Dietary Supplementation with Soluble Plantain Non-Starch Polysaccharides Inhibits Intestinal Invasion of Salmonella Typhimurium in the Chicken
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Dietary supplementation with soluble plantain non-starch polysaccharides inhibits intestinal invasion of Salmonella typhimurium in the chicken", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Bryony N.", "last_name"=>"Parsons", "scopus_author_id"=>"26028071900"}, {"first_name"=>"Paul", "last_name"=>"Wigley", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004499168"}, {"first_name"=>"Hannah L.", "last_name"=>"Simpson", "scopus_author_id"=>"56084059200"}, {"first_name"=>"Jonathan M.", "last_name"=>"Williams", "scopus_author_id"=>"57199291116"}, {"first_name"=>"Suzie", "last_name"=>"Humphrey", "scopus_author_id"=>"24472618800"}, {"first_name"=>"Anne Marie", "last_name"=>"Salisbury", "scopus_author_id"=>"54421065800"}, {"first_name"=>"Alastair J.M.", "last_name"=>"Watson", "scopus_author_id"=>"35551947200"}, {"first_name"=>"Stephen C.", "last_name"=>"Fry", "scopus_author_id"=>"7101661865"}, {"first_name"=>"David", "last_name"=>"O'Brien", "scopus_author_id"=>"57197226490"}, {"first_name"=>"Carol L.", "last_name"=>"Roberts", "scopus_author_id"=>"22952101700"}, {"first_name"=>"Niamh", "last_name"=>"O'Kennedy", "scopus_author_id"=>"15058126500"}, {"first_name"=>"Åsa V.", "last_name"=>"Keita", "scopus_author_id"=>"13104052600"}, {"first_name"=>"Johan D.", "last_name"=>"Söderholm", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004276501"}, {"first_name"=>"Jonathan M.", "last_name"=>"Rhodes", "scopus_author_id"=>"7402364695"}, {"first_name"=>"Barry J.", "last_name"=>"Campbell", "scopus_author_id"=>"7403279878"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"24498347", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0087658", "sgr"=>"84896868309", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84896868309", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"372485636"}, "id"=>"ea4991db-4ec8-33cb-a9ac-066f2ad15bcc", "abstract"=>"Soluble fibres (non-starch polysaccharides, NSP) from edible plants but particularly plantain banana (Musa spp.), have been shown in vitro and ex vivo to prevent various enteric pathogens from adhering to, or translocating across, the human intestinal epithelium, a property that we have termed contrabiotic. Here we report that dietary plantain fibre prevents invasion of the chicken intestinal mucosa by Salmonella. In vivo experiments were performed with chicks fed from hatch on a pellet diet containing soluble plantain NSP (0 to 200 mg/d) and orally infected with S.Typhimurium 4/74 at 8 d of age. Birds were sacrificed 3, 6 and 10 d post-infection. Bacteria were enumerated from liver, spleen and caecal contents. In vitro studies were performed using chicken caecal crypts and porcine intestinal epithelial cells infected with Salmonella enterica serovars following pre-treatment separately with soluble plantain NSP and acidic or neutral polysaccharide fractions of plantain NSP, each compared with saline vehicle. Bacterial adherence and invasion were assessed by gentamicin protection assay. In vivo dietary supplementation with plantain NSP 50 mg/d reduced invasion by S.Typhimurium, as reflected by viable bacterial counts from splenic tissue, by 98.9% (95% CI, 98.1-99.7; P<0.0001). In vitro studies confirmed that plantain NSP (5-10 mg/ml) inhibited adhesion of S.Typhimurium 4/74 to a porcine epithelial cell-line (73% mean inhibition (95% CI, 64-81); P<0.001) and to primary chick caecal crypts (82% mean inhibition (95% CI, 75-90); P<0.001). Adherence inhibition was shown to be mediated via an effect on the epithelial cells and Ussing chamber experiments with ex-vivo human ileal mucosa showed that this effect was associated with increased short circuit current but no change in electrical resistance. The inhibitory activity of plantain NSP lay mainly within the acidic/pectic (homogalacturonan-rich) component. Supplementation of chick feed with plantain NSP was well tolerated and shows promise as a simple approach for reducing invasive salmonellosis.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/dietary-supplementation-soluble-plantain-nonstarch-polysaccharides-inhibits-intestinal-invasion-salm", "reader_count"=>28, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>4, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>6, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>5, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>6}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>4, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>6, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>5, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>6}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>15, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>6, "Design"=>1, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>2, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Design"=>{"Design"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>6}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>15}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Brazil"=>1, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["http://files.figshare.com/1376547/Figure_1.tif"], "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "users"=>["Hannah L. Simpson", "Suzie Humphrey", "David O'Brien", "Alastair J. M. Watson", "Niamh O'Kennedy", "Anne-Marie Salisbury", "Stephen C. Fry", "Paul Wigley", "Jonathan M. Rhodes", "Jonathan M. Williams", "Åsa V. Keita", "Carol L. Roberts", "Bryony N. Parsons", "Johan D. Söderholm", "Barry J. Campbell"], "links"=>[], "tags"=>["microbiology", "supplementation", "nsp", "Veterinary microbiology", "polysaccharides", "salmonellosis", "nutrition", "Microbial control", "Animal management", "Bacterial pathogens", "Salmonella", "Microbial pathogens", "Biochemistry", "glycobiology", "Host-pathogen interaction", "chicken", "Model organisms", "Animal models", "soluble", "Veterinary medicine", "chick", "plantain"], "title"=>"<p>Dietary supplementation with soluble plantain NSP reduces chick salmonellosis <i>in vivo.</i></p>", "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_Dietary_supplementation_with_soluble_plantain_NSP_reduces_chick_salmonellosis_in_vivo_/926425", "defined_type"=>1, "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0087658.g001"], "published_date"=>"2014-02-03 08:28:22", "article_id"=>926425, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "description"=>"<p>(<b>A</b>) Following infection of 8 day-old inbred specified pathogen-free White Leghorn Line 0 chicks with <i>S.</i> Typhimurium 4/74, soluble plantain NSP supplementation of a commercial pellet feed significantly reduced bacterial numbers found in the spleen 3 d post-infection. (<b>B</b>) Supplementation with soluble plantain NSP had little significant effect on presence of <i>S.</i> Typhimurium CFU cultured from the liver, excepting at 10 d post infection. (<b>C</b>) Total CFU observed within the caecal lumen were relatively unchanged at all doses of plantain NSP supplementation compared to birds fed a control diet. Significant differences from control (non-supplemented NSP) diet, * <i>P</i><0.05; ** <i>P</i><0.01; *** <i>P</i><0.0001 Kruskal-Wallis (N = 4–7 birds, n = 2 replicates).</p>"}
  • {"files"=>["http://files.figshare.com/1376548/Figure_2.tif"], "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "users"=>["Hannah L. Simpson", "Suzie Humphrey", "David O'Brien", "Alastair J. M. Watson", "Niamh O'Kennedy", "Anne-Marie Salisbury", "Stephen C. Fry", "Paul Wigley", "Jonathan M. Rhodes", "Jonathan M. Williams", "Åsa V. Keita", "Carol L. Roberts", "Bryony N. Parsons", "Johan D. Söderholm", "Barry J. Campbell"], "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Bacterial pathogens", "Salmonella", "Microbial pathogens", "microbiology", "polysaccharides", "nsp", "adherence", "Model organisms", "Veterinary medicine", "chicken", "nutrition", "Animal models", "Biochemistry", "plantain", "glycobiology", "Microbial control", "caecal", "Veterinary microbiology", "Animal management", "Host-pathogen interaction", "typhimurium"], "title"=>"<p>Soluble plantain NSP reduces adherence of <i>S</i>. Typhimurium 4/74 to primary caecal crypts.</p>", "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_Soluble_plantain_NSP_reduces_adherence_of_S_Typhimurium_4_74_to_primary_caecal_crypts_/926426", "defined_type"=>1, "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0087658.g002"], "published_date"=>"2014-02-03 08:28:22", "article_id"=>926426, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "description"=>"<p>Soluble plantain NSP (10 mg/mL) reduced adherence of <i>S</i>. Typhimurium 4/74 to primary chick caecal crypts isolated from both (<b>A</b>) 14-day old Lohmann Brown Classic egg-layers (N = 4 experiments, n = 3 replicates; *** <i>P</i><0.001 Mann Whitney U) and (<b>B</b>) 33-day old Hubbard JA57 broiler chickens (N = 3, n = 2; * <i>P</i> = 0.05 Mann Whitney U).</p>"}
  • {"files"=>["http://files.figshare.com/1376549/Figure_3.tif"], "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "users"=>["Hannah L. Simpson", "Suzie Humphrey", "David O'Brien", "Alastair J. M. Watson", "Niamh O'Kennedy", "Anne-Marie Salisbury", "Stephen C. Fry", "Paul Wigley", "Jonathan M. Rhodes", "Jonathan M. Williams", "Åsa V. Keita", "Carol L. Roberts", "Bryony N. Parsons", "Johan D. Söderholm", "Barry J. Campbell"], "links"=>[], "tags"=>["microbiology", "nsp", "cell-line", "enterocyte", "porcine", "Veterinary microbiology", "b1oxi", "typhimurium", "polysaccharides", "nutrition", "Microbial control", "Animal management", "Bacterial pathogens", "Salmonella", "Microbial pathogens", "Biochemistry", "glycobiology", "adhesion", "Host-pathogen interaction", "inhibits", "chicken", "Model organisms", "Animal models", "Veterinary medicine", "plantain"], "title"=>"<p>Soluble plantain NSP inhibits adhesion of <i>S</i>. Typhimurium to the porcine B1OXI enterocyte cell-line <i>in vitro</i>.</p>", "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_Soluble_plantain_NSP_inhibits_adhesion_of_S_Typhimurium_to_the_porcine_B1OXI_enterocyte_cell_line_in_vitro_/926427", "defined_type"=>1, "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0087658.g003"], "published_date"=>"2014-02-03 08:28:22", "article_id"=>926427, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "description"=>"<p>Pre-treatment (30 min) with soluble plantain NSP, dose-dependently blocked adhesion of (<b>A</b>) <i>S</i>. Typhimurium LT2 and (<b>B</b>) <i>S</i>. Typhimurium 4/74 to B1OXI cells (N = 3 experiments, each with n = 4 replicates); * <i>P</i><0.05, ** <i>P</i><0.01, *** <i>P</i><0.001, Kruskal-Wallis. Invasion of (<b>C</b>) <i>S.</i> Typhimurium LT2 and (<b>D</b>) <i>S.</i> Typhimurium 4/74 into B1OXI cells was also blocked by plantain NSP. Data (mean ± SEM) expressed relative to adherence (or invasion) of vehicle-treated control (100%). Light microscopy of Giemsa-stained B1OXI cells and <i>S</i>. Typhimurium 4/74 in absence (<b>E</b>) or presence (<b>F</b>) of 10 mg/mL soluble plantain NSP. Arrows indicate bacteria.</p>"}
  • {"files"=>["http://files.figshare.com/1376550/Figure_4.tif"], "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "users"=>["Hannah L. Simpson", "Suzie Humphrey", "David O'Brien", "Alastair J. M. Watson", "Niamh O'Kennedy", "Anne-Marie Salisbury", "Stephen C. Fry", "Paul Wigley", "Jonathan M. Rhodes", "Jonathan M. Williams", "Åsa V. Keita", "Carol L. Roberts", "Bryony N. Parsons", "Johan D. Söderholm", "Barry J. Campbell"], "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Bacterial pathogens", "Salmonella", "Microbial pathogens", "microbiology", "polysaccharides", "nsp", "Microbial control", "Model organisms", "chicken", "nutrition", "Animal models", "Biochemistry", "plantain", "glycobiology", "acts", "Host-pathogen interaction", "Veterinary microbiology", "Animal management", "Veterinary medicine", "epithelium", "typhimurium"], "title"=>"<p>Soluble plantain NSP acts on the epithelium to block interaction of <i>S</i>. Typhimurium LT2.</p>", "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_Soluble_plantain_NSP_acts_on_the_epithelium_to_block_interaction_of_S_Typhimurium_LT2_/926428", "defined_type"=>1, "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0087658.g004"], "published_date"=>"2014-02-03 08:28:22", "article_id"=>926428, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "description"=>"<p>Plantain NSP (5 mg/mL) blockade of adhesion of <i>S</i>. Typhimurium LT2 to B1OXI cells under different pre-treatment conditions. (<b>A</b>) Standard pre-treatment of cell monolayers with soluble plantain NSP (30 min), followed by infection for 90 min. (<b>B</b>) Pre-treatment of cell monolayers with soluble plantain NSP (30 min), followed by removal from monolayers using three sterile PBS washes prior to infection for 90 min. (<b>C</b>) Pre-treatment of bacteria with plantain NSP for 30 min, followed by centrifugation, re-suspension of bacteria in antibiotic free media and infection for 90 min. Data (mean ± SEM) expressed relative to adherence of vehicle-treated control (100%); n = 3; ** <i>P</i><0.01, *** <i>P</i><0.001, Kruskal-Wallis.</p>"}
  • {"files"=>["http://files.figshare.com/1376551/Figure_5.tif"], "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "users"=>["Hannah L. Simpson", "Suzie Humphrey", "David O'Brien", "Alastair J. M. Watson", "Niamh O'Kennedy", "Anne-Marie Salisbury", "Stephen C. Fry", "Paul Wigley", "Jonathan M. Rhodes", "Jonathan M. Williams", "Åsa V. Keita", "Carol L. Roberts", "Bryony N. Parsons", "Johan D. Söderholm", "Barry J. Campbell"], "links"=>[], "tags"=>["microbiology", "nsp", "Veterinary microbiology", "transmucosal", "follicle-associated", "polysaccharides", "nutrition", "Microbial control", "circuit", "Animal management", "Bacterial pathogens", "Salmonella", "Microbial pathogens", "ileal", "Biochemistry", "glycobiology", "Host-pathogen interaction", "chicken", "Model organisms", "Animal models", "Veterinary medicine", "plantain"], "title"=>"<p>Soluble plantain NSP increases the transmucosal short circuit current of <i>ex vivo</i> human ileal follicle-associated epithelium.</p>", "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_Soluble_plantain_NSP_increases_the_transmucosal_short_circuit_current_of_ex_vivo_human_ileal_follicle_associated_epithelium_/926429", "defined_type"=>1, "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0087658.g005"], "published_date"=>"2014-02-03 08:28:22", "article_id"=>926429, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "description"=>"<p>Plantain NSP (5 mg/mL) significantly increased (<b>A</b>) transmucosal short circuit current (<i>I<sub>sc</sub></i>), with a concomitant decrease in (<b>B</b>) epithelial potential difference (PD, apical-side negative), during pre-treatment of, and blockade of translocation of S. Typhimurium across <i>ex vivo</i> human ileal follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) mounted in Ussing chambers. (<b>C</b>) Trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER) was maintained throughout the experiment. N = 4, with 2 tissue replicates in each case. * <i>P</i><0.05, ** <i>P</i><0.01, ANOVA. For each tissue, <i>I</i><sub>sc</sub> and PD responses were calculated and expressed as the increment change (&#916;) for each sampling period. Arrows at T<sub>0</sub> min indicate addition of EGFP-expressing <i>S.</i> Typhimurium LT2 to the mucosal compartment (1×10<sup>8</sup> CFU/mL). Overnight culture of Ussing chamber serosal medium following 2 h infection had already demonstrated soluble plantain fibre to block translocation of <i>Salmonella</i> across isolated human FAE in this experiment; see reference <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0087658#pone.0087658-Roberts2\" target=\"_blank\">[21]</a>.</p>"}
  • {"files"=>["http://files.figshare.com/1376552/Figure_6.tif"], "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "users"=>["Hannah L. Simpson", "Suzie Humphrey", "David O'Brien", "Alastair J. M. Watson", "Niamh O'Kennedy", "Anne-Marie Salisbury", "Stephen C. Fry", "Paul Wigley", "Jonathan M. Rhodes", "Jonathan M. Williams", "Åsa V. Keita", "Carol L. Roberts", "Bryony N. Parsons", "Johan D. Söderholm", "Barry J. Campbell"], "links"=>[], "tags"=>["microbiology", "nsp", "Bacterial pathogens", "Veterinary microbiology", "epithelium", "polysaccharides", "Model organisms", "nutrition", "Microbial control", "inhibitory", "Animal management", "intestinal", "Salmonella", "Microbial pathogens", "Veterinary medicine", "Biochemistry", "glycobiology", "polysaccharide", "Host-pathogen interaction", "chicken", "plantain", "acidic", "Animal models", "soluble", "lies"], "title"=>"<p>The inhibitory activity of soluble plantain NSP to block <i>Salmonella</i>-host intestinal epithelium interaction lies within an acidic polysaccharide component.</p>", "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_The_inhibitory_activity_of_soluble_plantain_NSP_to_block_Salmonella_host_intestinal_epithelium_interaction_lies_within_an_acidic_polysaccharide_component_/926430", "defined_type"=>1, "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0087658.g006"], "published_date"=>"2014-02-03 08:28:22", "article_id"=>926430, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "description"=>"<p>At 5/mL, the acidic polysaccharide fraction of plantain NSP significantly blocked adhesion of <i>S</i>. Typhimurium LT2 to human intestinal Caco2 cells, whereas the neutral fraction had a lesser effect compared to vehicle-treated control (N = 2 experiments, n = 3 replicates; * <i>P</i><0.05, ** <i>P</i><0.01 Kruskal-Wallis).</p>"}
  • {"files"=>["http://files.figshare.com/1376553/File_S1.pdf", "http://files.figshare.com/1376554/File_S2.pdf", "http://files.figshare.com/1376555/File_S3.pdf", "http://files.figshare.com/1376556/File_S4.pdf", "http://files.figshare.com/1376557/File_S5.pdf"], "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "users"=>["Hannah L. Simpson", "Suzie Humphrey", "David O'Brien", "Alastair J. M. Watson", "Niamh O'Kennedy", "Anne-Marie Salisbury", "Stephen C. Fry", "Paul Wigley", "Jonathan M. Rhodes", "Jonathan M. Williams", "Åsa V. Keita", "Carol L. Roberts", "Bryony N. Parsons", "Johan D. Söderholm", "Barry J. Campbell"], "links"=>[], "tags"=>["microbiology", "supplementation", "non-starch", "Bacterial pathogens", "Veterinary microbiology", "typhimurium", "polysaccharides", "nutrition", "Microbial control", "Animal management", "intestinal", "Salmonella", "Microbial pathogens", "Biochemistry", "glycobiology", "Host-pathogen interaction", "inhibits", "dietary", "chicken", "Model organisms", "Animal models", "soluble", "Veterinary medicine", "plantain"], "title"=>"Dietary Supplementation with Soluble Plantain Non-Starch Polysaccharides Inhibits Intestinal Invasion of <i>Salmonella</i> Typhimurium in the Chicken", "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/Dietary_Supplementation_with_Soluble_Plantain_Non_Starch_Polysaccharides_Inhibits_Intestinal_Invasion_of_Salmonella_Typhimurium_in_the_Chicken/926431", "defined_type"=>4, "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0087658.s001", "http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0087658.s002", "http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0087658.s003", "http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0087658.s004", "http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0087658.s005"], "published_date"=>"2014-02-03 08:28:22", "article_id"=>926431, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "description"=>"<div><p>Soluble fibres (non-starch polysaccharides, NSP) from edible plants but particularly plantain banana (<i>Musa</i> spp.), have been shown <i>in vitro</i> and <i>ex vivo</i> to prevent various enteric pathogens from adhering to, or translocating across, the human intestinal epithelium, a property that we have termed contrabiotic. Here we report that dietary plantain fibre prevents invasion of the chicken intestinal mucosa by <i>Salmonella</i>. <i>In vivo</i> experiments were performed with chicks fed from hatch on a pellet diet containing soluble plantain NSP (0 to 200 mg/d) and orally infected with <i>S</i>.Typhimurium 4/74 at 8 d of age. Birds were sacrificed 3, 6 and 10 d post-infection. Bacteria were enumerated from liver, spleen and caecal contents. <i>In vitro</i> studies were performed using chicken caecal crypts and porcine intestinal epithelial cells infected with <i>Salmonella enterica</i> serovars following pre-treatment separately with soluble plantain NSP and acidic or neutral polysaccharide fractions of plantain NSP, each compared with saline vehicle. Bacterial adherence and invasion were assessed by gentamicin protection assay. <i>In vivo</i> dietary supplementation with plantain NSP 50 mg/d reduced invasion by <i>S.</i>Typhimurium, as reflected by viable bacterial counts from splenic tissue, by 98.9% (95% CI, 98.1–99.7; <i>P</i><0.0001). <i>In vitro</i> studies confirmed that plantain NSP (5–10 mg/ml) inhibited adhesion of <i>S.</i>Typhimurium 4/74 to a porcine epithelial cell-line (73% mean inhibition (95% CI, 64–81); <i>P</i><0.001) and to primary chick caecal crypts (82% mean inhibition (95% CI, 75–90); <i>P</i><0.001). Adherence inhibition was shown to be mediated via an effect on the epithelial cells and Ussing chamber experiments with <i>ex-vivo</i> human ileal mucosa showed that this effect was associated with increased short circuit current but no change in electrical resistance. The inhibitory activity of plantain NSP lay mainly within the acidic/pectic (homogalacturonan-rich) component. Supplementation of chick feed with plantain NSP was well tolerated and shows promise as a simple approach for reducing invasive salmonellosis.</p></div>"}

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Relative Metric

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