Effect of Intermittent Cold Exposure on Brown Fat Activation, Obesity, and Energy Homeostasis in Mice
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{"title"=>"Effect of intermittent cold exposure on brown fat activation, obesity, and energy Homeostasis in mice", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Yann", "last_name"=>"Ravussin", "scopus_author_id"=>"13002755700"}, {"first_name"=>"Cuiying", "last_name"=>"Xiao", "scopus_author_id"=>"56112516000"}, {"first_name"=>"Oksana", "last_name"=>"Gavrilova", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003595157"}, {"first_name"=>"Marc L.", "last_name"=>"Reitman", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005693261"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0085876", "sgr"=>"84898470352", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"372817889", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "pmid"=>"24465761", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84898470352"}, "id"=>"9855c019-ee25-3c4f-8130-bfa53721340f", "abstract"=>"Homeotherms have specific mechanisms to maintain a constant core body temperature despite changes in thermal environment, food supply, and metabolic demand. Brown adipose tissue, the principal thermogenic organ, quickly and efficiently increases heat production by dissipating the mitochondrial proton motive force. It has been suggested that activation of brown fat, via either environmental (i.e. cold exposure) or pharmacologic means, could be used to increase metabolic rate and thus reduce body weight. Here we assess the effects of intermittent cold exposure (4°C for one to eight hours three times a week) on C57BL/6J mice fed a high fat diet. Cold exposure increased metabolic rate approximately two-fold during the challenge and activated brown fat. In response, food intake increased to compensate fully for the increased energy expenditure; thus, the mice showed no reduction in body weight or adiposity. Despite the unchanged adiposity, the cold-treated mice showed transient improvements in glucose homeostasis. Administration of the cannabinoid receptor-1 inverse agonist AM251 caused weight loss and improvements in glucose homeostasis, but showed no further improvements when combined with cold exposure. These data suggest that intermittent cold exposure causes transient, meaningful improvements in glucose homeostasis, but without synergy when combined with AM251. Since energy expenditure is significantly increased during cold exposure, a drug that dissociates food intake from metabolic demand during cold exposure may achieve weight loss and further metabolic improvements.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/effect-intermittent-cold-exposure-brown-fat-activation-obesity-energy-homeostasis-mice", "reader_count"=>95, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>6, "Researcher"=>19, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>18, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Student > Master"=>16, "Other"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>11, "Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>6, "Researcher"=>19, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>18, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Student > Master"=>16, "Other"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>11, "Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>8, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>36, "Arts and Humanities"=>2, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1, "Chemistry"=>3, "Energy"=>1, "Engineering"=>4, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>11, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Materials Science"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>19, "Design"=>1, "Neuroscience"=>3, "Sports and Recreations"=>1, "Psychology"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>19}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>8}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>2}, "Design"=>{"Design"=>1}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>4}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>3}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>3}, "Energy"=>{"Energy"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>36}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>11}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>4, "Kenya"=>1}, "group_count"=>3}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1350452"], "description"=>"<p>Mice were administered vehicle or AM251 (3 mg/kg/day) by oral gavage. A: Caloric intake and B: body weight were measured three times per week on days of cold exposure. C: Mice at 30°C were administered CL316243 (100 µg/kg) at time 0 as described in Experimental Procedures (the prior AM251 was given at −24 hours). Inset shows the delta TEE, calculated as in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0085876#pone-0085876-g002\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 2</a>. 2-way ANOVA showed significant temperature (p<0.01) and drug (p<0.05) effects with no significant interaction (p = 0.62). D: Intra-peritoneal glucose tolerance tests (1 g/kg) were performed in overnight-fasted mice of the indicated treatment group two days after cold exposure. AUC numbers are in mg/dl•minute. E. Insulin tolerance test. Insulin (0.75 U/kg) was injected and blood glucose measured at the indicated times. GTT =  intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test. CL =  CL316243 experiment. ITT =  insulin tolerance test. AM251 was administered 24 h prior to the GTT and ITT. In D & E, a poor-responding outlier in the CON AM group was removed from the analysis. If included in the ipGTT AUC, this group's AUC is 29304 ±3382 mg/dl min and the CON AM significantly different from the ICE AM group. All data are mean ±SE. N = 6/group. Levels not connected by same letter are significantly different (P<0.05).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Endocrine system", "Endocrine physiology", "Physiological processes", "Energy metabolism", "Biochemistry", "Bioenergetics", "Energy-producing processes", "Model organisms", "Animal models", "mouse", "Endocrinology", "Diabetic endocrinology", "nutrition", "obesity", "am251"], "article_id"=>903381, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Yann Ravussin", "Cuiying Xiao", "Oksana Gavrilova", "Marc L. Reitman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0085876.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effects_of_AM251_and_cold_exposure_/903381", "title"=>"Effects of AM251 and cold exposure.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-01-17 03:20:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1350451"], "description"=>"<p>In ICE#1 (top) and ICE#2 (bottom), intra-peritoneal glucose tolerance tests (1 g/kg) were performed in the overnight-fasted mice. In ICE#1, the ipGTT was conducted the day after cold exposure, while in ICE#2 it was conducted on the second day following cold exposure. The inset shows the mean area AUC in mg/dl•min ±SE, N = 8/group. Levels not connected by same letter are significantly different (P<0.05).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Endocrine system", "Endocrine physiology", "Physiological processes", "Energy metabolism", "Biochemistry", "Bioenergetics", "Energy-producing processes", "Model organisms", "Animal models", "mouse", "Endocrinology", "Diabetic endocrinology", "nutrition", "obesity", "glucose"], "article_id"=>903380, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Yann Ravussin", "Cuiying Xiao", "Oksana Gavrilova", "Marc L. Reitman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0085876.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>18, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Transient_improvement_in_glucose_tolerance_by_cold_exposure_/903380", "title"=>"Transient improvement in glucose tolerance by cold exposure.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-01-17 03:20:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1350456"], "description"=>"<p>Mice in the ad lib fed state were administered [<sup>14</sup>C]2-deoxyglucose 1 hour prior to euthanasia. Specifically, this was at 22°C in the CON group, at the onset of 4°C in the 1 hour group, and 3 h into the 4°C treatment in the 4 hour group. Data are mean ±SE, N = 8/group. Levels not connected by same letter are significantly different (P<0.05).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Endocrine system", "Endocrine physiology", "Physiological processes", "Energy metabolism", "Biochemistry", "Bioenergetics", "Energy-producing processes", "Model organisms", "Animal models", "mouse", "Endocrinology", "Diabetic endocrinology", "nutrition", "obesity", "2-deoxyglucose"], "article_id"=>903385, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Yann Ravussin", "Cuiying Xiao", "Oksana Gavrilova", "Marc L. Reitman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0085876.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Tissue_2_deoxyglucose_uptake_/903385", "title"=>"Tissue 2-deoxyglucose uptake.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-01-17 03:20:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1350454"], "description"=>"<p>Tissue weights, mRNA levels, and serum analytes were taken at the end of the experiment. TEE was calculated as described in Materials and Methods using the energy balance method over the full 77 days of the experiment. Gene expression values are reported relative to CON. Data are mean ±SE, N = 8/group. Levels not connected by same letter are significantly different (P<0.05).</p><p>includes adherent WAT.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Endocrine system", "Endocrine physiology", "Physiological processes", "Energy metabolism", "Biochemistry", "Bioenergetics", "Energy-producing processes", "Model organisms", "Animal models", "mouse", "Endocrinology", "Diabetic endocrinology", "nutrition", "obesity", "hours", "times"], "article_id"=>903383, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Yann Ravussin", "Cuiying Xiao", "Oksana Gavrilova", "Marc L. Reitman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0085876.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_ICE_1_effect_of_1_hour_and_4_hours_of_cold_exposure_three_times_per_week_/903383", "title"=>"ICE#1, effect of 1 hour and 4 hours of cold exposure three times per week.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-01-17 03:20:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1350455"], "description"=>"<p>Tissue weights, mRNA levels, and serum analytes were taken at the end of the experiment. TEE was calculated as described in Materials and Methods using the energy balance method over the full 74 days of the experiment. Gene expression values are reported relative to CON. Data are mean ±SE, N = 8/group. Levels not connected by same letter are significantly different (P<0.05).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Endocrine system", "Endocrine physiology", "Physiological processes", "Energy metabolism", "Biochemistry", "Bioenergetics", "Energy-producing processes", "Model organisms", "Animal models", "mouse", "Endocrinology", "Diabetic endocrinology", "nutrition", "obesity", "hours", "times"], "article_id"=>903384, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Yann Ravussin", "Cuiying Xiao", "Oksana Gavrilova", "Marc L. Reitman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0085876.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_ICE_2_effect_of_4_hours_and_8_hours_of_cold_exposure_three_times_per_week_/903384", "title"=>"ICE#2, effect of 4 hours and 8 hours of cold exposure three times per week.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-01-17 03:20:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1350453"], "description"=>"<p>Tissue weights, mRNA levels, and serum analytes were taken at the end of the experiment. TEE was calculated as described in Materials and Methods using the energy balance method over the full 28 days of the experiment. Gene expression values are reported relative to CON VEH. Data are mean ±SE, N = 6/group. Levels not connected by same letter are significantly different (P<0.05).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Endocrine system", "Endocrine physiology", "Physiological processes", "Energy metabolism", "Biochemistry", "Bioenergetics", "Energy-producing processes", "Model organisms", "Animal models", "mouse", "Endocrinology", "Diabetic endocrinology", "nutrition", "obesity", "am251", "hours", "times"], "article_id"=>903382, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Yann Ravussin", "Cuiying Xiao", "Oksana Gavrilova", "Marc L. Reitman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0085876.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_ICE_3_effect_of_daily_AM251_and_of_4_hours_of_cold_exposure_three_times_per_week_/903382", "title"=>"ICE#3, effect of daily AM251 and of 4 hours of cold exposure three times per week.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-01-17 03:20:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1350450"], "description"=>"<p>In ICE#1 (top) and ICE#2 (bottom), mice were placed in the individual chambers at 30°C at −250 minutes, injected CL316243 (100 µg/kg) at time 0 as described in Experimental Procedures. Energy expenditure was measured every 13 minutes. The initial metabolic rate peak seen in all groups is a stress response caused by handling. Inset shows the delta energy expenditure, calculated as the mean post-CL316243 (minutes 26 to 312) minus the mean pre-CL316243 (minutes −78 to 0) energy expenditure in kcal/h. Data are mean ±SE, N = 8/group. Levels not connected by same letter are significantly different (P<0.05).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Endocrine system", "Endocrine physiology", "Physiological processes", "Energy metabolism", "Biochemistry", "Bioenergetics", "Energy-producing processes", "Model organisms", "Animal models", "mouse", "Endocrinology", "Diabetic endocrinology", "nutrition", "obesity", "cl316243-induced"], "article_id"=>903379, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Yann Ravussin", "Cuiying Xiao", "Oksana Gavrilova", "Marc L. Reitman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0085876.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Prior_cold_exposure_increases_CL316243_induced_energy_expenditure_/903379", "title"=>"Prior cold exposure increases CL316243-induced energy expenditure.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-01-17 03:20:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1350449"], "description"=>"<p>A: Caloric intake and B: body weight during ICE#1 (top) and ICE#2 (bottom) experiments were measured three times per week on days of cold exposure. Timing of the intra-peritoneal glucose tolerance tests (GTT) and CL316243 treatment (CL) are indicated. Data are mean ±SE, N = 8/group. The 8 h group had higher food intake as assessed by repeated measures ANOVA (p<0.05).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Endocrine system", "Endocrine physiology", "Physiological processes", "Energy metabolism", "Biochemistry", "Bioenergetics", "Energy-producing processes", "Model organisms", "Animal models", "mouse", "Endocrinology", "Diabetic endocrinology", "nutrition", "obesity"], "article_id"=>903378, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Yann Ravussin", "Cuiying Xiao", "Oksana Gavrilova", "Marc L. Reitman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0085876.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Cold_exposure_increases_food_intake_but_not_body_weight_/903378", "title"=>"Cold exposure increases food intake, but not body weight.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-01-17 03:20:38"}

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Relative Metric

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