The Content of Our Cooperation, Not the Color of Our Skin: An Alliance Detection System Regulates Categorization by Coalition and Race, but Not Sex
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{"title"=>"The content of our cooperation, not the color of our skin: An alliance detection system regulates categorization by coalition and race, but not sex", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"David", "last_name"=>"Pietraszewski", "scopus_author_id"=>"54887257400"}, {"first_name"=>"Leda", "last_name"=>"Cosmides", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701648954"}, {"first_name"=>"John", "last_name"=>"Tooby", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701803104"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84895514670", "sgr"=>"84895514670", "issn"=>"19326203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0088534", "pmid"=>"24520394", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic) 1932-6203 (Linking)", "pui"=>"372537533"}, "id"=>"eb7e256f-9ede-38e7-ae70-0cc16cd57210", "abstract"=>"Humans in all societies form and participate in cooperative alliances. To successfully navigate an alliance-laced world, the human mind needs to detect new coalitions and alliances as they emerge, and predict which of many potential alliance categories are currently organizing an interaction. We propose that evolution has equipped the mind with cognitive machinery that is specialized for performing these functions: an alliance detection system. In this view, racial categories do not exist because skin color is perceptually salient; they are constructed and regulated by the alliance system in environments where race predicts social alliances and divisions. Early tests using adversarial alliances showed that the mind spontaneously detects which individuals are cooperating against a common enemy, implicitly assigning people to rival alliance categories based on patterns of cooperation and competition. But is social antagonism necessary to trigger the categorization of people by alliance--that is, do we cognitively link A and B into an alliance category only because they are jointly in conflict with C and D? We report new studies demonstrating that peaceful cooperation can trigger the detection of new coalitional alliances and make race fade in relevance. Alliances did not need to be marked by team colors or other perceptually salient cues. When race did not predict the ongoing alliance structure, behavioral cues about cooperative activities up-regulated categorization by coalition and down-regulated categorization by race, sometimes eliminating it. Alliance cues that sensitively regulated categorization by coalition and race had no effect on categorization by sex, eliminating many alternative explanations for the results. The results support the hypothesis that categorizing people by their race is a reversible product of a cognitive system specialized for detecting alliance categories and regulating their use. Common enemies are not necessary to erase important social boundaries; peaceful cooperation can have the same effect.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/content-cooperation-not-color-skin-alliance-detection-system-regulates-categorization-coalition-race", "reader_count"=>90, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>7, "Researcher"=>10, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>30, "Student > Postgraduate"=>8, "Other"=>6, "Student > Master"=>9, "Student > Bachelor"=>8, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>7, "Researcher"=>10, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>30, "Student > Postgraduate"=>8, "Other"=>6, "Student > Master"=>9, "Student > Bachelor"=>8, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>5, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Design"=>1, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>3, "Psychology"=>50, "Social Sciences"=>21, "Computer Science"=>1, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1, "Philosophy"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Design"=>{"Design"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>21}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>50}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>5}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>3}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>5}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "Austria"=>1, "Hungary"=>3, "United States"=>4, "Luxembourg"=>1, "Brazil"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Chile"=>1, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1380180"], "description"=>"<p>Racial categorization was same when race was the only visually distinct category (gray conditions) and when it was crossed with a vivid difference in shirt colors (color conditions). The same was true for gender categorization. Crossing race with a second category—one unrelated to coalitions—does not decrease racial categorization. (The same is true for gender categorization.) Error bars: +/− 1 S.E. of mean error difference.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary processes", "adaptation", "natural selection", "psychology", "behavior", "Cognitive psychology", "Experimental psychology", "Human relations", "Social psychology", "Sociology", "Social discrimination", "Gender discrimination", "Racial discrimination", "coalitions", "sizes", "categorization"], "article_id"=>929410, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["David Pietraszewski", "Leda Cosmides", "John Tooby"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0088534.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_When_coalitions_are_absent_Effect_sizes_for_categorization_by_race_Study_1_and_gender_Study_2_/929410", "title"=>"When coalitions are absent: Effect sizes for categorization by race (Study 1) and gender (Study 2).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-02-10 03:26:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1380181"], "description"=>"<p>Targets in these conditions all wore gray shirts, so the only cues to coalition membership were behavioral. ♂, ♀ denotes sex of target stimuli. Coalitional categorization followed the same pattern, whether coalition was crossed with sex or race: Charity group membership was retrieved more strongly when the sentences at recall implied that differences in coalition membership were relevant to the speakers than when they did not (coalitions-relevant vs. coalitions-irrelevant conditions). Error bars: +/− 1 S.E.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary processes", "adaptation", "natural selection", "psychology", "behavior", "Cognitive psychology", "Experimental psychology", "Human relations", "Social psychology", "Sociology", "Social discrimination", "Gender discrimination", "Racial discrimination", "sizes", "categorization"], "article_id"=>929411, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["David Pietraszewski", "Leda Cosmides", "John Tooby"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0088534.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_sizes_for_categorization_by_coalition_Studies_3_and_4_/929411", "title"=>"Effect sizes for categorization by coalition (Studies 3 and 4).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-02-10 03:26:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1380184"], "description"=>"<p>The left panel depicts effect sizes for gender categorization when all targets were wearing gray shirts. The right panel depicts effect sizes for gender categorization when gender was crossed with shirt color. In each panel, the leftmost bar (labeled “no coalitions”) depicts gender categorization when coalitions were absent (Study 2). The two bars to its right depict gender categorization when coalitions were present and crossed with sex (Study 4: gray shirts; Study 6: different colored shirts). Gender was retrieved at the same high levels no matter how strong the coalitional cues; there were no significant differences between conditions. Error bars: +/− 1 S.E.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary processes", "adaptation", "natural selection", "psychology", "behavior", "Cognitive psychology", "Experimental psychology", "Human relations", "Social psychology", "Sociology", "Social discrimination", "Gender discrimination", "Racial discrimination", "categorization", "coalitional", "variables"], "article_id"=>929414, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["David Pietraszewski", "Leda Cosmides", "John Tooby"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0088534.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Gender_categorization_does_not_respond_to_coalitional_variables_Studies_2_4_and_6_/929414", "title"=>"Gender categorization does not respond to coalitional variables (Studies 2, 4, and 6).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-02-10 03:26:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1380185"], "description"=>"<p>All targets wore gray shirts in these conditions; the only cues to charity group membership were behavioral. Effect sizes for racial categorization are shown for male targets (left panel) and female targets (right panel). In each panel, the leftmost bar (labeled “no coalitions”) depicts racial categorization when coalitions were absent (Study 1). The two bars to its right depict racial categorization when coalitions were present and crossed with race (Study 3). Behavioral cues to coalition membership were present at encoding for all the coalition conditions of Study 3. The sentences at recall varied across conditions: Their content was either relevant to coalition membership (“coalitions relevant @ recall”) or applicable to members of both coalitions (“coalitions irrelevant @ recall”). Retrieval of racial categories was down-regulated most strongly when the recall context included behavioral cues that coalition membership was relevant to the targets—the same recall contexts that up-regulated the retrieval of charity group membership. Indeed, race was “erased” (not retrieved to a significant extent) for female targets in this condition. Error bars: +/− 1 S.E.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary processes", "adaptation", "natural selection", "psychology", "behavior", "Cognitive psychology", "Experimental psychology", "Human relations", "Social psychology", "Sociology", "Social discrimination", "Gender discrimination", "Racial discrimination", "variables", "categorization"], "article_id"=>929415, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["David Pietraszewski", "Leda Cosmides", "John Tooby"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0088534.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Coalitional_variables_regulate_racial_categorization_Studies_1_and_3_/929415", "title"=>"Coalitional variables regulate racial categorization (Studies 1 and 3).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-02-10 03:26:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1380186"], "description"=>"<p>Targets in these conditions wore different colored shirts, such that cues to coalition membership were both behavioral and visual. ♂, ♀ denotes sex of target stimuli. Coalitional categorization was stronger than in the gray conditions (Studies 3 and 4), but followed the same pattern. Error bars: +/− 1 S.E.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary processes", "adaptation", "natural selection", "psychology", "behavior", "Cognitive psychology", "Experimental psychology", "Human relations", "Social psychology", "Sociology", "Social discrimination", "Gender discrimination", "Racial discrimination", "sizes", "categorization", "marked", "cues"], "article_id"=>929416, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["David Pietraszewski", "Leda Cosmides", "John Tooby"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0088534.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_sizes_for_categorization_by_coalition_when_membership_is_marked_by_visual_and_behavioral_cues_Studies_5_and_6_/929416", "title"=>"Effect sizes for categorization by coalition when membership is marked by visual and behavioral cues (Studies 5 and 6).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-02-10 03:26:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1380188"], "description"=>"<p>Race is crossed with shirt color in all of these conditions. Effect sizes for racial categorization are shown for male targets (left panel) and female targets (right panel). In each panel, the leftmost bar (labeled “no coalitions”) depicts racial categorization when coalitions were absent (Study 1)). The two bars to its right depict racial categorization when coalitions were present and marked by differences in shirt color (Study 5). Behavioral cues and visual cues to coalition membership were present at encoding for all the coalition conditions of Study 5. The sentences at recall varied across conditions: Their content was either relevant to coalition membership (“coalitions relevant @ recall”) or applicable to members of both coalitions (“coalitions irrelevant @ recall”). When each charity group is wearing different colored shirts, the recall context always has a least one cue that coalition membership is relevant to the targets (a visual cue). This single cue was enough to down-regulate racial categorization; there was no added benefit to having coalition-relevant sentences at recall. Racial categorization was as low in these conditions as in the gray ones with coalition-relevant sentences (Study 3). For female targets, race was “erased” in the color + coalitions-relevant condition, and almost so in the color + coalitions-irrelevant condition. Error bars: +/− 1 S.E.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary processes", "adaptation", "natural selection", "psychology", "behavior", "Cognitive psychology", "Experimental psychology", "Human relations", "Social psychology", "Sociology", "Social discrimination", "Gender discrimination", "Racial discrimination", "categorization", "marked", "cues"], "article_id"=>929419, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["David Pietraszewski", "Leda Cosmides", "John Tooby"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0088534.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Racial_categorization_when_coalition_membership_is_marked_by_visual_and_behavioral_cues_Studies_1_and_5_/929419", "title"=>"Racial categorization when coalition membership is marked by visual and behavioral cues (Studies 1 and 5).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-02-10 03:26:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1380192"], "description"=>"<p>Effect sizes for coalition (yellow bars) follow the same pattern across conditions. R and I refer to conditions in which the sentences at recall were coalition-relevant vs. coalition-irrelevant. When the recall context contains at least one cue that coalition-membership is relevant—either verbal (gray-R) or visual (color-I), racial categorization is down-regulated as much as when there are two cues (color-R). Gender categorization is not affected at all by coalitional manipulations. The different heights of the stacked bars show that categorization is not zero-sum: Retrieval of one category can be up-regulated without causing any decrease in retrieval of the crossed category.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary processes", "adaptation", "natural selection", "psychology", "behavior", "Cognitive psychology", "Experimental psychology", "Human relations", "Social psychology", "Sociology", "Social discrimination", "Gender discrimination", "Racial discrimination"], "article_id"=>929422, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["David Pietraszewski", "Leda Cosmides", "John Tooby"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0088534.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Categorization_by_coalition_race_and_sex_across_six_studies_/929422", "title"=>"Categorization by coalition, race, and sex across six studies.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-02-10 03:26:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1380196"], "description"=>"<div><p>Humans in all societies form and participate in cooperative alliances. To successfully navigate an alliance-laced world, the human mind needs to detect new coalitions and alliances as they emerge, and predict which of many potential alliance categories are currently organizing an interaction. We propose that evolution has equipped the mind with cognitive machinery that is specialized for performing these functions: an <i>alliance detection system.</i> In this view, racial categories do not exist because skin color is perceptually salient; they are constructed and regulated by the alliance system in environments where race predicts social alliances and divisions. Early tests using adversarial alliances showed that the mind spontaneously detects which individuals are cooperating against a common enemy, implicitly assigning people to rival alliance categories based on patterns of cooperation and competition. But is social antagonism necessary to trigger the categorization of people by alliance—that is, do we cognitively link A and B into an alliance category only because they are jointly in conflict with C and D? We report new studies demonstrating that peaceful cooperation can trigger the detection of new coalitional alliances and make race fade in relevance. Alliances did not need to be marked by team colors or other perceptually salient cues. When race did not predict the ongoing alliance structure, behavioral cues about cooperative activities up-regulated categorization by coalition and down-regulated categorization by race, sometimes eliminating it. Alliance cues that sensitively regulated categorization by coalition and race had no effect on categorization by sex, eliminating many alternative explanations for the results. The results support the hypothesis that categorizing people by their race is a reversible product of a cognitive system specialized for detecting alliance categories and regulating their use. Common enemies are not necessary to erase important social boundaries; peaceful cooperation can have the same effect.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary processes", "adaptation", "natural selection", "psychology", "behavior", "Cognitive psychology", "Experimental psychology", "Human relations", "Social psychology", "Sociology", "Social discrimination", "Gender discrimination", "Racial discrimination", "detection", "regulates", "categorization"], "article_id"=>929426, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["David Pietraszewski", "Leda Cosmides", "John Tooby"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0088534", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>20, "page_views"=>22, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_Content_of_Our_Cooperation_Not_the_Color_of_Our_Skin_An_Alliance_Detection_System_Regulates_Categorization_by_Coalition_and_Race_but_Not_Sex_/929426", "title"=>"The Content of Our Cooperation, Not the Color of Our Skin: An Alliance Detection System Regulates Categorization by Coalition and Race, but Not Sex", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-02-10 03:26:44"}

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Relative Metric

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