E. coli Infection Modulates the Pharmacokinetics of Oral Enrofloxacin by Targeting P-Glycoprotein in Small Intestine and CYP450 3A in Liver and Kidney of Broilers
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{"title"=>"E. coli infection modulates the pharmacokinetics of oral enrofloxacin by targeting P-glycoprotein in small intestine and CYP450 3A in liver and kidney of broilers", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Mengjie", "last_name"=>"Guo", "scopus_author_id"=>"55630913400"}, {"first_name"=>"Yong", "last_name"=>"Sun", "scopus_author_id"=>"57184487500"}, {"first_name"=>"Yu", "last_name"=>"Zhang", "scopus_author_id"=>"56155355000"}, {"first_name"=>"Shamsuddin", "last_name"=>"Bughio", "scopus_author_id"=>"55314334900"}, {"first_name"=>"Xiaohua", "last_name"=>"Dai", "scopus_author_id"=>"55855975600"}, {"first_name"=>"Weilong", "last_name"=>"Ren", "scopus_author_id"=>"56156665900"}, {"first_name"=>"Liping", "last_name"=>"Wang", "scopus_author_id"=>"57188659580"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"24498193", "sgr"=>"84900429405", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0087781", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84900429405", "pui"=>"373071439", "issn"=>"19326203"}, "id"=>"8f778d24-7c67-3ca1-9089-ffd56c3bba0a", "abstract"=>"P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression determines the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of many drugs in the body. Also, up-regulation of P-gp acts as a defense mechanism against acute inflammation. This study examined expression levels of abcb1 mRNA and localization of P-gp protein in the liver, kidney, duodenum, jejunum and ileum in healthy and E. coli infected broilers by real time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Meanwhile, pharmacokinetics of orally administered enrofloxacin was also investigated in healthy and infected broilers by HPLC. The results indicated that E. coli infection up-regulated expression of abcb1 mRNA levels significantly in the kidney, jejunum and ileum (P<0.05), but not significantly in the liver and duodenum (P>0.05). However, the expression level of CYP 3A37 mRNA were observed significantly decreased only in liver and kidney of E. coli infected broilers (P<0.05) compared with healthy birds. Furthermore, the infection reduced absorption of orally administered enrofloxacin, significantly decreased Cmax (0.34 vs 0.98 µg mL(-1), P = 0.000) and AUC0-12h (4.37 vs 8.88 µg mL(-1) h, P = 0.042) of enrofloxacin, but increased Tmax (8.32 vs 3.28 h, P = 0.040), T1/2a(2.66 vs 1.64 h(-1), P = 0.050) and V/F (26.7 vs 5.2 L, P = 0.040). Treatment with verapamil, an inhibitor of P-gp, significantly improved the absorption of enrofloxacin in both healthy and infected broilers. The results suggest that the E. coli infection induces intestine P-gp expression, altering the absorption of orally administered enrofloxacin in broilers.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/e-coli-infection-modulates-pharmacokinetics-oral-enrofloxacin-targeting-pglycoprotein-small-intestin", "reader_count"=>6, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Researcher"=>3, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Researcher"=>3, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>4, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>1, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>4}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>1}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Poland"=>1, "Brazil"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1371166"], "description"=>"<p>Mouse monoclonal anti-P-gp antibody (C219) was used to detect P-gp. These figures are representatives of typical samples from 5 broilers in each group. The arrow showed the positive staining of P-gp. Magnifications are indicated by bar.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Renal system", "Drug excretion", "immunology", "immunity", "inflammation", "microbiology", "Bacterial pathogens", "Escherichia coli", "Model organisms", "Animal models", "chicken", "Drugs and devices", "pharmacokinetics", "Drug absorption", "Drug distribution", "Drug metabolism", "Gastroenterology and hepatology", "Stomach and duodenum", "Infectious diseases", "Bacterial diseases", "Veterinary diseases", "Veterinary medicine", "Veterinary pharmacology", "staining", "p-glycoprotein", "tissues", "infected"], "article_id"=>922028, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Mengjie Guo", "Yong Sun", "Yu Zhang", "Shamsuddin Bughio", "Xiaohua Dai", "Weilong Ren", "Liping Wang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0087781.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Immunohistochemical_staining_of_P_glycoprotein_in_different_tissues_of_healthy_and_E_coli_infected_broilers_/922028", "title"=>"Immunohistochemical staining of P-glycoprotein in different tissues of healthy and <i>E. coli</i> infected broilers.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-01-31 03:07:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1371176"], "description"=>"*<p><i>P</i><0.05, ** <i>P</i><0.01 significant difference vs. healthy broliers. <i>K<sub>e:</sub></i>,elimination rate constant; <i>K<sub>a</sub></i>, absorption rate constant; <i>t</i><sub>1/2a</sub>, the absorption half-life; <i>t</i><sub>1/2e</sub>, the elimination half-life; T<sub>max</sub>, the time to reach peak concentration; C<sub>max</sub>, the peak concentration; AUC<sub>0-12h</sub>, the area under the plasma concentration-time curve from zero to 12h; V/F, volume of distribution/F, where F is the faction of dose absorbed; Cl/F, Clearance/F, where F is the faction of dose absorbed.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Renal system", "Drug excretion", "immunology", "immunity", "inflammation", "microbiology", "Bacterial pathogens", "Escherichia coli", "Model organisms", "Animal models", "chicken", "Drugs and devices", "pharmacokinetics", "Drug absorption", "Drug distribution", "Drug metabolism", "Gastroenterology and hepatology", "Stomach and duodenum", "Infectious diseases", "Bacterial diseases", "Veterinary diseases", "Veterinary medicine", "Veterinary pharmacology", "enrofloxacin", "infected", "broilers"], "article_id"=>922037, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Mengjie Guo", "Yong Sun", "Yu Zhang", "Shamsuddin Bughio", "Xiaohua Dai", "Weilong Ren", "Liping Wang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0087781.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Parameters_of_oral_enrofloxacin_in_healthy_and_infected_broilers_mean_177_S_E_M_n_8202_8202_10_/922037", "title"=>"Parameters of oral enrofloxacin in healthy and infected broilers (mean ± S.E.M., n = 10).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-01-31 03:07:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1371175"], "description"=>"<p>A: enrofloxacin alone by single oral administration (10 mg/kg) to healthy (n = 10) and infected (n = 10) broilers; B: enrofloxacin after a single oral administration of 10 mg/kg alone (n = 10) and co-administration of verapamil (15 mg/kg, n = 10) to <i>E. coli</i> infected broilers C: enrofloxacin after a single oral administration of 10 mg/kg alone (n = 10) and co-administration of verapamil (15 mg/kg, n = 10) to healthy broilers. Each point represents the mean ±S.E.M. of 10 broilers.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Renal system", "Drug excretion", "immunology", "immunity", "inflammation", "microbiology", "Bacterial pathogens", "Escherichia coli", "Model organisms", "Animal models", "chicken", "Drugs and devices", "pharmacokinetics", "Drug absorption", "Drug distribution", "Drug metabolism", "Gastroenterology and hepatology", "Stomach and duodenum", "Infectious diseases", "Bacterial diseases", "Veterinary diseases", "Veterinary medicine", "Veterinary pharmacology", "plasma", "enrofloxacin", "concentrations", "broilers"], "article_id"=>922036, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Mengjie Guo", "Yong Sun", "Yu Zhang", "Shamsuddin Bughio", "Xiaohua Dai", "Weilong Ren", "Liping Wang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0087781.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_plasma_enrofloxacin_concentrations_in_broilers_after_enrofloxacin_administration_/922036", "title"=>"Mean plasma enrofloxacin concentrations in broilers after enrofloxacin administration.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-01-31 03:07:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1371178"], "description"=>"*<p><i>P</i><0.05, **<i>P</i><0.01 significant difference between parameters of enrofloxacin in the presence and absence of verapamil in healthy broilers.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Renal system", "Drug excretion", "immunology", "immunity", "inflammation", "microbiology", "Bacterial pathogens", "Escherichia coli", "Model organisms", "Animal models", "chicken", "Drugs and devices", "pharmacokinetics", "Drug absorption", "Drug distribution", "Drug metabolism", "Gastroenterology and hepatology", "Stomach and duodenum", "Infectious diseases", "Bacterial diseases", "Veterinary diseases", "Veterinary medicine", "Veterinary pharmacology", "enrofloxacin", "broilers", "verapamil"], "article_id"=>922039, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Mengjie Guo", "Yong Sun", "Yu Zhang", "Shamsuddin Bughio", "Xiaohua Dai", "Weilong Ren", "Liping Wang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0087781.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Parameters_of_oral_enrofloxacin_in_healthy_broilers_with_and_without_verapamil_mean_177_S_E_M_n_8202_8202_10_/922039", "title"=>"Parameters of oral enrofloxacin in healthy broilers with and without verapamil (mean±S.E.M., n = 10).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-01-31 03:07:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1371154"], "description"=>"<p>A: Differences of <i>CYP3A37</i> mRNA level in liver, jejunum, ileum and duodenum between healthy and <i>E. coli</i> infected broilers; B: Comparison of <i>CYP3A37</i> mRNA level in different tissues of infected broilers. β-actin was used as a reference gene for normalization. The results were expressed as the mean ± S.E.M. and analyzed by one-way ANOVA using SPSS 16.0 for Windows followed by a least-significant difference (LSD) test for individual comparisons. * <i>P</i><0.05, ** <i>P</i><0.01.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Renal system", "Drug excretion", "immunology", "immunity", "inflammation", "microbiology", "Bacterial pathogens", "Escherichia coli", "Model organisms", "Animal models", "chicken", "Drugs and devices", "pharmacokinetics", "Drug absorption", "Drug distribution", "Drug metabolism", "Gastroenterology and hepatology", "Stomach and duodenum", "Infectious diseases", "Bacterial diseases", "Veterinary diseases", "Veterinary medicine", "Veterinary pharmacology", "mrna", "broilers", "rt", "pcr"], "article_id"=>922021, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Mengjie Guo", "Yong Sun", "Yu Zhang", "Shamsuddin Bughio", "Xiaohua Dai", "Weilong Ren", "Liping Wang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0087781.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Expression_levels_of_CYP3A37_mRNA_in_broilers_by_real_time_RT_PCR_n_5_/922021", "title"=>"Expression levels of <i>CYP3A37</i> mRNA in broilers by real time RT PCR (n = 5).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-01-31 03:07:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1371177"], "description"=>"*<p><i>P</i><0.05, **<i>P</i><0.01 significant difference between parameters of enrofloxacin in the presence and absence of verapamil in infected broilers.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Renal system", "Drug excretion", "immunology", "immunity", "inflammation", "microbiology", "Bacterial pathogens", "Escherichia coli", "Model organisms", "Animal models", "chicken", "Drugs and devices", "pharmacokinetics", "Drug absorption", "Drug distribution", "Drug metabolism", "Gastroenterology and hepatology", "Stomach and duodenum", "Infectious diseases", "Bacterial diseases", "Veterinary diseases", "Veterinary medicine", "Veterinary pharmacology", "enrofloxacin", "infected", "broilers", "verapamil"], "article_id"=>922038, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Mengjie Guo", "Yong Sun", "Yu Zhang", "Shamsuddin Bughio", "Xiaohua Dai", "Weilong Ren", "Liping Wang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0087781.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Parameters_of_oral_enrofloxacin_in_infected_broilers_with_and_without_verapamil_mean_177_S_E_M_n_8202_8202_10_/922038", "title"=>"Parameters of oral enrofloxacin in infected broilers with and without verapamil (mean±S.E.M., n = 10).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-01-31 03:07:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1371153"], "description"=>"<p>A: Differences of <i>abcb1</i> mRNA level in liver, jejunum, ileum and duodenum between healthy and <i>E. coli</i> infected broilers; B: Comparison of <i>abcb1</i> mRNA level in different tissues of infected broilers. β-actin was used as a reference gene for normalization. All data were presented as mean ± S.E.M. and analyzed by one-way ANOVA using SPSS 16.0 for Windows followed by a least-significant difference (LSD) test for individual comparisons. * <i>P</i><0.05, ** <i>P</i><0.01.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Renal system", "Drug excretion", "immunology", "immunity", "inflammation", "microbiology", "Bacterial pathogens", "Escherichia coli", "Model organisms", "Animal models", "chicken", "Drugs and devices", "pharmacokinetics", "Drug absorption", "Drug distribution", "Drug metabolism", "Gastroenterology and hepatology", "Stomach and duodenum", "Infectious diseases", "Bacterial diseases", "Veterinary diseases", "Veterinary medicine", "Veterinary pharmacology", "mrna", "broilers", "rt", "pcr"], "article_id"=>922020, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Mengjie Guo", "Yong Sun", "Yu Zhang", "Shamsuddin Bughio", "Xiaohua Dai", "Weilong Ren", "Liping Wang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0087781.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Expression_levels_of_abcb1_mRNA_in_broilers_by_real_time_RT_PCR_n_5_/922020", "title"=>"Expression levels of <i>abcb1</i> mRNA in broilers by real time RT PCR (n = 5).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-01-31 03:07:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1371173"], "description"=>"<p>The intensity of specific P-gp staining was evaluated by measuring the IOD, area of positive staining and scores of its expression respectively. Digital images of five sections from each broiler of the surface epithelium area were evaluated. Each section was divided into five sub-areas, and the IOD and positive area of the staining was analyzed using the Image-Pro Plus 4.1. software and scores were analyzed from 0 to 4 to estimate the positive staining in different areas under study.*<i>P</i><0.05, *<i>*P</i><0.01.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Renal system", "Drug excretion", "immunology", "immunity", "inflammation", "microbiology", "Bacterial pathogens", "Escherichia coli", "Model organisms", "Animal models", "chicken", "Drugs and devices", "pharmacokinetics", "Drug absorption", "Drug distribution", "Drug metabolism", "Gastroenterology and hepatology", "Stomach and duodenum", "Infectious diseases", "Bacterial diseases", "Veterinary diseases", "Veterinary medicine", "Veterinary pharmacology", "p-gp", "infected"], "article_id"=>922034, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Mengjie Guo", "Yong Sun", "Yu Zhang", "Shamsuddin Bughio", "Xiaohua Dai", "Weilong Ren", "Liping Wang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0087781.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Semi_quantification_of_P_gp_in_both_healthy_and_E_coli_infected_broilers_/922034", "title"=>"Semi-quantification of P-gp in both healthy and <i>E. coli</i> infected broilers.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-01-31 03:07:04"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"12"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2014-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2014-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences", "average_usage"=>[291]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Anatomy", "average_usage"=>[267]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Organisms", "average_usage"=>[310]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Anatomy", "average_usage"=>[266]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Gastroenterology and hepatology", "average_usage"=>[246]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Pharmacology", "average_usage"=>[286]}]}
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Net::HTTPTooManyRequests

Source
Scopus
Time
2019-08-27 21:06:49 UTC
Target URL
https://api.elsevier.com/content/search/index:SCOPUS?query=DOI(10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0087781)
Trace

/app/models/concerns/networkable.rb:21:in `get_result'
/app/models/source.rb:165:in `get_data'
/app/models/retrieval_status.rb:47:in `perform_get_data'
/app/jobs/source_job.rb:52:in `block (2 levels) in perform'
/app/jobs/source_job.rb:51:in `block in perform'
/app/jobs/source_job.rb:35:in `each'
/app/jobs/source_job.rb:35:in `perform'