Walking Like Dinosaurs: Chickens with Artificial Tails Provide Clues about Non-Avian Theropod Locomotion
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{"title"=>"Walking like dinosaurs: Chickens with artificial tails provide clues about non-avian theropod locomotion", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Bruno", "last_name"=>"Grossi", "scopus_author_id"=>"8537103300"}, {"first_name"=>"José", "last_name"=>"Iriarte-Díaz", "scopus_author_id"=>"6506091430"}, {"first_name"=>"Omar", "last_name"=>"Larach", "scopus_author_id"=>"56058086500"}, {"first_name"=>"Mauricio", "last_name"=>"Canals", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006381073"}, {"first_name"=>"Rodrigo A.", "last_name"=>"Vásquez", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005328739"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84895518439", "sgr"=>"84895518439", "pui"=>"372535091", "isbn"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0088458", "pmid"=>"24505491", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0088458"}, "id"=>"d3f6abdc-3fa9-3e6f-963c-6c0bd8b5d3f0", "abstract"=>"Birds still share many traits with their dinosaur ancestors, making them the best living group to reconstruct certain aspects of non-avian theropod biology. Bipedal, digitigrade locomotion and parasagittal hindlimb movement are some of those inherited traits. Living birds, however, maintain an unusually crouched hindlimb posture and locomotion powered by knee flexion, in contrast to the inferred primitive condition of non-avian theropods: more upright posture and limb movement powered by femur retraction. Such functional differences, which are associated with a gradual, anterior shift of the centre of mass in theropods along the bird line, make the use of extant birds to study non-avian theropod locomotion problematic. Here we show that, by experimentally manipulating the location of the centre of mass in living birds, it is possible to recreate limb posture and kinematics inferred for extinct bipedal dinosaurs. Chickens raised wearing artificial tails, and consequently with more posteriorly located centre of mass, showed a more vertical orientation of the femur during standing and increased femoral displacement during locomotion. Our results support the hypothesis that gradual changes in the location of the centre of mass resulted in more crouched hindlimb postures and a shift from hip-driven to knee-driven limb movements through theropod evolution. This study suggests that, through careful experimental manipulations during the growth phase of ontogeny, extant birds can potentially be used to gain important insights into previously unexplored aspects of bipedal non-avian theropod locomotion.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/walking-like-dinosaurs-chickens-artificial-tails-provide-clues-about-nonavian-theropod-locomotion", "reader_count"=>148, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Librarian"=>3, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>6, "Researcher"=>24, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>29, "Student > Postgraduate"=>6, "Student > Master"=>31, "Other"=>13, "Student > Bachelor"=>23, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Librarian"=>3, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>6, "Researcher"=>24, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>29, "Student > Postgraduate"=>6, "Student > Master"=>31, "Other"=>13, "Student > Bachelor"=>23, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>6, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>61, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>3, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Chemistry"=>2, "Computer Science"=>5, "Decision Sciences"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>20, "Energy"=>1, "Engineering"=>13, "Environmental Science"=>8, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>5, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Materials Science"=>2, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>5, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1, "Sports and Recreations"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>8, "Psychology"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>2}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>5}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Decision Sciences"=>{"Decision Sciences"=>1}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>8}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>6}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>8}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>13}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>2}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Energy"=>{"Energy"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>20}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>61}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>5}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>5}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>3}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>5, "Japan"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>3, "Switzerland"=>1, "Spain"=>2, "India"=>1, "Canada"=>1, "Turkey"=>1, "Denmark"=>2, "Brazil"=>1, "Mexico"=>1, "Italy"=>1, "Chile"=>3, "France"=>2, "Germany"=>2}, "group_count"=>4}

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