Long-Term Changes in Species Composition and Relative Abundances of Sharks at a Provisioning Site
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{"title"=>"Long-term changes in species composition and relative abundances of sharks at a provisioning site", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Juerg M.", "last_name"=>"Brunnschweiler", "scopus_author_id"=>"6504790087"}, {"first_name"=>"Kátya G.", "last_name"=>"Abrantes", "scopus_author_id"=>"16686369300"}, {"first_name"=>"Adam", "last_name"=>"Barnett", "scopus_author_id"=>"36184439100"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"373020878", "sgr"=>"84899081108", "pmid"=>"24466197", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84899081108", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0086682", "issn"=>"19326203"}, "id"=>"f2b59a1a-1f3f-3812-a1ce-3c0f9a6f4f24", "abstract"=>"Diving with sharks, often in combination with food baiting/provisioning, has become an important product of today's recreational dive industry. Whereas the effects baiting/provisioning has on the behaviour and abundance of individual shark species are starting to become known, there is an almost complete lack of equivalent data from multi-species shark diving sites. In this study, changes in species composition and relative abundances were determined at the Shark Reef Marine Reserve, a multi-species shark feeding site in Fiji. Using direct observation sampling methods, eight species of sharks (bull shark Carcharhinus leucas, grey reef shark Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos, whitetip reef shark Triaenodon obesus, blacktip reef shark Carcharhinus melanopterus, tawny nurse shark Nebrius ferrugineus, silvertip shark Carcharhinus albimarginatus, sicklefin lemon shark Negaprion acutidens, and tiger shark Galeocerdo cuvier) displayed inter-annual site fidelity between 2003 and 2012. Encounter rates and/or relative abundances of some species changed over time, overall resulting in more individuals (mostly C. leucas) of fewer species being encountered on average on shark feeding dives at the end of the study period. Differences in shark community composition between the years 2004-2006 and 2007-2012 were evident, mostly because N. ferrugineus, C. albimarginatus and N. acutidens were much more abundant in 2004-2006 and very rare in the period of 2007-2012. Two explanations are offered for the observed changes in relative abundances over time, namely inter-specific interactions and operator-specific feeding protocols. Both, possibly in combination, are suggested to be important determinants of species composition and encounter rates, and relative abundances at this shark provisioning site in Fiji. This study, which includes the most species from a spatially confined shark provisioning site to date, suggests that long-term provisioning may result in competitive exclusion among shark species.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/longterm-changes-species-composition-relative-abundances-sharks-provisioning-site", "reader_count"=>81, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Researcher"=>18, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>20, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>16, "Student > Bachelor"=>15, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Researcher"=>18, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>20, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>16, "Student > Bachelor"=>15, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>14, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>60, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>5}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>5}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>60}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>14}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United Kingdom"=>1, "Mexico"=>1, "South Africa"=>1, "Australia"=>2, "Switzerland"=>1, "Spain"=>1, "Malta"=>1}, "group_count"=>6}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1554594"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Shark Reef (red dot) and Lake Reef (yellow dot); (B) feeding site at 30 m (green dot) where sharks and other fish are attracted at the beginning of the first dive of the day, a <i>C. amblyrhynchos</i> taking a fish fillet from the hand of the feeder at the shallow (5–10 m) feeding site (blue dot), and a <i>G. cuvier</i> taking a tuna fish head from the hand of the feeder at the 16 m feeding site (brown dot) on the second dive of the day.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Community Ecology", "Community assembly", "community structure", "Species interactions", "Ecological environments", "Marine environments", "Conservation science", "Marine ecology", "Marine biology", "Marine conservation", "Marine monitoring", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "marine and aquatic sciences", "viti"], "article_id"=>1074400, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Juerg M. Brunnschweiler", "Kátya G. Abrantes", "Adam Barnett"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0086682.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Study_site_on_the_southern_coast_of_Viti_Levu_Fiji_/1074400", "title"=>"Study site on the southern coast of Viti Levu, Fiji.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-01-23 10:20:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1554638"], "description"=>"<p>Encounter rates of each shark species at the Shark Reef Marine Reserve.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Community Ecology", "Community assembly", "community structure", "Species interactions", "Ecological environments", "Marine environments", "Conservation science", "Marine ecology", "Marine biology", "Marine conservation", "Marine monitoring", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "marine and aquatic sciences", "rates", "reef"], "article_id"=>1074444, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Juerg M. Brunnschweiler", "Kátya G. Abrantes", "Adam Barnett"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0086682.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Encounter_rates_of_each_shark_species_at_the_Shark_Reef_Marine_Reserve_/1074444", "title"=>"Encounter rates of each shark species at the Shark Reef Marine Reserve.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-01-23 10:20:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1554601"], "description"=>"<p>Bar graphs below terminal nodes indicate relative distribution of species abundance (based on fourth-root transformed data on number of sharks detected per 3-day blocks, after the days within each month were placed in a random order). Numbers in brackets are sample sizes. The colour code denotes the colour used in all figures for the respective species throughout this article.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Community Ecology", "Community assembly", "community structure", "Species interactions", "Ecological environments", "Marine environments", "Conservation science", "Marine ecology", "Marine biology", "Marine conservation", "Marine monitoring", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "marine and aquatic sciences", "classification", "regression", "explaining", "variability", "differences", "years", "months", "abundance"], "article_id"=>1074407, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Juerg M. Brunnschweiler", "Kátya G. Abrantes", "Adam Barnett"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0086682.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Four_leaf_classification_and_regression_tree_explaining_32_of_the_total_variability_and_showing_differences_in_shark_community_composition_between_years_and_months_based_on_relative_abundance_data_from_visual_surveys_/1074407", "title"=>"Four-leaf classification and regression tree explaining 32% of the total variability and showing differences in shark community composition between years and months based on relative abundance data from visual surveys.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-01-23 10:20:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1554633"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Mean (±SD) number of <i>C. leucas</i> counted at the 30 m feeding site and at the 16 m feeding site, and (B) mean (±SD) numbers of <i>C. amblyrhynchos</i>, <i>T. obesus</i> and <i>C. melanopterus</i> counted at the shallow (5–10 m) feeding site. Circles denote sampling days on which sharks were offered food and rectangles denote non-feeding days.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Community Ecology", "Community assembly", "community structure", "Species interactions", "Ecological environments", "Marine environments", "Conservation science", "Marine ecology", "Marine biology", "Marine conservation", "Marine monitoring", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "marine and aquatic sciences", "sharks", "counted", "feeding", "non-feeding", "dives"], "article_id"=>1074438, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Juerg M. Brunnschweiler", "Kátya G. Abrantes", "Adam Barnett"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0086682.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_number_of_sharks_counted_on_feeding_and_non_feeding_dives_in_March_2008_/1074438", "title"=>"Mean number of sharks counted on feeding and non-feeding dives in March 2008.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-01-23 10:20:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1554597"], "description"=>"<p>No data are available for January 2008. The mean number of species was calculated by dividing the number of species counted per day by the number of sampling days in the respective month.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Community Ecology", "Community assembly", "community structure", "Species interactions", "Ecological environments", "Marine environments", "Conservation science", "Marine ecology", "Marine biology", "Marine conservation", "Marine monitoring", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "marine and aquatic sciences", "encountered", "reef", "sampling", "january", "2003", "june"], "article_id"=>1074403, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Juerg M. Brunnschweiler", "Kátya G. Abrantes", "Adam Barnett"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0086682.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Monthly_mean_number_of_species_encountered_at_the_Shark_Reef_Marine_Reserve_per_sampling_day_between_January_2003_and_June_2012_/1074403", "title"=>"Monthly mean number of species encountered at the Shark Reef Marine Reserve per sampling day between January 2003 and June 2012.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-01-23 10:20:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1554614"], "description"=>"<p>The mean number of sharks was calculated by dividing the number of individuals counted per day by the number of sampling days in the respective month.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Community Ecology", "Community assembly", "community structure", "Species interactions", "Ecological environments", "Marine environments", "Conservation science", "Marine ecology", "Marine biology", "Marine conservation", "Marine monitoring", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "marine and aquatic sciences", "sharks", "sighted", "sampling", "january", "2004", "june"], "article_id"=>1074420, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Juerg M. Brunnschweiler", "Kátya G. Abrantes", "Adam Barnett"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0086682.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Monthly_mean_number_of_sharks_sighted_per_sampling_day_between_January_2004_and_June_2012_/1074420", "title"=>"Monthly mean number of sharks sighted per sampling day between January 2004 and June 2012.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-01-23 10:20:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1554628"], "description"=>"<p>For <i>C. leucas</i>, trees were constructed using the number of individuals sighted per day. For the remaining species, due to the often low numbers, analyses were done based on the number of sharks detected per 3-day blocks, after the days within each month were placed in a random order. Histograms of distribution of relative abundance are presented below the terminal nodes, and mean number and sample size (in brackets) are also indicated.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Community Ecology", "Community assembly", "community structure", "Species interactions", "Ecological environments", "Marine environments", "Conservation science", "Marine ecology", "Marine biology", "Marine conservation", "Marine monitoring", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "marine and aquatic sciences", "regression", "trees", "explaining", "abundance"], "article_id"=>1074434, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Juerg M. Brunnschweiler", "Kátya G. Abrantes", "Adam Barnett"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0086682.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Classification_and_regression_trees_explaining_shark_relative_abundance_based_on_year_and_month_/1074434", "title"=>"Classification and regression trees explaining shark relative abundance based on year and month.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-01-23 10:20:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1554642"], "description"=>"<div><p>Diving with sharks, often in combination with food baiting/provisioning, has become an important product of today’s recreational dive industry. Whereas the effects baiting/provisioning has on the behaviour and abundance of individual shark species are starting to become known, there is an almost complete lack of equivalent data from multi-species shark diving sites. In this study, changes in species composition and relative abundances were determined at the Shark Reef Marine Reserve, a multi-species shark feeding site in Fiji. Using direct observation sampling methods, eight species of sharks (bull shark <i>Carcharhinus leucas</i>, grey reef shark <i>Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos</i>, whitetip reef shark <i>Triaenodon obesus</i>, blacktip reef shark <i>Carcharhinus melanopterus</i>, tawny nurse shark <i>Nebrius ferrugineus</i>, silvertip shark <i>Carcharhinus albimarginatus</i>, sicklefin lemon shark <i>Negaprion acutidens</i>, and tiger shark <i>Galeocerdo cuvier</i>) displayed inter-annual site fidelity between 2003 and 2012. Encounter rates and/or relative abundances of some species changed over time, overall resulting in more individuals (mostly <i>C. leucas</i>) of fewer species being encountered on average on shark feeding dives at the end of the study period. Differences in shark community composition between the years 2004–2006 and 2007–2012 were evident, mostly because <i>N. ferrugineus</i>, <i>C. albimarginatus</i> and <i>N. acutidens</i> were much more abundant in 2004–2006 and very rare in the period of 2007–2012. Two explanations are offered for the observed changes in relative abundances over time, namely inter-specific interactions and operator-specific feeding protocols. Both, possibly in combination, are suggested to be important determinants of species composition and encounter rates, and relative abundances at this shark provisioning site in Fiji. This study, which includes the most species from a spatially confined shark provisioning site to date, suggests that long-term provisioning may result in competitive exclusion among shark species.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Community Ecology", "Community assembly", "community structure", "Species interactions", "Ecological environments", "Marine environments", "Conservation science", "Marine ecology", "Marine biology", "Marine conservation", "Marine monitoring", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "marine and aquatic sciences", "abundances", "sharks", "provisioning"], "article_id"=>1074448, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Juerg M. Brunnschweiler", "Kátya G. Abrantes", "Adam Barnett"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0086682", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Long_Term_Changes_in_Species_Composition_and_Relative_Abundances_of_Sharks_at_a_Provisioning_Site_/1074448", "title"=>"Long-Term Changes in Species Composition and Relative Abundances of Sharks at a Provisioning Site", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-01-23 10:20:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1554636"], "description"=>"<p>Significant results are in bold.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Community Ecology", "Community assembly", "community structure", "Species interactions", "Ecological environments", "Marine environments", "Conservation science", "Marine ecology", "Marine biology", "Marine conservation", "Marine monitoring", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "marine and aquatic sciences", "comparisons", "pairs"], "article_id"=>1074442, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Juerg M. Brunnschweiler", "Kátya G. Abrantes", "Adam Barnett"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0086682.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_ANOSIM_results_including_R_top_of_matrix_and_p_values_bottom_of_matrix_related_to_the_comparisons_of_community_composition_between_pairs_of_years_/1074442", "title"=>"ANOSIM results, including <i>R</i>- (top of matrix) and <i>p</i>-values (bottom of matrix) related to the comparisons of community composition between pairs of years.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-01-23 10:20:34"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2014-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2014-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences", "average_usage"=>[291]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Organisms", "average_usage"=>[310]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Ecology and environmental sciences/Ecology", "average_usage"=>[313]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Physiology", "average_usage"=>[278]}]}
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