Terrestrial Origin of Viviparity in Mesozoic Marine Reptiles Indicated by Early Triassic Embryonic Fossils
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{"title"=>"Terrestrial origin of viviparity in Mesozoic marine reptiles indicated by early triassic embryonic fossils", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Ryosuke", "last_name"=>"Motani", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003679379"}, {"first_name"=>"Da Yong", "last_name"=>"Jiang", "scopus_author_id"=>"35932297400"}, {"first_name"=>"Andrea", "last_name"=>"Tintori", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701576935"}, {"first_name"=>"Olivier", "last_name"=>"Rieppel", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005933233"}, {"first_name"=>"Guan Bao", "last_name"=>"Chen", "scopus_author_id"=>"56060449400"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"372545327", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "issn"=>"19326203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0088640", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84895757399", "pmid"=>"24533127", "sgr"=>"84895757399"}, "id"=>"a47b143b-992b-37eb-b441-69118b796b27", "abstract"=>"Viviparity in Mesozoic marine reptiles has traditionally been considered an aquatic adaptation. We report a new fossil specimen that strongly contradicts this traditional interpretation. The new specimen contains the oldest fossil embryos of Mesozoic marine reptile that are about 10 million years older than previous such records. The fossil belongs to Chaohusaurus (Reptilia, Ichthyopterygia), which is the oldest of Mesozoic marine reptiles (ca. 248 million years ago, Early Triassic). This exceptional specimen captures an articulated embryo in birth position, with its skull just emerged from the maternal pelvis. Its headfirst birth posture, which is unlikely to be a breech condition, strongly indicates a terrestrial origin of viviparity, in contrast to the traditional view. The tail-first birth posture in derived ichthyopterygians, convergent with the conditions in whales and sea cows, therefore is a secondary feature. The unequivocally marine origin of viviparity is so far not known among amniotes, a subset of vertebrate animals comprising mammals and reptiles, including birds. Therefore, obligate marine amniotes appear to have evolved almost exclusively from viviparous land ancestors. Viviparous land reptiles most likely appeared much earlier than currently thought, at least as early as the recovery phase from the end-Permian mass extinction.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/terrestrial-origin-viviparity-mesozoic-marine-reptiles-indicated-early-triassic-embryonic-fossils", "reader_count"=>89, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>7, "Researcher"=>16, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>27, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>11, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>13, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>7, "Researcher"=>16, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>27, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>11, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>13, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Environmental Science"=>3, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>35, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>2, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>37, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>2}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>37}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>35}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>3}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "Argentina"=>4, "United States"=>3, "Japan"=>1, "Brazil"=>2, "France"=>2, "Chile"=>1, "Germany"=>2, "India"=>1}, "group_count"=>6}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1382761"], "description"=>"<p>(A), adult based on AGM I-1 and CHS-5. Rectangle indicates the approximate range preserved in AGM I-1. Colored silhouettes of embryo are placed in approximate positions of embryos 1 and 2, with embryo 3 displaced to avoid overlap with embryo 2. The extent of the maternal tail tip, in gray, is based on AGM-CH-628-22. Scleral ring is based on AGM-CHS-3. (B), embryo based on embryo 2 and neonate 1 of AGM I-1. Elements in gray are missing. (C), the derived ichthyopterygian <i>Stenopterygius</i> with one embryo in birth position and three in body cavity, reconstructed based on SMNS 6293 (Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde, Stüttgart, Germany). Scale bars are 5 cm. See <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0088640#pone.0088640.s003\" target=\"_blank\">fig. S3</a> for a high resolution image.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["developmental biology", "embryology", "ecology", "Ecological environments", "Terrestrial environments", "Terrestrial ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Paleontology", "paleobiology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "Marine biology", "Animal types", "reconstruction", "embryo", "derived"], "article_id"=>931669, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Ryosuke Motani", "Da-yong Jiang", "Andrea Tintori", "Olivier Rieppel", "Guan-bao Chen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0088640.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Stylized_reconstruction_of_adult_and_embryo_of_Chaohusaurus_in_comparison_to_a_derived_ichthyopterygian_/931669", "title"=>"Stylized reconstruction of adult and embryo of <i>Chaohusaurus</i> in comparison to a derived ichthyopterygian.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-02-12 03:36:42"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1382754"], "description"=>"<p><i>Chaohusaurus</i> has the oldest stratigraphic record of the three Early Triassic genera. Star indicates the stratigraphic position of the present specimen. Time scale was drawn using TS Creator 6.1.2 that follows <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0088640#pone.0088640-Gradstein1\" target=\"_blank\">[4]</a>. See <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0088640#pone.0088640.s001\" target=\"_blank\">fig. S1</a> for a high resolution image.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["developmental biology", "embryology", "ecology", "Ecological environments", "Terrestrial environments", "Terrestrial ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Paleontology", "paleobiology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "Marine biology", "Animal types", "phylogeny", "earliest", "reconstruction", "posture", "derived"], "article_id"=>931662, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Ryosuke Motani", "Da-yong Jiang", "Andrea Tintori", "Olivier Rieppel", "Guan-bao Chen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0088640.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Stratigraphy_and_phylogeny_of_the_earliest_ichthyopterygians_with_a_reconstruction_of_the_typical_birth_posture_in_derived_members_/931662", "title"=>"Stratigraphy and phylogeny of the earliest ichthyopterygians, with a reconstruction of the typical birth posture in derived members.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-02-12 03:36:42"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1382759"], "description"=>"<p>(A), AGM CHS-5, a nearly complete skeleton that is almost as large as AGM I-1. (B), AGM CH-628-22, a complete skeleton that preserves the tail tip. Large scale bars are 10 cm, and short bars 2 cm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["developmental biology", "embryology", "ecology", "Ecological environments", "Terrestrial environments", "Terrestrial ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Paleontology", "paleobiology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "Marine biology", "Animal types", "skeletons", "maternal"], "article_id"=>931667, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Ryosuke Motani", "Da-yong Jiang", "Andrea Tintori", "Olivier Rieppel", "Guan-bao Chen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0088640.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Completeness_of_the_two_skeletons_used_in_maternal_body_size_estimation_/931667", "title"=>"Completeness of the two skeletons used in maternal body size estimation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-02-12 03:36:42"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1382768", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1382769", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1382770"], "description"=>"<div><p>Viviparity in Mesozoic marine reptiles has traditionally been considered an aquatic adaptation. We report a new fossil specimen that strongly contradicts this traditional interpretation. The new specimen contains the oldest fossil embryos of Mesozoic marine reptile that are about 10 million years older than previous such records. The fossil belongs to <i>Chaohusaurus</i> (Reptilia, Ichthyopterygia), which is the oldest of Mesozoic marine reptiles (ca. 248 million years ago, Early Triassic). This exceptional specimen captures an articulated embryo in birth position, with its skull just emerged from the maternal pelvis. Its headfirst birth posture, which is unlikely to be a breech condition, strongly indicates a terrestrial origin of viviparity, in contrast to the traditional view. The tail-first birth posture in derived ichthyopterygians, convergent with the conditions in whales and sea cows, therefore is a secondary feature. The unequivocally marine origin of viviparity is so far not known among amniotes, a subset of vertebrate animals comprising mammals and reptiles, including birds. Therefore, obligate marine amniotes appear to have evolved almost exclusively from viviparous land ancestors. Viviparous land reptiles most likely appeared much earlier than currently thought, at least as early as the recovery phase from the end-Permian mass extinction.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["developmental biology", "embryology", "ecology", "Ecological environments", "Terrestrial environments", "Terrestrial ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Paleontology", "paleobiology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "Marine biology", "Animal types", "viviparity", "mesozoic", "reptiles", "indicated", "triassic", "embryonic"], "article_id"=>931676, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Ryosuke Motani", "Da-yong Jiang", "Andrea Tintori", "Olivier Rieppel", "Guan-bao Chen"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0088640.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0088640.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0088640.s003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>19, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Terrestrial_Origin_of_Viviparity_in_Mesozoic_Marine_Reptiles_Indicated_by_Early_Triassic_Embryonic_Fossils_/931676", "title"=>"Terrestrial Origin of Viviparity in Mesozoic Marine Reptiles Indicated by Early Triassic Embryonic Fossils", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2014-02-12 03:36:42"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1382758"], "description"=>"<p>Color coding indicates: black, maternal vertebral column, including neural and haemal spines; blue, maternal pelvis and hind flipper; green, maternal ribs and gastralia. Embryos 1 and 2 are in orange and yellow, respectively, whereas neonate 1 is in red. Scale bar is 1 cm. Abbreviations: i-v, metatarsals; 4, fourth distal tarsal; a, astragalus; c, calcaneum; cr, caudal rib; cv, caudal vertebra; d, dentary; fe, femur; fi, fibula; h, haemal spine; il, ilium; is, ischium; pb, pubis; pm, premaxilla; sr, sacral rib; sv, sacral vertebra; and ti, tibia. See <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0088640#pone.0088640.s002\" target=\"_blank\">fig. S2</a> for a high resolution image.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["developmental biology", "embryology", "ecology", "Ecological environments", "Terrestrial environments", "Terrestrial ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Paleontology", "paleobiology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "Marine biology", "Animal types", "maternal", "specimen"], "article_id"=>931666, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Ryosuke Motani", "Da-yong Jiang", "Andrea Tintori", "Olivier Rieppel", "Guan-bao Chen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0088640.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_maternal_specimen_with_three_embryos_/931666", "title"=>"The maternal specimen with three embryos.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-02-12 03:36:42"}

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