Disruptive Colouration and Perceptual Grouping
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{"title"=>"Disruptive colouration and perceptual grouping", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Irene", "last_name"=>"Espinosa", "scopus_author_id"=>"56134754500"}, {"first_name"=>"Innes C.", "last_name"=>"Cuthill", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005944583"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"372974111", "sgr"=>"84899515486", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0087153", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84899515486", "pmid"=>"24466337"}, "id"=>"041acf61-0a5d-3c96-b92b-248f5ea5243e", "abstract"=>"Camouflage is the primary defence of many animals and includes multiple strategies that interfere with figure-ground segmentation and object recognition. While matching background colours and textures is widespread and conceptually straightforward, less well explored are the optical 'tricks', collectively called disruptive colouration, that exploit perceptual grouping mechanisms. Adjacent high contrast colours create false edges, but this is not sufficient for an object's shape to be broken up; some colours must blend with the background. We test the novel hypothesis that this will be particularly effective when the colour patches on the animal appear to belong to, not merely different background colours, but different background objects. We used computer-based experiments where human participants had to find cryptic targets on artificial backgrounds. Creating what appeared to be bi-coloured foreground objects on bi-coloured backgrounds, we generated colour boundaries that had identical local contrast but either lay within or between (illusory) objects. As predicted, error rates for targets matching what appeared to be different background objects were higher than for targets which had otherwise identical local contrast to the background but appeared to belong to single background objects. This provides evidence for disruptive colouration interfering with higher-level feature integration in addition to previously demonstrated low-level effects involving contour detection. In addition, detection was impeded in treatments where targets were on or in close proximity to multiple background colour or tone boundaries. This is consistent with other studies which show a deleterious influence of visual 'clutter' or background complexity on search.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/disruptive-colouration-perceptual-grouping", "reader_count"=>32, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Researcher"=>4, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>7, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>6, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Researcher"=>4, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>7, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>6, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Environmental Science"=>4, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>16, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>2, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Psychology"=>4, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Computer Science"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>4}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>16}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>3}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>4}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Republic of Singapore"=>1, "United States"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1355113"], "description"=>"<p>Note that the form-disrupting effect of high contrast between colour patches within an animal is more effective when these different parts of the animal match different parts of the background (right-hand versus middle pictures). Drawings were reproduced from the book <i>Adaptive colouration in animals </i><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0087153#pone.0087153-Cott1\" target=\"_blank\">[12]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Neurological system", "Sensory physiology", "Ocular system", "ecology", "Evolutionary ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Animal behavior", "Behavioral ecology", "neuroscience", "Sensory perception", "Sensory systems", "psychology", "behavior", "Psychophysics", "cott", "principles", "differential", "blending", "disruptive"], "article_id"=>907593, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Irene Espinosa", "Innes C. Cuthill"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0087153.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Illustrations_from_Cott_1940_of_the_principles_of_differential_blending_and_disruptive_contrast_/907593", "title"=>"Illustrations from Cott (1940) of the principles of differential blending and disruptive contrast.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-01-22 02:48:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1355115"], "description"=>"<p>The display shows an example from the large square size conditions. The subject has to indicate (by key press) whether the small circular target is on the left or right half of the screen. In this example, the target is located on the right half of the screen (bottom row of squares, second-from-right column) on the right-hand border of a square. We caution that the target itself, being close to threshold detectability when presented on our specific colour-calibrated computer monitor, may not be visible when reproduced at smaller size in the paper and viewed on other displays.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Neurological system", "Sensory physiology", "Ocular system", "ecology", "Evolutionary ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Animal behavior", "Behavioral ecology", "neuroscience", "Sensory perception", "Sensory systems", "psychology", "behavior", "Psychophysics", "achromatic"], "article_id"=>907595, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Irene Espinosa", "Innes C. Cuthill"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0087153.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Example_of_a_screen_display_from_the_achromatic_contrast_experiment_/907595", "title"=>"Example of a screen display from the achromatic contrast experiment.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-01-22 02:48:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1355116"], "description"=>"<p>The left hand rectangle shows an example from the small square size conditions, while the right hand rectangle shows an example from the large square size conditions. In the middle there are enlarged versions of the five different treatments used, with a white circle used to indicate one of the possible target locations for a treatment (real targets were mono- or two-tone grey, 10% lighter than the immediate background, and placed randomly within the constraints of a treatment); top to bottom: treatments Dark, Light, Stripe, Square, and Border. We used the same square sizes and treatments for the achromatic and the chromatic experiments; the latter involved either (approximately isoluminant) red and green or blue and yellow colour combinations rather than two shades of grey.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Neurological system", "Sensory physiology", "Ocular system", "ecology", "Evolutionary ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Animal behavior", "Behavioral ecology", "neuroscience", "Sensory perception", "Sensory systems", "psychology", "behavior", "Psychophysics", "examples", "achromatic"], "article_id"=>907596, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Irene Espinosa", "Innes C. Cuthill"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0087153.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Treatments_and_examples_from_the_achromatic_experiment_/907596", "title"=>"Treatments and examples from the achromatic experiment.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-01-22 02:48:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1355121"], "description"=>"<div><p>Camouflage is the primary defence of many animals and includes multiple strategies that interfere with figure-ground segmentation and object recognition. While matching background colours and textures is widespread and conceptually straightforward, less well explored are the optical ‘tricks’, collectively called disruptive colouration, that exploit perceptual grouping mechanisms. Adjacent high contrast colours create false edges, but this is not sufficient for an object’s shape to be broken up; some colours must blend with the background. We test the novel hypothesis that this will be particularly effective when the colour patches on the animal appear to belong to, not merely different background colours, but different background objects. We used computer-based experiments where human participants had to find cryptic targets on artificial backgrounds. Creating what appeared to be bi-coloured foreground objects on bi-coloured backgrounds, we generated colour boundaries that had identical local contrast but either lay within or between (illusory) objects. As predicted, error rates for targets matching what appeared to be different background objects were higher than for targets which had otherwise identical local contrast to the background but appeared to belong to single background objects. This provides evidence for disruptive colouration interfering with higher-level feature integration in addition to previously demonstrated low-level effects involving contour detection. In addition, detection was impeded in treatments where targets were on or in close proximity to multiple background colour or tone boundaries. This is consistent with other studies which show a deleterious influence of visual ‘clutter’ or background complexity on search.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Neurological system", "Sensory physiology", "Ocular system", "ecology", "Evolutionary ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Animal behavior", "Behavioral ecology", "neuroscience", "Sensory perception", "Sensory systems", "psychology", "behavior", "Psychophysics", "colouration", "perceptual"], "article_id"=>907601, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Irene Espinosa", "Innes C. Cuthill"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0087153", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>9, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Disruptive_Colouration_and_Perceptual_Grouping_/907601", "title"=>"Disruptive Colouration and Perceptual Grouping", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-01-22 02:48:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1355119"], "description"=>"<p>In separate experiments, backgrounds and targets consisted either of two greyscale tones (‘Grey’), approximately isoluminant red and green (‘RG’) or yellow and blue (‘YB’) shades, with squares either small or large in size (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0087153#pone-0087153-g002\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 2</a> & <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0087153#pone-0087153-g003\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 3</a>). Estimated means and standard errors for each treatment were taken from generalized linear models. Where standard errors are not visible it is because they are smaller than the symbol representing the mean.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Neurological system", "Sensory physiology", "Ocular system", "ecology", "Evolutionary ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Animal behavior", "Behavioral ecology", "neuroscience", "Sensory perception", "Sensory systems", "psychology", "behavior", "Psychophysics", "rates", "times"], "article_id"=>907599, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Irene Espinosa", "Innes C. Cuthill"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0087153.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_error_rates_and_response_times_as_a_function_of_treatment_square_size_and_experiment_/907599", "title"=>"Mean error rates and response times as a function of treatment, square size and experiment.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-01-22 02:48:18"}

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