Risk Factors for Visceral Leishmaniasis and Asymptomatic Leishmania donovani Infection in India and Nepal
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{"title"=>"Risk factors for visceral leishmaniasis and asymptomatic Leishmania donovani infection in India and Nepal", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Albert", "last_name"=>"Picado", "scopus_author_id"=>"24344783800"}, {"first_name"=>"Bart", "last_name"=>"Ostyn", "scopus_author_id"=>"6506778104"}, {"first_name"=>"Shri Prakash", "last_name"=>"Singh", "scopus_author_id"=>"9634086200"}, {"first_name"=>"Surendra", "last_name"=>"Uranw", "scopus_author_id"=>"26325973200"}, {"first_name"=>"Epco", "last_name"=>"Hasker", "scopus_author_id"=>"24490983400"}, {"first_name"=>"Suman", "last_name"=>"Rijal", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602721336"}, {"first_name"=>"Shyam", "last_name"=>"Sundar", "scopus_author_id"=>"56819423800"}, {"first_name"=>"Marleen", "last_name"=>"Boelaert", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005040188"}, {"first_name"=>"François", "last_name"=>"Chappuis", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004412392"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"24498159", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0087641", "sgr"=>"84900313445", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84900313445", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"373059566"}, "id"=>"dc848c84-ea75-3fc9-99a6-f59012b26e63", "abstract"=>"There is increasing interest in the role of asymptomatic infection in transmission of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL). We studied the individual, household and environmental factors associated with asymptomatic Leishmania donovani infected individuals and VL. 7,538 individuals living in VL endemic villages in India and Nepal were divided into three mutually exclusive groups based on their VL history and Direct Agglutination Test (DAT) results in yearly serosurveys over a two-year period. The groups were (1) VL cases, (2) asymptomatically infected individuals (seroconverters) and (3) seronegative individuals. VL cases and seroconverters were compared to seronegative individuals in mixed logistic regression models. The risk of seroconversion and disease was significantly increased in individuals aged 14 to 24 years old and by the presence of other DAT-positive, asymptomatically infected individuals and VL cases in the house. The risk of seroconversion was higher in Indian than in Nepalese villages and it increased significantly with age, but not so for VL. This study demonstrates that, when risk factors for leishmanial infection and VL disease are evaluated in the same population, epidemiological determinants for asymptomatic infection and VL are largely similar.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/risk-factors-visceral-leishmaniasis-asymptomatic-leishmania-donovani-infection-india-nepal", "reader_count"=>55, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>12, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>12, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>12, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>12, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>12, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>12, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>3, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Mathematics"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>9, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>26, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>3, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1, "Computer Science"=>1, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>4, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>26}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>4}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>9}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>3}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>3}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>3}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Belgium"=>1, "Sri Lanka"=>1, "India"=>1}, "group_count"=>3}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1370772"], "description"=>"<p>Results from the logistic regression models with cluster as random effect to take into account the clustering of the data. All risk factors associated to seroconversion or VL cases identified in the most parsimonious models (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0087641#pone.0087641.s001\" target=\"_blank\">Table S1</a>) were included in the final regression model. Statistically significant (P-value <0.05) results highlighted in the table (bold).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Population biology", "epidemiology", "Infectious disease epidemiology", "Global health", "Infectious diseases", "neglected tropical diseases", "leishmaniasis", "Infectious disease control", "Non-clinical medicine", "Health care policy", "Health risk analysis", "Health informatics", "Public health", "Health screening", "asymptomatically", "visceral", "vl", "endemic", "villages", "india", "nepal", "compared", "subjects", "stayed", "dat", "24"], "article_id"=>921717, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Albert Picado", "Bart Ostyn", "Shri Prakash Singh", "Surendra Uranw", "Epco Hasker", "Suman Rijal", "Shyam Sundar", "Marleen Boelaert", "François Chappuis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0087641.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Risk_factors_for_incident_asymptomatically_L_donovani_infection_measured_by_seroconverters_and_Visceral_Leishmaniasis_VL_in_VL_endemic_villages_in_India_and_Nepal_compared_to_subjects_who_stayed_DAT_negative_over_24_months_/921717", "title"=>"Risk factors for incident asymptomatically <i>L. donovani</i> infection (measured by seroconverters) and Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) in VL endemic villages in India and Nepal compared to subjects who stayed DAT negative over 24 months.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-01-31 02:44:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1370773"], "description"=>"1<p>Individual with history of fever for ≥ 2 weeks and splenomegaly.</p>2<p>Kala-Azar Medical Research Centre (KAMRC), Muzaffarpur in India and B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan in Nepal.</p>3<p>Kalazar Detect Rapid Test<sup>TM</sup> (InBios International, Seattle, USA)</p>4<p>Verification of patient’s medical records.</p>5<p>Positive bone marrow or spleen aspirate</p>6<p>VL patients who seroconverted from DAT negative (≤1∶800) in the serosurvey before developing VL to DAT positive (>1∶800), with at least 2 titres difference, after developing the disease.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Population biology", "epidemiology", "Infectious disease epidemiology", "Global health", "Infectious diseases", "neglected tropical diseases", "leishmaniasis", "Infectious disease control", "Non-clinical medicine", "Health care policy", "Health risk analysis", "Health informatics", "Public health", "Health screening"], "article_id"=>921718, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Albert Picado", "Bart Ostyn", "Shri Prakash Singh", "Surendra Uranw", "Epco Hasker", "Suman Rijal", "Shyam Sundar", "Marleen Boelaert", "François Chappuis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0087641.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Visceral_Leishmaniasis_VL_case_definitions_/921718", "title"=>"Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) case definitions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-01-31 02:44:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1370770"], "description"=>"<p>Population flow chart to allocate the subjects into the three study groups: (1) visceral leishmaniasis (VL) cases, (2) Seroconverters (asymptomatic <i>Leishmania donovani</i> infection) and (3) Seronegatives (DAT negative individuals).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Population biology", "epidemiology", "Infectious disease epidemiology", "Global health", "Infectious diseases", "neglected tropical diseases", "leishmaniasis", "Infectious disease control", "Non-clinical medicine", "Health care policy", "Health risk analysis", "Health informatics", "Public health", "Health screening", "allocate", "subjects", "visceral", "seroconverters", "seronegatives"], "article_id"=>921715, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Albert Picado", "Bart Ostyn", "Shri Prakash Singh", "Surendra Uranw", "Epco Hasker", "Suman Rijal", "Shyam Sundar", "Marleen Boelaert", "François Chappuis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0087641.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>7, "page_views"=>214, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Population_flow_chart_to_allocate_the_subjects_into_the_three_study_groups_1_visceral_leishmaniasis_VL_cases_2_Seroconverters_asymptomatic_Leishmania_donovani_infection_and_3_Seronegatives_DAT_negative_individuals_/921715", "title"=>"Population flow chart to allocate the subjects into the three study groups: (1) visceral leishmaniasis (VL) cases, (2) Seroconverters (asymptomatic <i>Leishmania donovani</i> infection) and (3) Seronegatives (DAT negative individuals).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-01-31 02:44:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1370771"], "description"=>"<p>Characteristics of the individuals included in the risk factor studies divided by group: Seronegatives, Seroconverters (asymptomatic <i>Leishmania donovani</i> infection) and visceral leishmaniasis (VL) cases.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Population biology", "epidemiology", "Infectious disease epidemiology", "Global health", "Infectious diseases", "neglected tropical diseases", "leishmaniasis", "Infectious disease control", "Non-clinical medicine", "Health care policy", "Health risk analysis", "Health informatics", "Public health", "Health screening", "individuals", "included", "studies", "divided", "seroconverters", "visceral"], "article_id"=>921716, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Albert Picado", "Bart Ostyn", "Shri Prakash Singh", "Surendra Uranw", "Epco Hasker", "Suman Rijal", "Shyam Sundar", "Marleen Boelaert", "François Chappuis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0087641.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Characteristics_of_the_individuals_included_in_the_risk_factor_studies_divided_by_group_Seronegatives_Seroconverters_asymptomatic_Leishmania_donovani_infection_and_visceral_leishmaniasis_VL_cases_/921716", "title"=>"Characteristics of the individuals included in the risk factor studies divided by group: Seronegatives, Seroconverters (asymptomatic <i>Leishmania donovani</i> infection) and visceral leishmaniasis (VL) cases.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-01-31 02:44:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1370774", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1370775"], "description"=>"<div><p>There is increasing interest in the role of asymptomatic infection in transmission of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL). We studied the individual, household and environmental factors associated with asymptomatic <i>Leishmania donovani</i> infected individuals and VL. 7,538 individuals living in VL endemic villages in India and Nepal were divided into three mutually exclusive groups based on their VL history and Direct Agglutination Test (DAT) results in yearly serosurveys over a two-year period. The groups were (1) VL cases, (2) asymptomatically infected individuals (seroconverters) and (3) seronegative individuals. VL cases and seroconverters were compared to seronegative individuals in mixed logistic regression models. The risk of seroconversion and disease was significantly increased in individuals aged 14 to 24 years old and by the presence of other DAT-positive, asymptomatically infected individuals and VL cases in the house. The risk of seroconversion was higher in Indian than in Nepalese villages and it increased significantly with age, but not so for VL. This study demonstrates that, when risk factors for leishmanial infection and VL disease are evaluated in the same population, epidemiological determinants for asymptomatic infection and VL are largely similar.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Population biology", "epidemiology", "Infectious disease epidemiology", "Global health", "Infectious diseases", "neglected tropical diseases", "leishmaniasis", "Infectious disease control", "Non-clinical medicine", "Health care policy", "Health risk analysis", "Health informatics", "Public health", "Health screening", "visceral", "asymptomatic", "india", "nepal"], "article_id"=>921719, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Albert Picado", "Bart Ostyn", "Shri Prakash Singh", "Surendra Uranw", "Epco Hasker", "Suman Rijal", "Shyam Sundar", "Marleen Boelaert", "François Chappuis"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0087641.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0087641.s002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>9, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Risk_Factors_for_Visceral_Leishmaniasis_and_Asymptomatic_Leishmania_donovani_Infection_in_India_and_Nepal/921719", "title"=>"Risk Factors for Visceral Leishmaniasis and Asymptomatic <i>Leishmania donovani</i> Infection in India and Nepal", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2014-01-31 02:44:17"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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