Disruption of TgPHIL1 Alters Specific Parameters of Toxoplasma gondii Motility Measured in a Quantitative, Three-Dimensional Live Motility Assay
Events
Loading … Spinner

Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Disruption of TgPHIL1 alters specific parameters of Toxoplasma gondii motility measured in a quantitative, three-dimensional live motility assay", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Jacqueline M.", "last_name"=>"Leung", "scopus_author_id"=>"35724336200"}, {"first_name"=>"Mark A.", "last_name"=>"Rould", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701848506"}, {"first_name"=>"Christoph", "last_name"=>"Konradt", "scopus_author_id"=>"35761279300"}, {"first_name"=>"Christopher A.", "last_name"=>"Hunter", "scopus_author_id"=>"7202704283"}, {"first_name"=>"Gary E.", "last_name"=>"Ward", "scopus_author_id"=>"7202225262"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84898408079", "sgr"=>"84898408079", "issn"=>"19326203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0085763", "pmid"=>"24489670", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "pui"=>"373070559"}, "id"=>"283d82b4-6f3e-353a-97c1-3a0b681da450", "abstract"=>"T. gondii uses substrate-dependent gliding motility to invade cells of its hosts, egress from these cells at the end of its lytic cycle and disseminate through the host organism during infection. The ability of the parasite to move is therefore critical for its virulence. T. gondii engages in three distinct types of gliding motility on coated two-dimensional surfaces: twirling, circular gliding and helical gliding. We show here that motility in a three-dimensional Matrigel-based environment is strikingly different, in that all parasites move in irregular corkscrew-like trajectories. Methods developed for quantitative analysis of motility parameters along the smoothed trajectories demonstrate a complex but periodic pattern of motility with mean and maximum velocities of 0.58 ± 0.07 µm/s and 2.01 ± 0.17 µm/s, respectively. To test how a change in the parasite's crescent shape might affect trajectory parameters, we compared the motility of Δphil1 parasites, which are shorter and wider than wild type, to the corresponding parental and complemented lines. Although comparable percentages of parasites were moving for all three lines, the Δphil1 mutant exhibited significantly decreased trajectory lengths and mean and maximum velocities compared to the parental parasite line. These effects were either partially or fully restored upon complementation of the Δphil1 mutant. These results show that alterations in morphology may have a significant impact on T. gondii motility in an extracellular matrix-like environment, provide a possible explanation for the decreased fitness of Δphil1 parasites in vivo, and demonstrate the utility of the quantitative three-dimensional assay for studying parasite motility.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/disruption-tgphil1-alters-specific-parameters-toxoplasma-gondii-motility-measured-quantitative-three", "reader_count"=>31, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Researcher"=>4, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>7, "Student > Master"=>5, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Researcher"=>4, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>7, "Student > Master"=>5, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>5, "Unspecified"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3, "Mathematics"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>13, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Computer Science"=>5, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>5}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>13}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>5}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"India"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

Scopus | Further Information

{"@_fa"=>"true", "link"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"self", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84898408079"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"author-affiliation", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84898408079?field=author,affiliation"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=84898408079&origin=inward"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus-citedby", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=84898408079&origin=inward"}], "prism:url"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84898408079", "dc:identifier"=>"SCOPUS_ID:84898408079", "eid"=>"2-s2.0-84898408079", "dc:title"=>"Disruption of TgPHIL1 alters specific parameters of Toxoplasma gondii motility measured in a quantitative, three-dimensional live motility assay", "dc:creator"=>"Leung J.", "prism:publicationName"=>"PLoS ONE", "prism:eIssn"=>"19326203", "prism:volume"=>"9", "prism:issueIdentifier"=>"1", "prism:pageRange"=>nil, "prism:coverDate"=>"2014-01-29", "prism:coverDisplayDate"=>"29 January 2014", "prism:doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0085763", "citedby-count"=>"30", "affiliation"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "affilname"=>"University of Vermont", "affiliation-city"=>"Burlington", "affiliation-country"=>"United States"}], "pubmed-id"=>"24489670", "prism:aggregationType"=>"Journal", "subtype"=>"ar", "subtypeDescription"=>"Article", "article-number"=>"e85763", "source-id"=>"10600153309", "openaccess"=>"1", "openaccessFlag"=>true}

Facebook

  • {"url"=>"http%3A%2F%2Fjournals.plos.org%2Fplosone%2Farticle%3Fid%3D10.1371%252Fjournal.pone.0085763", "share_count"=>0, "like_count"=>0, "comment_count"=>0, "click_count"=>0, "total_count"=>0}

Counter

  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"24", "xml_views"=>"15", "html_views"=>"135"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"81", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"236"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"19", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"110"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"130"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"95"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"92"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"55"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"54"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"65"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"48"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"51"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"34"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"42"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"17"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"27"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"29"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"41"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"24"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"28"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"38"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"42"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"72"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"66"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"93"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"64"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"0", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"26"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"40"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"30"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"16"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"10"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"36"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"25"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"36"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"25"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"20"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"26"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"25"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"39"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"27"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"28"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"24"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"28"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"23"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"27"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"17"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"5", "html_views"=>"27"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"70"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"36"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"28"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"14"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"31"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"5"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"6"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"3"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"11"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"14"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"22"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"20"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"8"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"6"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"15"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"11"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"13"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"12"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"13"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"10"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"3"}

Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1366082"], "description"=>"<p>(<b>A</b>) RH strain <i>T. gondii</i> tachyzoites expressing a tandem tomato fluorescence cassette (RH-OVA-tdTomato) were injected into a mouse earflap and imaged by two-photon laser scanning microscopy. A maximum intensity projection (MIP) shows parasites that move in a corkscrew-like fashion (<i>e.g.</i>, dashed white box). Scale bar = 29 µm. See <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0085763#pone.0085763.s009\" target=\"_blank\">Video S1</a> for the corresponding movie. (<b>A'</b>) Higher magnification view of dashed white box in (A); scale bar = 12 µm. (<b>B</b>) Assembly and dimensions of the imaging (“Pitta”) chamber. Coverslips were assembled using double-sided tape, and perfused with a 1∶3∶3 mixture of parasites treated with Hoechst 33342, 3D motility media and chilled Matrigel, respectively. (<b>C</b>) Pitta chambers were incubated at 27°C for 7 min, followed by 2 min equilibration in the preheated 35°C microscope enclosure. Fluorescent parasite nuclei were imaged for 60 s in a 402 µm×401 µm×40 µm volume (approximately 67 z-stacks, with 41 z-slices captured every 0.88 s) by time-lapse fluorescence videomicroscopy. Datasets were visualized during acquisition by generating MIPs, tracked using the Imaris software, and then analyzed using the Bugs software as indicated in the workflow. (<b>D</b>) A MIP showing that parasites also move in corkscrew-like trajectories in Matrigel. Scale bar = 50 µm. See <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0085763#pone.0085763.s011\" target=\"_blank\">Video S3</a> for the corresponding movie. (<b>D'</b>) Higher magnification view of dashed white box in (D); scale bar = 10 µm. The colour scheme for all MIPs was inverted for better visualization of parasite trajectories.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["microbiology", "Host-pathogen interaction", "Microbial pathogens", "Parasitology", "pathogenesis", "Model organisms", "Animal models", "mouse", "Molecular cell biology", "Cellular structures", "cytoskeleton", "Extracellular matrix", "Membranes and sorting", "algorithms", "Computer modeling", "software engineering", "Software design", "Software tools", "Infectious diseases", "Parasitic diseases", "toxoplasmosis", "moves", "corkscrew-like"], "article_id"=>917768, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Jacqueline M. Leung", "Mark A. Rould", "Christoph Konradt", "Christopher A. Hunter", "Gary E. Ward"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0085763.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_T_gondii_moves_in_a_corkscrew_like_manner_in_three_dimensions_/917768", "title"=>"<i>T. gondii</i> moves in a corkscrew-like manner in three dimensions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-01-29 03:32:43"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1366083"], "description"=>"<p>(<b>A</b>) and (<b>B</b>) Positional coordinates for two representative wild-type (RH) parasite trajectories are visualized as connected, discrete trackpoints (white), and overlaid with the trajectory after smoothing (green). Scale bar = 7 µm. (<b>C</b>) and (<b>D</b>) Plots of velocity (red), curvature (green) and torsion (blue) values along the length of the parasite trajectories shown in panels A and B, respectively. The curvature and torsion values would be constant through time for a regular helix; the variation in these measurements along the parasite trajectories shows that they move in irregular-shaped yet periodically fluctuating corkscrews.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["microbiology", "Host-pathogen interaction", "Microbial pathogens", "Parasitology", "pathogenesis", "Model organisms", "Animal models", "mouse", "Molecular cell biology", "Cellular structures", "cytoskeleton", "Extracellular matrix", "Membranes and sorting", "algorithms", "Computer modeling", "software engineering", "Software design", "Software tools", "Infectious diseases", "Parasitic diseases", "toxoplasmosis", "3d", "trajectories", "parasites"], "article_id"=>917769, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Jacqueline M. Leung", "Mark A. Rould", "Christoph Konradt", "Christopher A. Hunter", "Gary E. Ward"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0085763.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Visualization_and_analysis_of_two_representative_3D_trajectories_of_parasites_in_Matrigel_/917769", "title"=>"Visualization and analysis of two representative 3D trajectories of parasites in Matrigel.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-01-29 03:32:43"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1366084"], "description"=>"<p>(<b>A</b>) MIPs for wild-type (RH), <i>TgPHIL1</i> knockout (Δ<i>phil1</i>) and complemented (Comp) parasites. Scale bar = 50 µm. The colour scheme for all MIPs was inverted for better visualization of parasite trajectories. The percentage of total parasites moving (<b>B</b>) was comparable for the three parasite lines, but the cumulative frequency distribution (<b>C</b>) and histogram (<b>D</b>) of the smoothed trajectory lengths for RH (black), Δ<i>phil1</i> (red) and Comp parasites (grey) reveal that the Δ<i>phil1</i> parasites do not move as far as the RH or Comp parasites within the same timeframe (Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, D = 0.199, p<0.0001 and D = 0.114, p<0.0001, respectively). The Δ<i>phil1</i> parasites also exhibited significantly decreased mean velocity compared to the RH parasites (<b>E</b>) and significantly reduced maximum velocity compared to both RH and Comp parasites (<b>F</b>) (paired t-test, significance indicated by asterisks). Closed data points are the results from five independent experiments comparing RH and Δ<i>phil1</i> parasites; open data points are the results from four independent experiments comparing Δ<i>phil1</i> and Comp parasites. Each of the independent experiments (assigned a different colour in the scatter plot) was performed in either triplicate or quadruplicate. The total number of parasites analyzed was 6,467 for RH, 9,305 for Δ<i>phil1</i> and 3,743 for Comp. * p<0.05, ** p<0.001, ns = not significant.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["microbiology", "Host-pathogen interaction", "Microbial pathogens", "Parasitology", "pathogenesis", "Model organisms", "Animal models", "mouse", "Molecular cell biology", "Cellular structures", "cytoskeleton", "Extracellular matrix", "Membranes and sorting", "algorithms", "Computer modeling", "software engineering", "Software design", "Software tools", "Infectious diseases", "Parasitic diseases", "toxoplasmosis", "motility"], "article_id"=>917770, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Jacqueline M. Leung", "Mark A. Rould", "Christoph Konradt", "Christopher A. Hunter", "Gary E. Ward"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0085763.g003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_3D_motility_of_the_phil1_parasites_/917770", "title"=>"3D motility of the Δ<i>phil1</i> parasites.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-01-29 03:32:43"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1366085"], "description"=>"a<p>Percentage of parasites whose trajectories have a total displacement of >2 µm.</p>b<p>Percentage of parasites with a sufficient number of trackpoints (≥12) to apply a modified Fourier fit.</p>c<p>Calculated for fittable trajectories from moving parasites only.</p>d<p>Values expressed are mean ± SD except for trajectory lengths, which are expressed as median ± SD due to their non-Gaussian distribution.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["microbiology", "Host-pathogen interaction", "Microbial pathogens", "Parasitology", "pathogenesis", "Model organisms", "Animal models", "mouse", "Molecular cell biology", "Cellular structures", "cytoskeleton", "Extracellular matrix", "Membranes and sorting", "algorithms", "Computer modeling", "software engineering", "Software design", "Software tools", "Infectious diseases", "Parasitic diseases", "toxoplasmosis", "3d", "motility"], "article_id"=>917771, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Jacqueline M. Leung", "Mark A. Rould", "Christoph Konradt", "Christopher A. Hunter", "Gary E. Ward"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0085763.t001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_of_3D_motility_parameters_/917771", "title"=>"Summary of 3D motility parameters.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-01-29 03:32:43"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1366086", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1366087", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1366088", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1366089", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1366090", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1366091", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1366092", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1366093", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1366094", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1366095", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1366096"], "description"=>"<div><p><i>T. gondii</i> uses substrate-dependent gliding motility to invade cells of its hosts, egress from these cells at the end of its lytic cycle and disseminate through the host organism during infection. The ability of the parasite to move is therefore critical for its virulence. <i>T. gondii</i> engages in three distinct types of gliding motility on coated two-dimensional surfaces: twirling, circular gliding and helical gliding. We show here that motility in a three-dimensional Matrigel-based environment is strikingly different, in that all parasites move in irregular corkscrew-like trajectories. Methods developed for quantitative analysis of motility parameters along the smoothed trajectories demonstrate a complex but periodic pattern of motility with mean and maximum velocities of 0.58±0.07 µm/s and 2.01±0.17 µm/s, respectively. To test how a change in the parasite's crescent shape might affect trajectory parameters, we compared the motility of Δ<i>phil1</i> parasites, which are shorter and wider than wild type, to the corresponding parental and complemented lines. Although comparable percentages of parasites were moving for all three lines, the Δ<i>phil1</i> mutant exhibited significantly decreased trajectory lengths and mean and maximum velocities compared to the parental parasite line. These effects were either partially or fully restored upon complementation of the Δ<i>phil1</i> mutant. These results show that alterations in morphology may have a significant impact on <i>T. gondii</i> motility in an extracellular matrix-like environment, provide a possible explanation for the decreased fitness of Δ<i>phil1</i> parasites <i>in vivo</i>, and demonstrate the utility of the quantitative three-dimensional assay for studying parasite motility.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["microbiology", "Host-pathogen interaction", "Microbial pathogens", "Parasitology", "pathogenesis", "Model organisms", "Animal models", "mouse", "Molecular cell biology", "Cellular structures", "cytoskeleton", "Extracellular matrix", "Membranes and sorting", "algorithms", "Computer modeling", "software engineering", "Software design", "Software tools", "Infectious diseases", "Parasitic diseases", "toxoplasmosis", "disruption", "alters", "motility", "three-dimensional", "assay"], "article_id"=>917772, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Jacqueline M. Leung", "Mark A. Rould", "Christoph Konradt", "Christopher A. Hunter", "Gary E. Ward"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0085763.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0085763.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0085763.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0085763.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0085763.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0085763.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0085763.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0085763.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0085763.s009", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0085763.s010", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0085763.s011"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Disruption_of_TgPHIL1_Alters_Specific_Parameters_of_Toxoplasma_gondii_Motility_Measured_in_a_Quantitative_Three_Dimensional_Live_Motility_Assay/917772", "title"=>"Disruption of <i>TgPHIL1</i> Alters Specific Parameters of <i>Toxoplasma gondii</i> Motility Measured in a Quantitative, Three-Dimensional Live Motility Assay", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2014-01-29 03:32:43"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

  • {"unique-ip"=>"26", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"17", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"311", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"11", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"31", "full-text"=>"38", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"30", "full-text"=>"35", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"28", "full-text"=>"31", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"6", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"5", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"32", "full-text"=>"47", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"32", "full-text"=>"38", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"31", "full-text"=>"42", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"30", "full-text"=>"54", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"33", "full-text"=>"45", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"29", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"26", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"0", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"7", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2014-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2014-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Cell biology", "average_usage"=>[286]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Organisms", "average_usage"=>[310]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Parasitology", "average_usage"=>[398, 644]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences", "average_usage"=>[285]}]}
Loading … Spinner
There are currently no alerts