Baboon Feeding Ecology Informs the Dietary Niche of Paranthropus boisei
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{"title"=>"Baboon feeding ecology informs the dietary niche of Paranthropus boisei", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Gabriele A.", "last_name"=>"Macho", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003284673"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84897074186", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0084942", "pui"=>"372718715", "sgr"=>"84897074186", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"24416315"}, "id"=>"14f0e8bc-c973-36c2-bd9f-270a082e90fc", "abstract"=>"Hominins are generally considered eclectic omnivores like baboons, but recent isotope studies call into question the generalist status of some hominins. Paranthropus boisei and Australopithecus bahrelghazali derived 75%-80% of their tissues' delta(13)C from C4 sources, i.e. mainly low-quality foods like grasses and sedges. Here I consider the energetics of P. boisei and the nutritional value of C4 foods, taking into account scaling issues between the volume of food consumed and body mass, and P. boisei's food preference as inferred from dento-cranial morphology. Underlying the models are empirical data for Papio cynocephalus dietary ecology. Paranthropus boisei only needed to spend some 37%-42% of its daily feeding time (conservative estimate) on C4 sources to meet 80% of its daily requirements of calories, and all its requirements for protein. The energetic requirements of 2-4 times the basal metabolic rate (BMR) common to mammals could therefore have been met within a 6-hour feeding/foraging day. The findings highlight the high nutritional yield of many C4 foods eaten by baboons (and presumably hominins), explain the evolutionary success of P. boisei, and indicate that P. boisei was probably a generalist like other hominins. The diet proposed is consistent with the species' derived morphology and unique microwear textures. Finally, the results highlight the importance of baboon/hominin hand in food acquisition and preparation.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/baboon-feeding-ecology-informs-dietary-niche-paranthropus-boisei", "reader_count"=>73, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>13, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>20, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>10, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>10, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>7}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>13, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>20, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>10, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>10, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>7}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>2, "Unspecified"=>4, "Environmental Science"=>4, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>35, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>5, "Arts and Humanities"=>9, "Social Sciences"=>9, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>3, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>2}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>5}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>9}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>3}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>35}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>4}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>9}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>1, "Brazil"=>1, "Mexico"=>1, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>2}

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1341669"], "description"=>"<div><p>Hominins are generally considered eclectic omnivores like baboons, but recent isotope studies call into question the generalist status of some hominins. <i>Paranthropus boisei</i> and <i>Australopithecus bahrelghazali</i> derived 75%–80% of their tissues’ δ<sup>13</sup>C from C<sub>4</sub> sources, i.e. mainly low-quality foods like grasses and sedges. Here I consider the energetics of <i>P. boisei</i> and the nutritional value of C<sub>4</sub> foods, taking into account scaling issues between the volume of food consumed and body mass, and <i>P. boisei</i>’s food preference as inferred from dento-cranial morphology. Underlying the models are empirical data for <i>Papio cynocephalus</i> dietary ecology. <i>Paranthropus boisei</i> only needed to spend some 37%–42% of its daily feeding time (conservative estimate) on C<sub>4</sub> sources to meet 80% of its daily requirements of calories, and all its requirements for protein. The energetic requirements of 2–4 times the basal metabolic rate (BMR) common to mammals could therefore have been met within a 6-hour feeding/foraging day. The findings highlight the high nutritional yield of many C<sub>4</sub> foods eaten by baboons (and presumably hominins), explain the evolutionary success of <i>P. boisei,</i> and indicate that <i>P. boisei</i> was probably a generalist like other hominins. The diet proposed is consistent with the species’ derived morphology and unique microwear textures. Finally, the results highlight the importance of baboon/hominin hand in food acquisition and preparation.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology", "Paleontology", "paleobiology", "paleoecology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "Behavioral ecology", "Evolutionary ecology", "Evolutionary processes", "baboon", "feeding", "ecology", "informs", "dietary", "niche"], "article_id"=>896613, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Gabriele A. Macho"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0084942", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>24, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Baboon_Feeding_Ecology_Informs_the_Dietary_Niche_of_Paranthropus_boisei_/896613", "title"=>"Baboon Feeding Ecology Informs the Dietary Niche of <i>Paranthropus boisei</i>", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-01-08 03:22:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1341613"], "description"=>"<p>Incremental steps are highlighted by shaded bands.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology", "Paleontology", "paleobiology", "paleoecology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "Behavioral ecology", "Evolutionary ecology", "Evolutionary processes", "nutritional", "kg", "10-minute", "increments", "feeding", "sources", "yearling", "baboons", "baboon", "manipulatory", "capabilities", "doubling", "corms"], "article_id"=>896571, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Gabriele A. Macho"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0084942.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Changes_in_nutritional_yield_y_axis_as_a_result_of_increasing_food_volume_with_body_mass_28_59_kg_z_axis_at_10_minute_increments_of_feeding_on_C_4_sources_x_axis_for_yearling_baboons_a_and_yearling_baboon_with_increased_manipulatory_capabilities_m_2_i_e_/896571", "title"=>"Changes in nutritional yield (<i>y</i>-axis) as a result of increasing food volume with body mass 28–59 kg (<i>z</i>-axis) at 10-minute increments of feeding on C<sub>4</sub> sources (<i>x</i>-axis) for yearling baboons (a) and yearling baboon with increased manipulatory capabilities m = 2, i.e. a doubling the efficiency (<i>B<sub>j</sub></i>) with which they process corms (b).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-01-08 03:22:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1341617"], "description"=>"<p>In (a) the empirical data for yearling <i>Papio cynocephalus</i> are shown. In (b) the basic model shown in (a) is scaled up to account for larger body masses and feeding on all C<sub>4</sub> sources is increased until the target of approximately 9700 kJ is reached (i). Then, once the model has been scaled to larger body masses, only the time feeding for stolons, leaves, meristem and seeds is increased (ii.), or on leaves (iii) or corms (iv); feeding time on fruits and invertebrates was kept constant to the level of yearling baboons (ii–iv). In (c) the models outlined in (b) are repeated with improved manipulations skills for the processing of corms (m = 2). In (d) only C<sub>4</sub> food sources that are well-suited to be broken down by <i>P. boisei</i> dento-cranial morphology, i.e. hard, brittle or soft, are selected. The effects of manipulatory capabilities (m) were tested. The models shown in (e) are considered most appropriate for inferences about the feeding ecology of <i>P. boisei.</i> These are achieved when all C<sub>4</sub> sources are selected, but only feeding time on corms is increased beyond the time observed in yearling baboons. The total time available for feeding, including foraging, is assumed to be 50% of the day in all models, i.e. 360 minutes.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology", "Paleontology", "paleobiology", "paleoecology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "Behavioral ecology", "Evolutionary ecology", "Evolutionary processes", "diagram", "eaten", "kg"], "article_id"=>896575, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Gabriele A. Macho"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0084942.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_diagram_of_the_composition_of_diet_eaten_by_a_34_8211_49_kg_hominin_/896575", "title"=>"Summary diagram of the composition of diet eaten by a 34–49 kg hominin.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-01-08 03:22:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1341612"], "description"=>"<p>Tensile stresses (σ) would occur when lateral loads are applied to a straight-walled tooth and the force vector is directed outside the dental tissue. Without decussating enamel, i.e. bundels of enamel prisms crossing over, transverse cracks initiated on the unloaded side will propagate through the tissue and will lead to catastrophic failure of the tooth. Cracks tend to travel along the protein-rich prism sheaths and are stopped by differently-oriented prisms. Such oblique/transverse breakages are frequently found in <i>P. boisei</i> teeth and are illustrated here in a sample of SEM pictures. Although these breaks may have occurred post mortem, they illustrate the plane of least resistance and thus allow an assessment of the loading conditions to which the tooth should not have been subjected <i>in vivo</i>. Images are not to scale and are for illustration only.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology", "Paleontology", "paleobiology", "paleoecology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "Behavioral ecology", "Evolutionary ecology", "Evolutionary processes", "tensile", "stresses", "breakages"], "article_id"=>896570, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Gabriele A. Macho"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0084942.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Illustration_of_the_tensile_stresses_and_resulting_breakages_in_P_boisei_teeth_/896570", "title"=>"Illustration of the tensile stresses (σ) and resulting breakages in <i>P. boisei</i> teeth.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-01-08 03:22:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1341608"], "description"=>"<p>The phytogeographical zone IV (Somalia-Masai steppe and shrubland) was occupied by <i>P. boisei</i> and is now occupied by the <i>Papio cynocephalus</i> population used in this study. I Guineo-Congolian humid forest, II Zambezian miombo woodland, III Sudanian woodland, IV Somalia-Masai steppe and shrubland, X–XII transition mosaic of forest/savanna/woodland, VIII Afromontane domain. The location of the <i>A. bahrelghazali</i> sites in Chad falls outside these recognised zones (stippled). Hence, no attempt was made to more accurately assess the possible dietary ecology of this species.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology", "Paleontology", "paleobiology", "paleoecology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "Behavioral ecology", "Evolutionary ecology", "Evolutionary processes", "africa", "phytogeographical", "adapted"], "article_id"=>896567, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Gabriele A. Macho"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0084942.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>25, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Map_of_Africa_showing_the_phytogeographical_zones_adapted_from_27_/896567", "title"=>"Map of Africa showing the phytogeographical zones, adapted from [27].", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-01-08 03:22:23"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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