In Vitro and In Vivo Enhancement of Adipogenesis by Italian Ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) in 3T3-L1 Cells and Mice
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{"title"=>"In vitro and in vivo enhancement of adipogenesis by Italian Ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) in 3T3-L1 cells and mice", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Mariadhas Valan", "last_name"=>"Arasu", "scopus_author_id"=>"24605153800"}, {"first_name"=>"Soundharrajan", "last_name"=>"Ilavenil", "scopus_author_id"=>"55945432500"}, {"first_name"=>"Da Hye", "last_name"=>"Kim", "scopus_author_id"=>"57198636960"}, {"first_name"=>"Sang Gun", "last_name"=>"Roh", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004951490"}, {"first_name"=>"Jeong Chae", "last_name"=>"Lee", "scopus_author_id"=>"7601461931"}, {"first_name"=>"Ki Choon", "last_name"=>"Choi", "scopus_author_id"=>"9533758700"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0085297", "sgr"=>"84897998992", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"372801861", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pmid"=>"24454838", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84897998992"}, "id"=>"a6efa233-6d8e-3c0a-89b4-d7151c6a0c42", "abstract"=>"Adipogenesis is very much important in improving the quality of meat in animals. The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro and in vivo adipogenesis regulation properties of Lolium multiflorum on 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes and mice. Chemical composition of petroleum ether extract of L. multiflorum (PET-LM) confirmed the presence of fatty acids, such as α-linolenic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, oleic acid, docosatetraenoic acid, and caprylic acid, as the major compounds. PET-LM treatment increased viability, lipid accumulation, lipolysis, cell cycle progression, and DNA synthesis in the cells. PET-LM treatment also augmented peroxysome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)-γ2, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-α, adiponectin, adipocyte binding protein, glucose transporter-4, fatty acid synthase, and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 expression at mRNA and protein levels in differentiated adipocytes. In addition, mice administered with 200 mg/kg body weight PET-LM for 8 weeks showed greater body weight than control mice. These findings suggest that PET-LM facilitates adipogenesis by stimulating PPARγ-mediated signaling cascades in adipocytes which could be useful for quality meat development in animals.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/vitro-vivo-enhancement-adipogenesis-italian-ryegrass-lolium-multiflorum-3t3l1-cells-mice-1", "reader_count"=>9, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Researcher"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>2, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>1, "Other"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Researcher"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>2, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>1, "Other"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>3, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>2, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>3}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}}, "group_count"=>1}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1345922"], "description"=>"<p>Cells were serum-starved for 12 h and then exposed to 0 (A), 10 (C), 50 (D), and 100 µg/ml PET-LM (E) for additional-24 h. The cells in panel B were incubated for the same times in the presence of 10% FBS as the positive control. Cell cycle progression was analyzed using a flow cytometer and a representative result from triplicate experiments was shown. (F) Cell population in the S phase of the cell cycle progression was calculated from triplicate experiments. <sup>*</sup>p<0.05 vs. the non-treated control cells.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Animal management", "Animal nutrition", "Animal welfare", "Biochemistry", "lipids", "Fatty acids", "biotechnology", "Model organisms", "Animal models", "mouse", "Molecular cell biology", "Cell death", "cell division", "Cell growth", "cytometric", "pet-lm-treated", "3t3-l1"], "article_id"=>899917, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Mariadhas Valan Arasu", "Soundharrajan Ilavenil", "Da Hye Kim", "Sang Gun Roh", "Jeong-Chae Lee", "Ki Choon Choi"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0085297.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>240, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Flow_cytometric_analysis_of_cell_cycle_progress_in_PET_LM_treated_3T3_L1_pre_adipocytes_/899917", "title"=>"Flow cytometric analysis of cell cycle progress in PET-LM-treated 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-01-13 02:43:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1345925"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Cells were incubated in adipogenic differentiation medium with and without 50 or 100 µg /ml PET-LM for 5 or 10 days. mRNA expression patterns of PPARγ2, C/EBP-α, adiponectin, aP2, FAS, GLUT-4, and SREBP-1 were analyzed by real-time RT-PCR. The results represent the mean ± SE of triplicate experiments. Different letters within each treatment represents significant differences among the experiments at the same incubation time (p<0.05 level). (B) In addition, differentiated 3T3-L1 cells for 5 days were processed for immunoblot analysis using antibodies specific to PPARγ, C/EBP-α, and aP2. (C) The relative fold increases in the protein induction were calculated using a densitometer after normalizing the band intensity to that of β-actin. <sup>*</sup>p<0.05, <sup>**</sup>p<0.01, and <sup>***</sup>p<0.001 vs. the non-treated controls.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Animal management", "Animal nutrition", "Animal welfare", "Biochemistry", "lipids", "Fatty acids", "biotechnology", "Model organisms", "Animal models", "mouse", "Molecular cell biology", "Cell death", "cell division", "Cell growth", "pet-lm", "adipogenesis-related", "mrna"], "article_id"=>899920, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Mariadhas Valan Arasu", "Soundharrajan Ilavenil", "Da Hye Kim", "Sang Gun Roh", "Jeong-Chae Lee", "Ki Choon Choi"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0085297.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_of_PET_LM_on_adipogenesis_related_factor_mRNA_and_protein_expression_/899920", "title"=>"Effect of PET-LM on adipogenesis-related factor mRNA and protein expression.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-01-13 02:43:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1345923"], "description"=>"<p>Cells cultured in 96 multiwell culture plates were incubated for 24 in the presence of the indicated concentrations of PET-LM without FBS and then proliferation rates were analyzed using <sup>3</sup>H-TdR incorporation. <sup>*</sup>p<0.05 and <sup>**</sup>p<0.01 vs. the non-treated control.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Animal management", "Animal nutrition", "Animal welfare", "Biochemistry", "lipids", "Fatty acids", "biotechnology", "Model organisms", "Animal models", "mouse", "Molecular cell biology", "Cell death", "cell division", "Cell growth", "pet-lm", "dna", "synthesis", "3t3-l1"], "article_id"=>899918, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Mariadhas Valan Arasu", "Soundharrajan Ilavenil", "Da Hye Kim", "Sang Gun Roh", "Jeong-Chae Lee", "Ki Choon Choi"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0085297.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_of_PET_LM_on_DNA_synthesis_of_3T3_L1_pre_adipocytes_/899918", "title"=>"Effect of PET-LM on DNA synthesis of 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-01-13 02:43:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1345919"], "description"=>"<p>Cells were incubated in adipogenic differentiation medium without (A and C) and with 100 µg /ml PET-LM (B and D) for 10 days. Panels A and B show a representative picture (20× magnification) from three independent experiments. The cells in panels C and D were processed for Oil Red O staining and a representative photograph (10× magnification) from triplicate experiments is shown. (E) The absorbance of Oil Red O incorporated into the differentiated cells in the presence and absence of 100 µg/ml PET-LM for 10 days was determined at 490 nm. (F) The cells were also processed for glycerol accumulation assay after 5 days of differentiation. The results show the mean ± SE from triplicate experiments. <sup>*</sup>p<0.05 and <sup>**</sup>p<0.01 vs. the non-treated control values.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Animal management", "Animal nutrition", "Animal welfare", "Biochemistry", "lipids", "Fatty acids", "biotechnology", "Model organisms", "Animal models", "mouse", "Molecular cell biology", "Cell death", "cell division", "Cell growth", "pet-lm", "differentiation", "lipid", "droplet", "glycerol", "accumulation", "3t3-l1"], "article_id"=>899914, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Mariadhas Valan Arasu", "Soundharrajan Ilavenil", "Da Hye Kim", "Sang Gun Roh", "Jeong-Chae Lee", "Ki Choon Choi"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0085297.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_of_PET_LM_on_differentiation_and_lipid_droplet_and_glycerol_accumulation_in_3T3_L1_adipocytes_/899914", "title"=>"Effect of PET-LM on differentiation and lipid droplet and glycerol accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-01-13 02:43:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1345914"], "description"=>"<p>The result shows a LC-MS/MS profile with the chemical structures for fatty acids contained in PET-LM. A, α-Linolenic acid; B,Docosahexaenoic acid; C, Oleic acid; D, Docosatetraenoic acid; E, Caprylic acid.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Animal management", "Animal nutrition", "Animal welfare", "Biochemistry", "lipids", "Fatty acids", "biotechnology", "Model organisms", "Animal models", "mouse", "Molecular cell biology", "Cell death", "cell division", "Cell growth"], "article_id"=>899909, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Mariadhas Valan Arasu", "Soundharrajan Ilavenil", "Da Hye Kim", "Sang Gun Roh", "Jeong-Chae Lee", "Ki Choon Choi"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0085297.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_LC_MS_MS_analysis_of_PET_LM_/899909", "title"=>"LC-MS/MS analysis of PET-LM.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-01-13 02:43:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1345926"], "description"=>"<p>Mice (n = 6 per each experiment) were orally administered with 200 µl distilled water containing 0, 100, and 200 mg/kg body weight PET- LM every two times per week for 8 weeks. Body weight of animals was measured at various times after oral supplementation. The results represent the mean ± SE of duplicate experiments. <sup>*</sup>p<0.05 indicates a significant difference between experiments at the same day.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Animal management", "Animal nutrition", "Animal welfare", "Biochemistry", "lipids", "Fatty acids", "biotechnology", "Model organisms", "Animal models", "mouse", "Molecular cell biology", "Cell death", "cell division", "Cell growth", "pet-lm", "supplementation"], "article_id"=>899922, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Mariadhas Valan Arasu", "Soundharrajan Ilavenil", "Da Hye Kim", "Sang Gun Roh", "Jeong-Chae Lee", "Ki Choon Choi"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0085297.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_of_oral_PET_LM_supplementation_on_the_body_weight_of_animals_/899922", "title"=>"Effect of oral PET-LM supplementation on the body weight of animals.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-01-13 02:43:30"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"38", "full-text"=>"31", "pdf"=>"32", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"16", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"15", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"12", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"45", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"32", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"40", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"46", "abstract"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"28", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"19", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"14", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"10"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2014-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2014-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences", "average_usage"=>[291]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Anatomy", "average_usage"=>[267]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Biochemistry", "average_usage"=>[282]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Developmental biology", "average_usage"=>[285]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Physiology", "average_usage"=>[280]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Physiology", "average_usage"=>[278]}]}
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