Long-Term Sorption of Metals Is Similar among Plastic Types: Implications for Plastic Debris in Aquatic Environments
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{"title"=>"Long-term sorption of metals is similar among plastic types: Implications for plastic debris in aquatic environments", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Chelsea M.", "last_name"=>"Rochman", "scopus_author_id"=>"53364312100"}, {"first_name"=>"Brian T.", "last_name"=>"Hentschel", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003403483"}, {"first_name"=>"Swee J.", "last_name"=>"The", "scopus_author_id"=>"56115086100"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84893380298", "sgr"=>"84893380298", "issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pmid"=>"24454866", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0085433", "pui"=>"372838321"}, "id"=>"b92ee8d2-e151-338f-84a1-6b4e0d51be6b", "abstract"=>"Concerns regarding plastic debris and its ability to accumulate large concentrations of priority pollutants in the aquatic environment led us to quantify relationships between different types of mass-produced plastic and metals in seawater. At three locations in San Diego Bay, we measured the accumulation of nine targeted metals (aluminum, chromium, manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, zinc, cadmium and lead) sampling at 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months, to five plastic types: polyethylene terephthalate (PET), high-density polyethylene (HDPE), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), low-density polyethylene (LDPE), and polypropylene (PP). Accumulation patterns were not consistent over space and time, and in general all types of plastic tended to accumulate similar concentrations of metals. When we did observe significant differences among concentrations of metals at a single sampling period or location in San Diego Bay, we found that HDPE typically accumulated lesser concentrations of metals than the other four polymers. Furthermore, over the 12-month study period, concentrations of all metals increased over time, and chromium, manganese, cobalt, nickel, zinc and lead did not reach saturation on at least one plastic type during the entire 12-month exposure. This suggests that plastic debris may accumulate greater concentrations of metals the longer it remains at sea. Overall, our work shows that a complex mixture of metals, including those listed as priority pollutants by the US EPA (Cd, Ni, Zn and Pb), can be found on plastic debris composed of various plastic types.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/longterm-sorption-metals-similar-among-plastic-types-implications-plastic-debris-aquatic-environment", "reader_count"=>82, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Researcher"=>21, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>14, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>16, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>13, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Researcher"=>21, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>14, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>16, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>13, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>7, "Engineering"=>6, "Environmental Science"=>37, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Materials Science"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>17, "Chemistry"=>6, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>6}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>6}, "Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>1}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>6}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>6}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>17}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>7}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>37}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Belgium"=>2, "United States"=>1, "France"=>1, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>4}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1347496"], "description"=>"<p>Concentrations of Al, Cr, Fe and Pb (ng/g of pellets) vs time for each type of plastic at Nimitz Marine Facility (NMF) or Shelter Island (SI) where contamination was greatest. Rows represent plastic types PET, HDPE, PVC, LDPE and PP (in order from top to bottom). Columns represent metals ordered from left to right according to molecular weight. Note that vertical axes differ among graphs. Data were fit to the first-order approach to equilibrium model <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0085433#pone.0085433-Mato1\" target=\"_blank\">[26]</a> using the exponential rise to maximum equation C<sub>t</sub>  =  C<sub>eq</sub> (1 − e<sup>−kt</sup>), where C<sub>t</sub> is the concentration at time t, C<sub>eq</sub> is the predicted equilibrium concentration, and k is the rate constant. The horizontal dotted line denotes the predicted C<sub>eq</sub> for each plastic type. Where no equation is given, the model could not be fit to the data and where no horizontal line is given the non-linear regression was not statistically significant (p>0.05).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Coastal ecology", "Environmental protection", "Marine ecology", "Marine biology", "Environmental chemistry", "pollutants", "Heavy metals", "Urban runoff", "marine and aquatic sciences", "fe", "pb"], "article_id"=>901168, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Chemistry", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Chelsea M. Rochman", "Brian T. Hentschel", "Swee J. Teh"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0085433.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Concentrations_of_Al_Cr_Fe_and_Pb_over_time_/901168", "title"=>"Concentrations of Al, Cr, Fe and Pb over time.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-01-15 02:56:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1347487"], "description"=>"<p>The map shows the three study locations: Coronado Cays, Shelter Island and Nimitz Marine Facility. Figure generated with ArcGIS version 9.3.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Coastal ecology", "Environmental protection", "Marine ecology", "Marine biology", "Environmental chemistry", "pollutants", "Heavy metals", "Urban runoff", "marine and aquatic sciences", "san", "diego"], "article_id"=>901163, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Chemistry", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Chelsea M. Rochman", "Brian T. Hentschel", "Swee J. Teh"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0085433.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Map_of_San_Diego_Bay_/901163", "title"=>"Map of San Diego Bay.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-01-15 02:56:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1347488"], "description"=>"<p>Concentrations of metals are shown for each of the five plastic types (PET-black, HDPE-hatched, PVC-diagonal stripes, LDPE-white, PP-horizontal stripes) at each of the three sites (CC-Cornado Cays, SI-Shelter Island, NMF-Nimitz Marine Facility) ordered from the back to the front of the bay. Each graph represents one of the 9 targeted metals (Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, Cd, Pb) ordered from left to right according to molecular weight. Each bar represents the mean concentration (ng/g) + standard error (n = 2). A non-detect is denoted by nd. ANOVA showed statistically significant differences among plastic types (<i>P</i><0.05)* for Fe and Cd.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Coastal ecology", "Environmental protection", "Marine ecology", "Marine biology", "Environmental chemistry", "pollutants", "Heavy metals", "Urban runoff", "marine and aquatic sciences", "concentrations", "12", "months", "san", "diego"], "article_id"=>901164, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Chemistry", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Chelsea M. Rochman", "Brian T. Hentschel", "Swee J. Teh"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0085433.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Metal_concentrations_ng_g_for_each_plastic_type_after_12_months_in_San_Diego_Bay_/901164", "title"=>"Metal concentrations (ng/g) for each plastic type after 12 months in San Diego Bay.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-01-15 02:56:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1347534", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1347536", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1347537", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1347538", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1347539", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1347540", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1347541", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1347542", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1347543", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1347544", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1347545", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1347546", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1347548", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1347549", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1347550", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1347551", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1347552", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1347554", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1347555", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1347556", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1347557"], "description"=>"<div><p>Concerns regarding plastic debris and its ability to accumulate large concentrations of priority pollutants in the aquatic environment led us to quantify relationships between different types of mass-produced plastic and metals in seawater. At three locations in San Diego Bay, we measured the accumulation of nine targeted metals (aluminum, chromium, manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, zinc, cadmium and lead) sampling at 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months, to five plastic types: polyethylene terephthalate (PET), high-density polyethylene (HDPE), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), low-density polyethylene (LDPE), and polypropylene (PP). Accumulation patterns were not consistent over space and time, and in general all types of plastic tended to accumulate similar concentrations of metals. When we did observe significant differences among concentrations of metals at a single sampling period or location in San Diego Bay, we found that HDPE typically accumulated lesser concentrations of metals than the other four polymers. Furthermore, over the 12-month study period, concentrations of all metals increased over time, and chromium, manganese, cobalt, nickel, zinc and lead did not reach saturation on at least one plastic type during the entire 12-month exposure. This suggests that plastic debris may accumulate greater concentrations of metals the longer it remains at sea. Overall, our work shows that a complex mixture of metals, including those listed as priority pollutants by the US EPA (Cd, Ni, Zn and Pb), can be found on plastic debris composed of various plastic types.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Coastal ecology", "Environmental protection", "Marine ecology", "Marine biology", "Environmental chemistry", "pollutants", "Heavy metals", "Urban runoff", "marine and aquatic sciences", "sorption", "metals", "implications", "aquatic"], "article_id"=>901205, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Chemistry", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Chelsea M. Rochman", "Brian T. Hentschel", "Swee J. Teh"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0085433.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0085433.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0085433.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0085433.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0085433.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0085433.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0085433.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0085433.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0085433.s009", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0085433.s010", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0085433.s011", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0085433.s012", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0085433.s013", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0085433.s014", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0085433.s015", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0085433.s016", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0085433.s017", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0085433.s018", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0085433.s019", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0085433.s020", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0085433.s021"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>19, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Long_Term_Sorption_of_Metals_Is_Similar_among_Plastic_Types_Implications_for_Plastic_Debris_in_Aquatic_Environments_/901205", "title"=>"Long-Term Sorption of Metals Is Similar among Plastic Types: Implications for Plastic Debris in Aquatic Environments", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2014-01-15 02:56:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1347494"], "description"=>"<p>Concentrations of Mn, Co, Ni, Zn and Cd (ng/g of pellets) vs time for each type of plastic at Coronado Cays (CC) where contamination was greatest. Rows represent plastic types PET, HDPE, PVC, LDPE and PP (in order from top to bottom). Columns represent metals ordered from left to right according to molecular weight. Note that vertical axes differ among graphs. Data were fit to the first-order approach to equilibrium model <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0085433#pone.0085433-Mato1\" target=\"_blank\">[26]</a> using the exponential rise to maximum equation C<sub>t</sub>  =  C<sub>eq</sub> (1 − e<sup>−kt</sup>), where C<sub>t</sub> is the concentration at time t, C<sub>eq</sub> is the predicted equilibrium concentration, and k is the rate constant. The horizontal dotted line denotes the predicted C<sub>eq</sub> for each plastic type. Where no equation is given, the model could not be fit to the data and where no horizontal line is given the non-linear regression was not statistically significant (p>0.05).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Coastal ecology", "Environmental protection", "Marine ecology", "Marine biology", "Environmental chemistry", "pollutants", "Heavy metals", "Urban runoff", "marine and aquatic sciences", "zn", "cd"], "article_id"=>901166, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Chemistry", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Chelsea M. Rochman", "Brian T. Hentschel", "Swee J. Teh"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0085433.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Concentrations_of_Mn_Co_Ni_Zn_and_Cd_over_time_/901166", "title"=>"Concentrations of Mn, Co, Ni, Zn and Cd over time.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-01-15 02:56:24"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2014-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2014-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Computer and information sciences", "average_usage"=>[327, 511]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Ecology and environmental sciences/Environmental chemistry", "average_usage"=>[265]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Physical sciences", "average_usage"=>[271]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Physical sciences/Mathematics", "average_usage"=>[286]}]}
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