Nasal Epithelial Cells Can Act as a Physiological Surrogate for Paediatric Asthma Studies
Publication Date
January 27, 2014
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Surendran Thavagnanam, Jeremy C. Parker, Michael E. Mc Brien, Grzegorz Skibinski, et al
Volume
9
Issue
1
Pages
e85802
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0085802
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0085802
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24475053
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3903489
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/24475053
Web of Science
000330507300025
Scopus
84899965046
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/nasal-epithelial-cells-act-physiological-surrogate-paediatric-asthma-studies
Events
Loading … Spinner

Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Nasal epithelial cells can act as a physiological surrogate for paediatric asthma studies", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Surendran", "last_name"=>"Thavagnanam", "scopus_author_id"=>"23981448400"}, {"first_name"=>"Jeremy C.", "last_name"=>"Parker", "scopus_author_id"=>"13806414600"}, {"first_name"=>"Michael E.", "last_name"=>"McBrien", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004337979"}, {"first_name"=>"Grzegorz", "last_name"=>"Skibinski", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006556921"}, {"first_name"=>"Michael D.", "last_name"=>"Shields", "scopus_author_id"=>"7201513065"}, {"first_name"=>"LiamG", "last_name"=>"Heaney", "scopus_author_id"=>"8921275400"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pmid"=>"24475053", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0085802", "pui"=>"373040009", "issn"=>"19326203", "sgr"=>"84899965046", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84899965046"}, "id"=>"23db4ff8-5dd9-3b67-8634-6334b8193565", "abstract"=>"INTRODUCTION: Differentiated paediatric epithelial cells can be used to study the role of epithelial cells in asthma. Nasal epithelial cells are easier to obtain and may act as a surrogate for bronchial epithelium in asthma studies. We assessed the suitability of nasal epithelium from asthmatic children to be a surrogate for bronchial epithelium using air-liquid interface cultures.\\n\\nMETHODS: Paired nasal and bronchial epithelial cells from asthmatic children (n = 9) were differentiated for 28 days under unstimulated and IL-13-stimulated conditions. Morphological and physiological markers were analysed using immunocytochemistry, transepithelial-electrical-resistance, Quantitative Real-time-PCR, ELISA and multiplex cytokine/chemokine analysis.\\n\\nRESULTS: Physiologically, nasal epithelial cells from asthmatic children exhibit similar cytokine responses to stimulation with IL-13 compared with paired bronchial epithelial cells. Morphologically however, nasal epithelial cells differed significantly from bronchial epithelial cells from asthmatic patients under unstimulated and IL-13-stimulated conditions. Nasal epithelial cells exhibited lower proliferation/differentiation rates and lower percentages of goblet and ciliated cells when unstimulated, while exhibiting a diminished and varied response to IL-13.\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS: We conclude that morphologically, nasal epithelial cells would not be a suitable surrogate due to a significantly lower rate of proliferation and differentiation of goblet and ciliated cells. Physiologically, nasal epithelial cells respond similarly to exogenous stimulation with IL-13 in cytokine production and could be used as a physiological surrogate in the event that bronchial epithelial cells are not available.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/nasal-epithelial-cells-act-physiological-surrogate-paediatric-asthma-studies", "reader_count"=>23, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>5, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>8, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1, "Unspecified"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>5, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>8, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1, "Unspecified"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>11, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>8, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1, "Chemistry"=>1, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>11}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>8}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United Kingdom"=>1, "France"=>1, "Germany"=>2}, "group_count"=>0}

Scopus | Further Information

{"@_fa"=>"true", "link"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"self", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84899965046"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"author-affiliation", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84899965046?field=author,affiliation"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=84899965046&origin=inward"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus-citedby", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=84899965046&origin=inward"}], "prism:url"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84899965046", "dc:identifier"=>"SCOPUS_ID:84899965046", "eid"=>"2-s2.0-84899965046", "dc:title"=>"Nasal epithelial cells can act as a physiological surrogate for paediatric asthma studies", "dc:creator"=>"Thavagnanam S.", "prism:publicationName"=>"PLoS ONE", "prism:eIssn"=>"19326203", "prism:volume"=>"9", "prism:issueIdentifier"=>"1", "prism:pageRange"=>nil, "prism:coverDate"=>"2014-01-27", "prism:coverDisplayDate"=>"27 January 2014", "prism:doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0085802", "citedby-count"=>"13", "affiliation"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "affilname"=>"University of Malaya Medical Centre", "affiliation-city"=>"Kuala Lumpur", "affiliation-country"=>"Malaysia"}], "pubmed-id"=>"24475053", "prism:aggregationType"=>"Journal", "subtype"=>"ar", "subtypeDescription"=>"Article", "article-number"=>"e85802", "source-id"=>"10600153309", "openaccess"=>"1", "openaccessFlag"=>true}

Facebook

  • {"url"=>"http%3A%2F%2Fjournals.plos.org%2Fplosone%2Farticle%3Fid%3D10.1371%252Fjournal.pone.0085802", "share_count"=>0, "like_count"=>0, "comment_count"=>0, "click_count"=>0, "total_count"=>0}

Counter

  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"5", "html_views"=>"71"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"32", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"73"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"62"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"42"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"60"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"34"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"29"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"25"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"23"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"25"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"32"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"19"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"18"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"13"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"17"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"28"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"21"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"25"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"20"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"20"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"42"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"48"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"63"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"67"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"59"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"0", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"32"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"0", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"56"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"14"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"11"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"19"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"0", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"15"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"17"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"28"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"21"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"18"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"21"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"17"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"38"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"43"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"17"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"28"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"37"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"20"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"8", "html_views"=>"32"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"7", "html_views"=>"31"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"43"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"61"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"42"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"34"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"10"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"29"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"19"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"17"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"25"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"15"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"17"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"30"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"0", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"27"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"12"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"11"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"10"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"6"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"12"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"9"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"18"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"14"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"4"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"3"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"11"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"4"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"9"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"0", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"2"}

Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1361881"], "description"=>"<p>Under unstimulated conditions there were significant differences between PBECs and PNECs (p = 0.002). However under IL-13 stimulated conditions there were no significant differences between the same groups.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Biochemistry", "cytochemistry", "immunocytochemistry", "developmental biology", "Molecular development", "cytokines", "Cell differentiation", "Molecular cell biology", "Cellular types", "Epithelial cells", "Cell growth", "pediatrics", "Pediatric pulmonology", "Pulmonology", "asthma", "28", "ali"], "article_id"=>914325, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Surendran Thavagnanam", "Jeremy C. Parker", "Michael E. McBrien", "Grzegorz Skibinski", "Michael D Shields", "Liam G. Heaney"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0085802.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Total_cell_count_on_day_28_of_ALI_culture_/914325", "title"=>"Total cell count on day 28 of ALI culture.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-01-27 03:33:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1361880"], "description"=>"<p>A – Apical secretion of cytokines in PBEC and PNEC cultures. Results were corrected for cell numbers and a fold change ratio was calculated (IL-13 stimulated/unstimulated). In order to graphically represent all detectable cytokines the results were plotted on a logarithmic axis. There were no significant differences in any of the detected cytokines secreted between PNECs and PBECs. B - Basolateral secretion of cytokines in PBEC and PNEC cultures. Results were corrected for cell number and a fold change ratio was then calculated (IL-13 stimulated/unstimulated). In order to graphically represent all detectable cytokines the results were plotted on a logarithmic axis. There were no significant differences in any of the cytokines secreted between PNECs and PBECs.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Biochemistry", "cytochemistry", "immunocytochemistry", "developmental biology", "Molecular development", "cytokines", "Cell differentiation", "Molecular cell biology", "Cellular types", "Epithelial cells", "Cell growth", "pediatrics", "Pediatric pulmonology", "Pulmonology", "asthma", "apical", "washings", "basolateral", "supernatants"], "article_id"=>914324, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Surendran Thavagnanam", "Jeremy C. Parker", "Michael E. McBrien", "Grzegorz Skibinski", "Michael D Shields", "Liam G. Heaney"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0085802.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Cytokine_Analysis_of_Apical_Washings_and_Basolateral_Supernatants_using_Bioplex_/914324", "title"=>"Cytokine Analysis of Apical Washings and Basolateral Supernatants using Bioplex.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-01-27 03:33:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1361877"], "description"=>"<p>Number of goblet cells from PNECs and PBECs treated with 20/ml IL-13 expressed as the percentage differential goblet cell count corrected for cell number on d 28 of ALI culture. Comparisons of average values between groups were performed using paired t-tests. There was a significant difference seen between unstimulated and IL-13 stimulated PNECs (p = 0.0001) and in IL-13 stimulated PBECs when compared to unstimulated PBECs (p = 0.0036). Additionally, there was a significant difference between PNEC unstimulated and PBEC unstimulated (p = 0.033) and when cells where stimulated with IL-13, the percentage of goblet cells was significantly higher in stimulated PBECs compared to stimulated PNECs (p = 0.009).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Biochemistry", "cytochemistry", "immunocytochemistry", "developmental biology", "Molecular development", "cytokines", "Cell differentiation", "Molecular cell biology", "Cellular types", "Epithelial cells", "Cell growth", "pediatrics", "Pediatric pulmonology", "Pulmonology", "asthma", "goblet"], "article_id"=>914321, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Surendran Thavagnanam", "Jeremy C. Parker", "Michael E. McBrien", "Grzegorz Skibinski", "Michael D Shields", "Liam G. Heaney"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0085802.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Quantification_of_Goblet_Cell_Number_/914321", "title"=>"Quantification of Goblet Cell Number.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-01-27 03:33:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1361876"], "description"=>"<p>A - TEER of unstimulated PNECs and PBECs cultured for 28 d. Values are expressed as mean ± SD. No significant difference was observed in the TEER values between the groups. B - TEER of PNECs and PBECs cultured with 20 ng/ml IL-13 for 28 d. Values are expressed as mean ± SD. On days 7 and 14 there was a significant difference in TEER values between PNECs and PBECs (p<0.02 for each time point) however by the end of the culture period the TEER values were similar between groups.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Biochemistry", "cytochemistry", "immunocytochemistry", "developmental biology", "Molecular development", "cytokines", "Cell differentiation", "Molecular cell biology", "Cellular types", "Epithelial cells", "Cell growth", "pediatrics", "Pediatric pulmonology", "Pulmonology", "asthma", "transepithelial"], "article_id"=>914320, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Surendran Thavagnanam", "Jeremy C. Parker", "Michael E. McBrien", "Grzegorz Skibinski", "Michael D Shields", "Liam G. Heaney"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0085802.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Measurement_of_Transepithelial_Electrical_Resistance_TEER_/914320", "title"=>"Measurement of Transepithelial Electrical Resistance (TEER).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-01-27 03:33:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1361883", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1361884", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1361885", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1361886", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1361887", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1361888", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1361889"], "description"=>"<div><p>Introduction</p><p>Differentiated paediatric epithelial cells can be used to study the role of epithelial cells in asthma. Nasal epithelial cells are easier to obtain and may act as a surrogate for bronchial epithelium in asthma studies. We assessed the suitability of nasal epithelium from asthmatic children to be a surrogate for bronchial epithelium using air-liquid interface cultures.</p><p>Methods</p><p>Paired nasal and bronchial epithelial cells from asthmatic children (n = 9) were differentiated for 28 days under unstimulated and IL-13-stimulated conditions. Morphological and physiological markers were analysed using immunocytochemistry, transepithelial-electrical-resistance, Quantitative Real-time-PCR, ELISA and multiplex cytokine/chemokine analysis.</p><p>Results</p><p>Physiologically, nasal epithelial cells from asthmatic children exhibit similar cytokine responses to stimulation with IL-13 compared with paired bronchial epithelial cells. Morphologically however, nasal epithelial cells differed significantly from bronchial epithelial cells from asthmatic patients under unstimulated and IL-13-stimulated conditions. Nasal epithelial cells exhibited lower proliferation/differentiation rates and lower percentages of goblet and ciliated cells when unstimulated, while exhibiting a diminished and varied response to IL-13.</p><p>Conclusions</p><p>We conclude that morphologically, nasal epithelial cells would not be a suitable surrogate due to a significantly lower rate of proliferation and differentiation of goblet and ciliated cells. Physiologically, nasal epithelial cells respond similarly to exogenous stimulation with IL-13 in cytokine production and could be used as a physiological surrogate in the event that bronchial epithelial cells are not available.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Biochemistry", "cytochemistry", "immunocytochemistry", "developmental biology", "Molecular development", "cytokines", "Cell differentiation", "Molecular cell biology", "Cellular types", "Epithelial cells", "Cell growth", "pediatrics", "Pediatric pulmonology", "Pulmonology", "asthma", "epithelial", "cells", "physiological", "surrogate", "paediatric"], "article_id"=>914327, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Surendran Thavagnanam", "Jeremy C. Parker", "Michael E. McBrien", "Grzegorz Skibinski", "Michael D Shields", "Liam G. Heaney"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0085802.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0085802.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0085802.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0085802.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0085802.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0085802.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0085802.s007"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>18, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Nasal_Epithelial_Cells_Can_Act_as_a_Physiological_Surrogate_for_Paediatric_Asthma_Studies_/914327", "title"=>"Nasal Epithelial Cells Can Act as a Physiological Surrogate for Paediatric Asthma Studies", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2014-01-27 03:33:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1361882"], "description"=>"<p>Current treatment abbreviations are classed as follows: inhaled corticosteroid (ICS), long-acting beta agonist (LABA), short-acting beta agonist (SABA) and leukotriene antagonist (LTA).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Biochemistry", "cytochemistry", "immunocytochemistry", "developmental biology", "Molecular development", "cytokines", "Cell differentiation", "Molecular cell biology", "Cellular types", "Epithelial cells", "Cell growth", "pediatrics", "Pediatric pulmonology", "Pulmonology", "asthma", "details"], "article_id"=>914326, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Surendran Thavagnanam", "Jeremy C. Parker", "Michael E. McBrien", "Grzegorz Skibinski", "Michael D Shields", "Liam G. Heaney"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0085802.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Patient_details_including_clinical_status_and_clinical_atopy_/914326", "title"=>"Patient details including clinical status and clinical atopy.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-01-27 03:33:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1361879"], "description"=>"<p>Number of ciliated cells from PNECs and PBECs treated with 20/ml IL-13 expressed as the percentage differential ciliated cell count corrected for cell number on d 28 of ALI culture. Comparisons of average values between groups were performed using paired t-tests. In unstimulated conditions, PBEC cultures contained a significantly higher percentage of ciliated cells than PNECs (p = 0.0001). However, when stimulated with IL-13, the percentage of ciliated cells significantly decreased in PBECs (p = 0.005), but IL-13 had no effect on ciliated cell numbers in PNECs. Additionally, IL-13 stimulated PBECs had significantly higher numbers of ciliated cells compared with IL-13 stimulated PNECs (p = 0.002).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Biochemistry", "cytochemistry", "immunocytochemistry", "developmental biology", "Molecular development", "cytokines", "Cell differentiation", "Molecular cell biology", "Cellular types", "Epithelial cells", "Cell growth", "pediatrics", "Pediatric pulmonology", "Pulmonology", "asthma", "ciliated"], "article_id"=>914323, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Surendran Thavagnanam", "Jeremy C. Parker", "Michael E. McBrien", "Grzegorz Skibinski", "Michael D Shields", "Liam G. Heaney"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0085802.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Quantification_of_Ciliated_Cells_/914323", "title"=>"Quantification of Ciliated Cells.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-01-27 03:33:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1361878"], "description"=>"<p>A - Gene expression of SPDEF mRNA using comparative quantitation real time PCR in IL-13 stimulated PNECs and PBECs expressed as fold change compared to unstimulated cells. In both cell types, stimulation with IL-13 caused a significant increase in SPDEF mRNA levels (PNECs: p = 0.013; PBECs: p = 0.02). B - Gene expression of MUC5AC mRNA using comparative quantitation real time PCR in IL-13 stimulated PNECs and PBECs expressed as fold change compared to unstimulated cells. There was no significant increase in MUC5AC mRNA levels in PNECs, however, stimulation with IL-13 caused a significant increase in MUC5AC mRNA levels in PBECs (p = 0.04). C - Relative optical density (OD λ = 450 nm) of MUC5AC secreted apically using ELISA corrected for MUC5AC positive control. There was no significant difference between unstimulated and IL-13 stimulated PNECs or PBECs.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Biochemistry", "cytochemistry", "immunocytochemistry", "developmental biology", "Molecular development", "cytokines", "Cell differentiation", "Molecular cell biology", "Cellular types", "Epithelial cells", "Cell growth", "pediatrics", "Pediatric pulmonology", "Pulmonology", "asthma", "spdef", "muc5ac", "mrna", "elisa", "mucin"], "article_id"=>914322, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Surendran Thavagnanam", "Jeremy C. Parker", "Michael E. McBrien", "Grzegorz Skibinski", "Michael D Shields", "Liam G. Heaney"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0085802.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>20, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Gene_expression_of_SPDEF_amp_MUC5AC_mRNA_and_ELISA_for_MUC5AC_mucin_secretion_/914322", "title"=>"Gene expression of SPDEF & MUC5AC mRNA and ELISA for MUC5AC mucin secretion.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-01-27 03:33:38"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"26", "pdf"=>"35", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"32", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"39", "pdf"=>"41", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"35", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"34", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"36", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"30", "full-text"=>"39", "pdf"=>"36", "abstract"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"37", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"12", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"5", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"9", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"7", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"10"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2014-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2014-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Cell biology", "average_usage"=>[286]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Developmental biology", "average_usage"=>[285]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Anatomy", "average_usage"=>[266]}, {"subject_area"=>"/People and places/Population groupings", "average_usage"=>[300]}]}
Loading … Spinner
There are currently no alerts