Unpriming or Strategizing?: A Critique of Sparrow and Wegner
Events
Loading … Spinner

Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Unpriming or strategizing?: A critique of sparrow and wegner", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Miron", "last_name"=>"Zuckerman", "scopus_author_id"=>"7101700362"}, {"first_name"=>"Jordan", "last_name"=>"Silberman", "scopus_author_id"=>"36544373200"}, {"first_name"=>"Hoang", "last_name"=>"Pham", "scopus_author_id"=>"56058051000"}, {"first_name"=>"Ista", "last_name"=>"Zahn", "scopus_author_id"=>"23991970200"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84895522092", "pui"=>"372535210", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0087512", "issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84895522092", "pmid"=>"24505293"}, "id"=>"e7ee8df5-9057-34b2-9906-3687c1225a8c", "abstract"=>"When asked to randomly select answer choices on easy multiple choice questions, people select more correct answers than expected by chance. Sparrow and Wegner showed that this tendency was eliminated if participants answered questions correctly before answering randomly. They argued that answering a question correctly unprimes the tendency to choose the correct answer, thereby reducing the correct response rate close to the chance level of.5. An alternative explanation, consistent with these results, is that answering questions correctly provides a baseline, which allows participants to strategize, i.e., to match and mismatch equal numbers of their purportedly random responses to the baseline response. Three studies showed that the presence of a baseline, even when unpriming is not feasible, led to lower correct response rates than those obtained in a condition in which no baseline was available. Furthermore, the presence of a baseline led to more nonrandom sequences of correct and incorrect responses. One specific sequence-alternating correct and incorrect answers-mediated the relation between the presence of a baseline and lower correct response rate. These findings suggest that strategizing, not unpriming, accounts for Sparrow and Wegner's results.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/unpriming-strategizing-critique-sparrow-wegner", "reader_count"=>8, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>1, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Other"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>1, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Other"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>2, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Psychology"=>2, "Social Sciences"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>2}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>2}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Brazil"=>1, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

Scopus | Further Information

{"@_fa"=>"true", "link"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"self", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84895522092"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"author-affiliation", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84895522092?field=author,affiliation"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=84895522092&origin=inward"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus-citedby", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=84895522092&origin=inward"}], "prism:url"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84895522092", "dc:identifier"=>"SCOPUS_ID:84895522092", "eid"=>"2-s2.0-84895522092", "dc:title"=>"Unpriming or strategizing?: A critique of sparrow and wegner", "dc:creator"=>"Zuckerman M.", "prism:publicationName"=>"PLoS ONE", "prism:eIssn"=>"19326203", "prism:volume"=>"9", "prism:issueIdentifier"=>"2", "prism:pageRange"=>nil, "prism:coverDate"=>"2014-02-05", "prism:coverDisplayDate"=>"5 February 2014", "prism:doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0087512", "citedby-count"=>"0", "affiliation"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "affilname"=>"University of Rochester", "affiliation-city"=>"Rochester", "affiliation-country"=>"United States"}], "pubmed-id"=>"24505293", "prism:aggregationType"=>"Journal", "subtype"=>"ar", "subtypeDescription"=>"Article", "article-number"=>"e87512", "source-id"=>"10600153309", "openaccess"=>"1", "openaccessFlag"=>true}

Facebook

  • {"url"=>"http%3A%2F%2Fjournals.plos.org%2Fplosone%2Farticle%3Fid%3D10.1371%252Fjournal.pone.0087512", "share_count"=>0, "like_count"=>0, "comment_count"=>0, "click_count"=>0, "total_count"=>0}

Counter

  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"42", "xml_views"=>"11", "html_views"=>"209"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"41"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"5", "html_views"=>"36"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"31"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"43"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"18"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"10"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"14"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"0", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"10"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"16"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"14"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"12"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"9"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"0", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"13"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"18"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"10"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"17"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"3"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"8"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"32"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"62"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"67"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"67"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"88"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"0", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"33"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"57"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"34"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"11"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"49"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"9"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"9"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"28"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"12"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"27"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"25"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"21"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"31"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"27"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"35"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"14"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"0", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"29"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"11"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"15"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"28"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"29"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"42"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"20"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"10"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"28"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"31"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"0", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"11"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"0", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"1"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"10"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"6"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"3"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"30"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"14"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"0", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"13"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"2"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"3"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"4"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"1"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"13"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"2"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"12"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"4"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"5"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"4"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"9"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"12"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"3"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"9"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"3"}

Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1377932"], "description"=>"<p>Error bars are standard errors of the means.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computer applications", "Computer-assisted instruction", "Probability theory", "Events (probability theory)", "Clinical research design", "modeling", "Survey research", "epidemiology", "Survey methods", "psychology", "Cognitive psychology", "motivation", "reasoning", "behavior", "one-value", "runs"], "article_id"=>927554, "categories"=>["Mathematics", "Medicine", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Miron Zuckerman", "Jordan Silberman", "Hoang Pham", "Ista Zahn"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0087512.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Means_for_A_correct_response_rate_B_non_randomness_and_C_one_value_runs_by_experimental_condition_Experiment_1_/927554", "title"=>"Means for (A) correct response rate, (B) non-randomness, and (C) one-value runs by experimental condition (Experiment 1).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-02-05 03:54:57"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1377933"], "description"=>"<p>All coefficients are unstandardized. The coefficient in parenthesis does not control for the effect of one-value runs. **p<.01, ***p<.001.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computer applications", "Computer-assisted instruction", "Probability theory", "Events (probability theory)", "Clinical research design", "modeling", "Survey research", "epidemiology", "Survey methods", "psychology", "Cognitive psychology", "motivation", "reasoning", "behavior", "runs", "mediator"], "article_id"=>927555, "categories"=>["Mathematics", "Medicine", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Miron Zuckerman", "Jordan Silberman", "Hoang Pham", "Ista Zahn"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0087512.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_One_value_runs_as_a_mediator_of_the_relation_between_condition_contrast_and_correct_response_rate_Experiment_1_/927555", "title"=>"One-value runs as a mediator of the relation between condition contrast and correct response rate (Experiment 1).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-02-05 03:54:57"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1377934"], "description"=>"<p>Error bars are standard errors of the means.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computer applications", "Computer-assisted instruction", "Probability theory", "Events (probability theory)", "Clinical research design", "modeling", "Survey research", "epidemiology", "Survey methods", "psychology", "Cognitive psychology", "motivation", "reasoning", "behavior", "one-value", "runs"], "article_id"=>927556, "categories"=>["Mathematics", "Medicine", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Miron Zuckerman", "Jordan Silberman", "Hoang Pham", "Ista Zahn"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0087512.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Means_for_A_correct_response_rate_B_non_randomness_and_C_one_value_runs_by_experimental_condition_Experiment_2_/927556", "title"=>"Means for (A) correct response rate, (B) non-randomness, and (C) one-value runs by experimental condition (Experiment 2).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-02-05 03:54:57"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1377935"], "description"=>"<p>All coefficients are unstandardized. The coefficient in parenthesis does not control for the effect of one-value runs. **p<.01, ***p<.001.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computer applications", "Computer-assisted instruction", "Probability theory", "Events (probability theory)", "Clinical research design", "modeling", "Survey research", "epidemiology", "Survey methods", "psychology", "Cognitive psychology", "motivation", "reasoning", "behavior", "runs", "mediator"], "article_id"=>927557, "categories"=>["Mathematics", "Medicine", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Miron Zuckerman", "Jordan Silberman", "Hoang Pham", "Ista Zahn"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0087512.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_One_value_runs_as_a_mediator_of_the_relation_between_condition_contrast_and_correct_response_rate_Experiment_2_/927557", "title"=>"One-value runs as a mediator of the relation between condition contrast and correct response rate (Experiment 2).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-02-05 03:54:57"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1377936"], "description"=>"<p>Error bars are standard errors of the means.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computer applications", "Computer-assisted instruction", "Probability theory", "Events (probability theory)", "Clinical research design", "modeling", "Survey research", "epidemiology", "Survey methods", "psychology", "Cognitive psychology", "motivation", "reasoning", "behavior", "one-value", "runs"], "article_id"=>927558, "categories"=>["Mathematics", "Medicine", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Miron Zuckerman", "Jordan Silberman", "Hoang Pham", "Ista Zahn"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0087512.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Means_for_A_correct_response_rate_B_non_randomness_and_C_one_value_runs_by_experimental_condition_Experiment_3_/927558", "title"=>"Means for (A) correct response rate, (B) non-randomness, and (C) one-value runs by experimental condition (Experiment 3).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-02-05 03:54:57"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1377938"], "description"=>"<p>All coefficients are unstandardized. The coefficient in parenthesis does not control for the effect of one-value runs. ***p<.001.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computer applications", "Computer-assisted instruction", "Probability theory", "Events (probability theory)", "Clinical research design", "modeling", "Survey research", "epidemiology", "Survey methods", "psychology", "Cognitive psychology", "motivation", "reasoning", "behavior", "runs", "mediator"], "article_id"=>927560, "categories"=>["Mathematics", "Medicine", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Miron Zuckerman", "Jordan Silberman", "Hoang Pham", "Ista Zahn"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0087512.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_One_value_runs_as_a_mediator_between_condition_contrast_random_only_vs_all_other_conditions_and_correct_response_rate_Experiment_3_/927560", "title"=>"One-value runs as a mediator between condition contrast (random-only vs. all other conditions) and correct response rate (Experiment 3).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-02-05 03:54:57"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1377939"], "description"=>"<p>Note. dfs = 265 for all contrasts.</p><p>*p<.05.</p><p>**p<.01.</p><p>***p<.001.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computer applications", "Computer-assisted instruction", "Probability theory", "Events (probability theory)", "Clinical research design", "modeling", "Survey research", "epidemiology", "Survey methods", "psychology", "Cognitive psychology", "motivation", "reasoning", "behavior", "contrasts"], "article_id"=>927561, "categories"=>["Mathematics", "Medicine", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Miron Zuckerman", "Jordan Silberman", "Hoang Pham", "Ista Zahn"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0087512.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_t_tests_of_Contrasts_Among_Conditions_Experiment_3_/927561", "title"=>"t-tests of Contrasts Among Conditions (Experiment 3).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-02-05 03:54:57"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1377940"], "description"=>"<p>Note. dfs = 120 for all contrasts.</p>†<p>p = .13.</p>††<p>p<.10.</p><p>*p<.05.</p><p>**p<.01.</p><p>***p<.001.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computer applications", "Computer-assisted instruction", "Probability theory", "Events (probability theory)", "Clinical research design", "modeling", "Survey research", "epidemiology", "Survey methods", "psychology", "Cognitive psychology", "motivation", "reasoning", "behavior", "contrasts"], "article_id"=>927562, "categories"=>["Mathematics", "Medicine", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Miron Zuckerman", "Jordan Silberman", "Hoang Pham", "Ista Zahn"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0087512.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_t_tests_of_Contrasts_Among_Conditions_Experiment_2_/927562", "title"=>"t-tests of Contrasts Among Conditions (Experiment 2).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-02-05 03:54:57"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1377941"], "description"=>"<p>Note. dfs = 72 for all contrasts.</p><p>*p<.05.</p><p>**p<.01.</p><p>***p<.001.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computer applications", "Computer-assisted instruction", "Probability theory", "Events (probability theory)", "Clinical research design", "modeling", "Survey research", "epidemiology", "Survey methods", "psychology", "Cognitive psychology", "motivation", "reasoning", "behavior", "contrasts"], "article_id"=>927563, "categories"=>["Mathematics", "Medicine", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Miron Zuckerman", "Jordan Silberman", "Hoang Pham", "Ista Zahn"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0087512.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_t_tests_of_Contrasts_Among_Conditions_Experiment_1_/927563", "title"=>"t-tests of Contrasts Among Conditions (Experiment 1).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-02-05 03:54:57"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"28", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"12"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2014-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2014-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences", "average_usage"=>[291]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Behavior", "average_usage"=>[333]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Molecular biology", "average_usage"=>[292, 461]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Psychology", "average_usage"=>[307]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Computer and information sciences", "average_usage"=>[327, 511]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Physical sciences/Mathematics", "average_usage"=>[286]}]}
Loading … Spinner
There are currently no alerts