Age-Based Hiring Discrimination as a Function of Equity Norms and Self-Perceived Objectivity
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{"title"=>"Age-based hiring discrimination as a function of equity norms and self-perceived objectivity", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Nicole M.", "last_name"=>"Lindner", "scopus_author_id"=>"25960897900"}, {"first_name"=>"Alexander", "last_name"=>"Graser", "scopus_author_id"=>"56114354200"}, {"first_name"=>"Brian A.", "last_name"=>"Nosek", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602443500"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"24465429", "sgr"=>"84898603159", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0084752", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84898603159", "pui"=>"372838994", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "issn"=>"19326203"}, "id"=>"d3c92b4f-faae-3358-b1e6-cd34f13b6ea7", "abstract"=>"Participants completed a questionnaire priming them to perceive themselves as either objective or biased, either before or after evaluating a young or old job applicant for a position linked to youthful stereotypes. Participants agreed that they were objective and tended to disagree that they were biased. Extending past research, both the objective and bias priming conditions led to an increase in age discrimination compared to the control condition. We also investigated whether equity norms reduced age discrimination, by manipulating the presence or absence of an equity statement reminding decision-makers of the legal prohibitions against discrimination \"on the basis of age, disability, national or ethnic origin, race, religion, or sex.\" The presence of equity norms increased enthusiasm for both young and old applicants when participants were not already primed to think of themselves as objective, but did not reduce age-based hiring discrimination. Equity norms had no effect when individuals thought of themselves as objective - they preferred the younger more than the older job applicant. However, the presence of equity norms did affect individuals' perceptions of which factors were important to their hiring decisions, increasing the perceived importance of applicants' expertise and decreasing the perceived importance of the applicants' age. The results suggest that interventions that rely exclusively on decision-makers' intentions to behave equitably may be ineffective.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/agebased-hiring-discrimination-function-equity-norms-selfperceived-objectivity", "reader_count"=>28, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Librarian"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Researcher"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>6, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>7, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Librarian"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Researcher"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>6, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>7, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>1, "Unspecified"=>2, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>4, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>1, "Philosophy"=>1, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Psychology"=>11, "Social Sciences"=>5, "Computer Science"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>4}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>5}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>11}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>1}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>2}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1353425"], "description"=>"<p><i>Note.</i> The job applicant was described with one of four profiles of recommender highlights. These profiles were randomly-assigned across participants. Hiring evaluations were altered as a main effect of which profile was used to describe the job applicant, <i>F</i>(3, 1584)  = 6.79, <i>p</i> = .0001, <i>R</i><sup>2</sup> = .013. But critically, the profile type never significantly interacted with the manipulated factors, as self-perceptions manipulations, the presence of equity norms, and the applicants’ age (all <i>F</i>s ≤ 2.23). Nor did it interact significantly with the manipulated factors in predicting the perceived importance of the applicants’ age (all <i>F</i>s ≤ 1.49) or the perceived importance of the applicants’ expertise (all <i>F</i>s ≤ 1.85).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience", "Cognitive neuroscience", "Decision making", "Economics", "Operations research", "Decision analysis", "Management science", "psychology", "Applied psychology", "behavior", "Experimental psychology", "Social psychology", "Sociology", "Social discrimination", "Social prejudice", "social policy", "Social research", "highlights", "counterbalanced"], "article_id"=>905893, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Nicole M. Lindner", "Alexander Graser", "Brian A. Nosek"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0084752.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Content_of_recommendation_letter_highlights_for_4_counterbalanced_job_applicants_/905893", "title"=>"Content of recommendation letter highlights for 4 counterbalanced job applicants.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-01-21 03:41:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1353426"], "description"=>"<div><p>Participants completed a questionnaire priming them to perceive themselves as either objective or biased, either before or after evaluating a young or old job applicant for a position linked to youthful stereotypes. Participants agreed that they were objective and tended to disagree that they were biased. Extending past research, both the objective and bias priming conditions led to an <i>increase</i> in age discrimination compared to the control condition. We also investigated whether equity norms reduced age discrimination, by manipulating the presence or absence of an equity statement reminding decision-makers of the legal prohibitions against discrimination “on the basis of age, disability, national or ethnic origin, race, religion, or sex.” The presence of equity norms increased enthusiasm for both young and old applicants when participants were not already primed to think of themselves as objective, but did not reduce age-based hiring discrimination. Equity norms had no effect when individuals thought of themselves as objective – they preferred the younger more than the older job applicant. However, the presence of equity norms did affect individuals’ perceptions of which factors were important to their hiring decisions, increasing the perceived importance of applicants’ expertise and decreasing the perceived importance of the applicants’ age. The results suggest that interventions that rely exclusively on decision-makers' intentions to behave equitably may be ineffective.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience", "Cognitive neuroscience", "Decision making", "Economics", "Operations research", "Decision analysis", "Management science", "psychology", "Applied psychology", "behavior", "Experimental psychology", "Social psychology", "Sociology", "Social discrimination", "Social prejudice", "social policy", "Social research", "hiring", "norms", "self-perceived"], "article_id"=>905894, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Nicole M. Lindner", "Alexander Graser", "Brian A. Nosek"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0084752", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>11, "page_views"=>36, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Age_Based_Hiring_Discrimination_as_a_Function_of_Equity_Norms_and_Self_Perceived_Objectivity_/905894", "title"=>"Age-Based Hiring Discrimination as a Function of Equity Norms and Self-Perceived Objectivity", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-01-21 03:41:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1353423"], "description"=>"<p>Error bars represent the standard errors.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience", "Cognitive neuroscience", "Decision making", "Economics", "Operations research", "Decision analysis", "Management science", "psychology", "Applied psychology", "behavior", "Experimental psychology", "Social psychology", "Sociology", "Social discrimination", "Social prejudice", "social policy", "Social research", "differences", "hiring", "decisions", "represented", "applicant", "self-perceptions", "manipulation", "norms", "absent"], "article_id"=>905891, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Nicole M. Lindner", "Alexander Graser", "Brian A. Nosek"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0084752.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>23, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_differences_in_hiring_decisions_are_represented_as_a_function_of_whether_the_job_applicant_was_young_or_old_and_of_the_self_perceptions_experimental_manipulation_biased_objective_or_control_when_equity_norms_were_present_Panel_A_or_absent_Panel_B_/905891", "title"=>"Mean differences in hiring decisions are represented as a function of whether the job applicant was young or old and of the self-perceptions experimental manipulation (biased, objective, or control), when equity norms were present (Panel A) or absent (Panel B).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-01-21 03:41:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1353424"], "description"=>"<p>Mean differences in the perceived importance of the job applicants’ expertise in the hiring decision are represented as a function of the self-perceptions experimental manipulation (as either biased, objective, or control) and whether equity norms were present or absent; error bars represent the standard errors.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience", "Cognitive neuroscience", "Decision making", "Economics", "Operations research", "Decision analysis", "Management science", "psychology", "Applied psychology", "behavior", "Experimental psychology", "Social psychology", "Sociology", "Social discrimination", "Social prejudice", "social policy", "Social research", "differences", "hiring", "represented", "self-perceptions", "manipulation", "norms", "bars"], "article_id"=>905892, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Nicole M. Lindner", "Alexander Graser", "Brian A. Nosek"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0084752.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>25, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_differences_in_the_perceived_importance_of_the_job_applicants_8217_expertise_in_the_hiring_decision_are_represented_as_a_function_of_the_self_perceptions_experimental_manipulation_as_either_biased_objective_or_control_and_whether_equity_norms_were_p/905892", "title"=>"Mean differences in the perceived importance of the job applicants’ expertise in the hiring decision are represented as a function of the self-perceptions experimental manipulation (as either biased, objective, or control) and whether equity norms were present or absent; error bars represent the standard errors.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-01-21 03:41:10"}

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