “W”, “P” and “T” represent the identified interaction patterns “waiting”, “passing” and “touching”, respectively (see Fig. 1).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "Population modeling", "Model organisms", "Animal models", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "Computer applications", "geography", "Human geography", "Spatial analysis", "Sociology", "Social research", "Animal management", "Animal types"], "article_id"=>904532, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Medicine", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Toshifumi Kimura", "Mizue Ohashi", "Karl Crailsheim", "Thomas Schmickl", "Ryuichi Okada", "Gerald Radspieler", "Hidetoshi Ikeno"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0084656.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Temporal_changes_of_distance_and_speed_between_two_bees_/904532", "title"=>"Temporal changes of distance and speed between two bees.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-01-20 03:33:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1351858"], "description"=>"<p>The numbers shown on individuals are the identified IDs. Squares and big circles represent the start and the end points of tracking without losing the bee and re-identifying it with a new ID after the tracking. (A) Tracking results achieved by K-Track, (B) Tracking results achieved by Ctrax. The trajectories achieved by Ctrax are shorter than those by K-Track, indicating that Ctrax more frequently loses track of the bees.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "Population modeling", "Model organisms", "Animal models", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "Computer applications", "geography", "Human geography", "Spatial analysis", "Sociology", "Social research", "Animal management", "Animal types", "movie-1", "k-track"], "article_id"=>904529, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Medicine", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Toshifumi Kimura", "Mizue Ohashi", "Karl Crailsheim", "Thomas Schmickl", "Ryuichi Okada", "Gerald Radspieler", "Hidetoshi Ikeno"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0084656.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>135, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Tracking_results_of_movie_1_by_K_Track_and_Ctrax_/904529", "title"=>"Tracking results of movie-1 by K-Track and Ctrax.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-01-20 03:33:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1351851"], "description"=>"<p>(A) K-Track's trajectories. K-Track correctly identifies the positions of all agents. (B) Ctrax's trajectories. Several mistakes occur in two frames (t = 580 and t = 1366). (C) Comparison table of the average errors made by K-Track and Ctrax.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "Population modeling", "Model organisms", "Animal models", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "Computer applications", "geography", "Human geography", "Spatial analysis", "Sociology", "Social research", "Animal management", "Animal types", "movements", "bee-inspired", "agents", "k-track"], "article_id"=>904527, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Medicine", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Toshifumi Kimura", "Mizue Ohashi", "Karl Crailsheim", "Thomas Schmickl", "Ryuichi Okada", "Gerald Radspieler", "Hidetoshi Ikeno"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0084656.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>57, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Tracking_movements_of_bee_inspired_agents_in_K_Track_and_Ctrax_/904527", "title"=>"Tracking movements of bee-inspired agents in K-Track and Ctrax.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-01-20 03:33:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1351846"], "description"=>"<p>They touch at time <i>T1</i> and change their moving directions before and after the time <i>T1</i>, (c) passing: Two bees come from different directions. They touch at time T1 and change their moving directions before and after the time <i>T1</i>, (d) overlapping: Two bees overlap at time <i>T1</i> and do not change their moving directions before and after the time <i>T1</i>, (e) waiting: After they touch at time <i>T1</i>, one bee keeps stopping until another bee pass by.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "Population modeling", "Model organisms", "Animal models", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "Computer applications", "geography", "Human geography", "Spatial analysis", "Sociology", "Social research", "Animal management", "Animal types", "types", "patterns", "bees", "extracted", "movies", "classified", "moving", "directions"], "article_id"=>904522, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Medicine", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Toshifumi Kimura", "Mizue Ohashi", "Karl Crailsheim", "Thomas Schmickl", "Ryuichi Okada", "Gerald Radspieler", "Hidetoshi Ikeno"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0084656.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>7, "page_views"=>58, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Five_types_of_interaction_patterns_between_two_bees_were_extracted_from_the_movies_and_classified_as_follows_a_crossing_Two_bees_touch_at_time_T1_and_do_not_change_their_moving_directions_before_and_after_the_time_T1_b_touching_Two_bees_come_from_same_di/904522", "title"=>"Five types of interaction patterns between two bees were extracted from the movies and classified as follows; (a) crossing: Two bees touch at time <i>T1</i> and do not change their moving directions before and after the time <i>T1</i>, (b) touching: Two bees come from same directions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-01-20 03:33:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1351841"], "description"=>"<p>The method consists of three main processes; (A) Detecting bee candidate regions using gray-scale transmission and threshold processing; (B) Identification and numbering of individuals, achieved by extracting individuals from regions containing two or more bees; and (C) Assigning <i>x</i> and <i>y</i> position coordinates to each bee, outputting the results and connecting them into trajectories.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "Population modeling", "Model organisms", "Animal models", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "Computer applications", "geography", "Human geography", "Spatial analysis", "Sociology", "Social research", "Animal management", "Animal types"], "article_id"=>904517, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Medicine", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Toshifumi Kimura", "Mizue Ohashi", "Karl Crailsheim", "Thomas Schmickl", "Ryuichi Okada", "Gerald Radspieler", "Hidetoshi Ikeno"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0084656.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Workflow_of_our_proposed_method_/904517", "title"=>"Workflow of our proposed method.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-01-20 03:33:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1351860"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Trajectories produced by K-Track. Squares and circles represent start and end points of individual trajectories of each bee. Triangles show the interaction points between two or three bees. Triangles tend to aggregate around the edge of the arena, indicating that interactions frequently occur there. (B) The temporal state transition of each bee. The numbers on the inverted triangles are the frame numbers in which bee IDs were exchanged. The numbers in the right-hand circles are the exchanged IDs. Six exchanges occurred in Movie-3.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "Population modeling", "Model organisms", "Animal models", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "Computer applications", "geography", "Human geography", "Spatial analysis", "Sociology", "Social research", "Animal management", "Animal types", "movie-1"], "article_id"=>904531, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Medicine", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Toshifumi Kimura", "Mizue Ohashi", "Karl Crailsheim", "Thomas Schmickl", "Ryuichi Okada", "Gerald Radspieler", "Hidetoshi Ikeno"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0084656.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Processing_of_movie_1_by_K_Track_/904531", "title"=>"Processing of movie-1 by K-Track.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-01-20 03:33:35"}

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Relative Metric

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