Holsteins Favor Heifers, Not Bulls: Biased Milk Production Programmed during Pregnancy as a Function of Fetal Sex
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{"title"=>"Holsteins favor heifers, not bulls: Biased milk production programmed during pregnancy as a function of fetal sex", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Katie", "last_name"=>"Hinde", "scopus_author_id"=>"57191402446"}, {"first_name"=>"Abigail J.", "last_name"=>"Carpenter", "scopus_author_id"=>"55785209000"}, {"first_name"=>"John S.", "last_name"=>"Clay", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006191019"}, {"first_name"=>"Barry J.", "last_name"=>"Bradford", "scopus_author_id"=>"8532608500"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"24498270", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0086169", "sgr"=>"84895484089", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84895484089", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"372518580"}, "id"=>"a93f20aa-397a-322e-a3b5-9c658db7a33c", "abstract"=>"Mammalian females pay high energetic costs for reproduction, the greatest of which is imposed by lactation. The synthesis of milk requires, in part, the mobilization of bodily reserves to nourish developing young. Numerous hypotheses have been advanced to predict how mothers will differentially invest in sons and daughters, however few studies have addressed sex-biased milk synthesis. Here we leverage the dairy cow model to investigate such phenomena. Using 2.39 million lactation records from 1.49 million dairy cows, we demonstrate that the sex of the fetus influences the capacity of the mammary gland to synthesize milk during lactation. Cows favor daughters, producing significantly more milk for daughters than for sons across lactation. Using a sub-sample of this dataset (N = 113,750 subjects) we further demonstrate that the effects of fetal sex interact dynamically across parities, whereby the sex of the fetus being gestated can enhance or diminish the production of milk during an established lactation. Moreover the sex of the fetus gestated on the first parity has persistent consequences for milk synthesis on the subsequent parity. Specifically, gestation of a daughter on the first parity increases milk production by approximately 445 kg over the first two lactations. Our results identify a dramatic and sustained programming of mammary function by offspring in utero. Nutritional and endocrine conditions in utero are known to have pronounced and long-term effects on progeny, but the ways in which the progeny has sustained physiological effects on the dam have received little attention to date.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/holsteins-favor-heifers-not-bulls-biased-milk-production-programmed-during-pregnancy-function-fetal", "reader_count"=>84, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Librarian"=>2, "Researcher"=>16, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>19, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>19, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>7, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Librarian"=>2, "Researcher"=>16, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>19, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>19, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>7, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>57, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>5, "Neuroscience"=>2, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>6, "Psychology"=>4, "Social Sciences"=>3, "Computer Science"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>5}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>2}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>3}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>4}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>57}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>6}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>3, "Finland"=>1, "Mexico"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Australia"=>1, "France"=>2, "Germany"=>1, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

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  • {"files"=>["https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/pstorage-plos-3567654/1376528/Figure_1.tif"], "description"=>"<p>Fetal sex in pregnancy 1 may alter milk production across multiple lactations because of the critical steps in mammary development that occur during the first pregnancy. In the cow, pregnancy 2 typically overlaps with lactation 1, providing opportunity for calf sex in parity 2 to impact milk production in the first lactation.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Behavioral ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary developmental biology", "evolutionary theory", "Zoology", "Animal physiology", "Mammalogy", "anthropology", "Biological anthropology", "Animal management", "Animal nutrition", "Animal performance", "influenced", "fetal"], "article_id"=>926407, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Katie Hinde", "Abigail J. Carpenter", "John S. Clay", "Barry J. Bradford"], "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0086169.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_Hypothesis_milk_production_is_influenced_by_fetal_sex_across_lactations_/926407", "title"=>"Hypothesis: milk production is influenced by fetal sex across lactations.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-02-03 08:27:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/pstorage-plos-3567654/1376529/Figure_2.tif"], "description"=>"<p>Lactation records from Holstein cows (N = 2.39 million lactations) were analyzed to determine effects of calf sex, parity, use of bST, and their interactions on 305-day milk production. Calf sex influence on milk production was dependent on bST use (interaction <i>P</i><0.01). A) In the absence of bST, daughters resulted in significantly greater milk production compared to sons across all parities (all <i>P</i><0.001). B) Lactations influenced by bST administration failed to consistently demonstrate the daughter bias. Daughters still conferred an advantage in first-parity cows administered bST (<i>P</i><0.05), but did not significantly influence milk yield in parity 2–5 cows. Values are differences of LS means ± SED.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Behavioral ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary developmental biology", "evolutionary theory", "Zoology", "Animal physiology", "Mammalogy", "anthropology", "Biological anthropology", "Animal management", "Animal nutrition", "Animal performance", "lactation", "altered", "exogenous", "somatotropin"], "article_id"=>926408, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Katie Hinde", "Abigail J. Carpenter", "John S. Clay", "Barry J. Bradford"], "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0086169.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_Daughters_result_in_greater_lactation_productivity_and_this_effect_is_altered_by_exogenous_somatotropin_bST_administration_/926408", "title"=>"Daughters result in greater lactation productivity, and this effect is altered by exogenous somatotropin (bST) administration.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-02-03 08:27:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/pstorage-plos-3567654/1376532/Figure_3.tif"], "description"=>"<p>Cows (n = 113,750) with both first and second parity lactation records, with no reports of dystocia or bST administration, were used to assess effects of calf sex on milk production in the first 2 lactations. Groups are labeled by calf sex (S = son, D = daughter), with the pregnancy denoted by subscript. Values are LS means ± SEM. Means labeled with different letters differ (<i>P</i><0.001), and those with common labels do not (<i>P</i>>0.10). A) First-parity cows having a daughter produced significantly more milk than those having a son, but gestating a daughter in pregnancy 2 increased milk production in cows that had a son first. B) Second-parity milk production is greatest in cows that had a daughter in pregnancy 1. Additionally, cows with a son in pregnancy 1 showed increased milk production if they had a daughter in pregnancy 2.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Behavioral ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary developmental biology", "evolutionary theory", "Zoology", "Animal physiology", "Mammalogy", "anthropology", "Biological anthropology", "Animal management", "Animal nutrition", "Animal performance", "confer", "advantages"], "article_id"=>926411, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Katie Hinde", "Abigail J. Carpenter", "John S. Clay", "Barry J. Bradford"], "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0086169.g003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_Daughters_confer_milk_production_advantages_post_natally_during_gestation_and_across_multiple_lactations_/926411", "title"=>"Daughters confer milk production advantages post-natally, during gestation, and across multiple lactations.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-02-03 08:27:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/pstorage-plos-3567654/1376534/Table_1.xls"], "description"=>"<p>Influence of calf sex, in the presence and absence of exogenous somatotropin (bST), on lactation productivity.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Behavioral ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary developmental biology", "evolutionary theory", "Zoology", "Animal physiology", "Mammalogy", "anthropology", "Biological anthropology", "Animal management", "Animal nutrition", "Animal performance", "calf", "exogenous", "somatotropin", "lactation"], "article_id"=>926413, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Katie Hinde", "Abigail J. Carpenter", "John S. Clay", "Barry J. Bradford"], "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0086169.t001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_Influence_of_calf_sex_in_the_presence_and_absence_of_exogenous_somatotropin_bST_on_lactation_productivity_/926413", "title"=>"Influence of calf sex, in the presence and absence of exogenous somatotropin (bST), on lactation productivity.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-02-03 08:27:50"}

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