Early Triassic Marine Biotic Recovery: The Predators' Perspective
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{"title"=>"Early triassic marine biotic recovery: The predators' perspective", "type"=>"generic", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Torsten M.", "last_name"=>"Scheyer", "scopus_author_id"=>"23019559600"}, {"first_name"=>"Carlo", "last_name"=>"Romano", "scopus_author_id"=>"35932662900"}, {"first_name"=>"Jim", "last_name"=>"Jenks", "scopus_author_id"=>"16402118000"}, {"first_name"=>"Hugo", "last_name"=>"Bucher", "scopus_author_id"=>"7101980610"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"372838726", "issn"=>"19326203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0088987", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84898606243", "pmid"=>"24647136", "sgr"=>"84898606243"}, "id"=>"4f345aab-c018-3f4b-8308-92753ce62e25", "abstract"=>"Examining the geological past of our planet allows us to study periods of severe climatic and biological crises and recoveries, biotic and abiotic ecosystem fluctuations, and faunal and floral turnovers through time. Furthermore, the recovery dynamics of large predators provide a key for evaluation of the pattern and tempo of ecosystem recovery because predators are interpreted to react most sensitively to environmental turbulences. The end-Permian mass extinction was the most severe crisis experienced by life on Earth, and the common paradigm persists that the biotic recovery from the extinction event was unusually slow and occurred in a step-wise manner, lasting up to eight to nine million years well into the early Middle Triassic (Anisian) in the oceans, and even longer in the terrestrial realm. Here we survey the global distribution and size spectra of Early Triassic and Anisian marine predatory vertebrates (fishes, amphibians and reptiles) to elucidate the height of trophic pyramids in the aftermath of the end-Permian event. The survey of body size was done by compiling maximum standard lengths for the bony fishes and some cartilaginous fishes, and total size (estimates) for the tetrapods. The distribution and size spectra of the latter are difficult to assess because of preservation artifacts and are thus mostly discussed qualitatively. The data nevertheless demonstrate that no significant size increase of predators is observable from the Early Triassic to the Anisian, as would be expected from the prolonged and stepwise trophic recovery model. The data further indicate that marine ecosystems characterized by multiple trophic levels existed from the earliest Early Triassic onwards. However, a major change in the taxonomic composition of predatory guilds occurred less than two million years after the end-Permian extinction event, in which a transition from fish/amphibian to fish/reptile-dominated higher trophic levels within ecosystems became apparent. Ci", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/early-triassic-marine-biotic-recovery-predators-perspective", "reader_count"=>68, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>18, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>12, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>6, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>14, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>18, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>12, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>6, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>14, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Environmental Science"=>3, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>19, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Psychology"=>1, "Computer Science"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>37}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>37}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>19}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>3}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Republic of Singapore"=>1, "Argentina"=>1, "United States"=>5, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Mexico"=>1, "France"=>1, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1426290"], "description"=>"<p>Note that the upper two data points (<i>Shonisaurus popularis</i> and <i>Shastasaurus sikanniensis</i>) are based on estimated body lengths, whereas the other points rely on complete specimens. Removing the two taxa from the plot results in a shift of the specimen from Bear Lake (southwest Idaho, USA) towards even larger body size estimates.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Comparative anatomy", "ecology", "ecosystems", "Evolutionary ecology", "paleoecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary processes", "Forms of evolution", "Organismal evolution", "Paleontology", "paleobiology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "proximodistal", "length-body", "triassic"], "article_id"=>966848, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Torsten M. Scheyer", "Carlo Romano", "Jim Jenks", "Hugo Bucher"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0088987.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>8, "page_views"=>199, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Humeral_proximodistal_length_body_length_relation_in_Triassic_ichthyosaurs_/966848", "title"=>"Humeral proximodistal length-body length relation in Triassic ichthyosaurs.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-03-19 02:51:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1426288"], "description"=>"<p><b>A-C</b>. Assemblage of skull and lower jaw elements of a large <i>Birgeria</i> sp. (PIMUZ A/I 4301) from the Lusitaniadalen Member (Smithian), Vikinghøgda Formation, Stensiöfjellet, Sassendalen, Spitsbergen. Note that specimen (<b>B</b>) represents the infilling of the Meckelian canal. <b>D</b>. Position of the large specimen (<b>A</b>) on the reconstruction of animal indicated by blue rectangle. <b>E-H</b>. Humerus (NMMNH P-65886) of a giant ichthyosaur from the mid to late Spathian in the Hammond Creek area, Bear Lake valley, southeast Idaho, USA. <b>I-K</b>. Nodule (PIMUZ 30731) containing large coprolite with fish remains from the Griesbachian of Kap Stosch, East Greenland, possibly from a temnospondyl ‘amphibian’. Br, branchiostegal rays; D, dentary; Mc, Meckelian canal (infilling).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Comparative anatomy", "ecology", "ecosystems", "Evolutionary ecology", "paleoecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary processes", "Forms of evolution", "Organismal evolution", "Paleontology", "paleobiology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "fossil", "finds", "corroborating", "predators"], "article_id"=>966846, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Torsten M. Scheyer", "Carlo Romano", "Jim Jenks", "Hugo Bucher"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0088987.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>22, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_New_fossil_finds_corroborating_the_presence_of_large_predators_in_the_Early_Triassic_/966846", "title"=>"New fossil finds corroborating the presence of large predators in the Early Triassic.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-03-19 02:51:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1426297"], "description"=>"<p><b>A.</b> Geological time scale (Permian-Middle Triassic) with absolute time calibration according to radiometric UPb ages: a based on <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0088987#pone.0088987-Shen1\" target=\"_blank\">[9]</a>; b on <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0088987#pone.0088987-Galfetti1\" target=\"_blank\">[34]</a>; c–e on <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0088987#pone.0088987-Ovtcharova1\" target=\"_blank\">[33]</a>. Paleogeographical distribution of selected marine predatory vertebrates is given on the right using the same color code as in the geological time scale (globe modified from C. Scotese’s paleomap project; <a href=\"http://www.scotese.com\" target=\"_blank\">http://www.scotese.com</a>). <b>B.</b> Marine vertebrate apex predators during the Griesbachian to Smithian interval (left) and the Spathian to Anisian interval (right). Predators not exactly to scale; see text and Tables S1–S2 for details on body size and stratigraphic occurrence. Marine vertebrate apex predators: 1, <i>Wantzosaurus</i> (trematosaurid ‘amphibian’); 2, <i>Fadenia</i> (eugeneodontiform chondrichthyan); 3, <i>Saurichthys</i> (actinopterygian ambush predator); 4, <i>Rebellatrix</i> (fork-tailed actinistian); 5, <i>Hovasaurus</i> (‘younginiform’ diapsid reptile); 6, <i>Birgeria</i> (fast-swimming predatory actinopterygian); 7, <i>Aphaneramma</i> (trematosaurid ‘amphibian’); 8, <i>Bobasatrania</i> (durophagous actinopterygian); 9, hybodontoid chondrichthyan with durophagous (e.g. <i>Acrodus</i>, <i>Palaeobates</i>) or tearing-type dentition (e.g. <i>Hybodus</i>); 10, e.g., <i>Mylacanthus</i> (durophagous actinistian); 11, <i>Tanystropheus</i> (protorosaurian reptile); 12, <i>Corosaurus</i> (sauropterygian reptile); 13, e.g., <i>Ticinepomis</i> (actinistian); 14, <i>Mixosaurus</i> (small ichthyosaur); 15, large cymbospondylid/shastasaurid ichthyosaur; 16, neoselachian chondrichthyan; 17, <i>Omphalosaurus</i> skeleton (possible durophagous ichthyosaur); 18, <i>Placodus</i> (durophagous sauropterygian reptile). Printed under a CC BY license, with permission from Nadine Bösch and Beat Scheffold, original copyright [2013].</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Comparative anatomy", "ecology", "ecosystems", "Evolutionary ecology", "paleoecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary processes", "Forms of evolution", "Organismal evolution", "Paleontology", "paleobiology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "stratigraphical", "triassic", "anisian", "vertebrate"], "article_id"=>966855, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Torsten M. Scheyer", "Carlo Romano", "Jim Jenks", "Hugo Bucher"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0088987.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Spatial_and_stratigraphical_distribution_of_Early_Triassic_and_Anisian_early_Middle_Triassic_marine_vertebrate_predators_/966855", "title"=>"Spatial and stratigraphical distribution of Early Triassic and Anisian (early Middle Triassic) marine vertebrate predators.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-03-19 02:51:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1426298"], "description"=>"<p>Only a few examples are given for each group. Note that even though conodonts are not listed specifically, they nevertheless would have contributed to the ancient food webs as both predators and prey. See text for references.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Comparative anatomy", "ecology", "ecosystems", "Evolutionary ecology", "paleoecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary processes", "Forms of evolution", "Organismal evolution", "Paleontology", "paleobiology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "relationships"], "article_id"=>966856, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Torsten M. Scheyer", "Carlo Romano", "Jim Jenks", "Hugo Bucher"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0088987.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Predator_prey_relationships_during_the_Early_Triassic_/966856", "title"=>"Predator-prey relationships during the Early Triassic.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-03-19 02:51:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1426273"], "description"=>"<p>A. Tetrapod data for the Early Triassic (11 taxa) and the Anisian (30 taxa). Note that the apparent increase in size is not significant. B, C. Non-tetrapod data comprising marine bony fishes (Actinistia, Actinopterygii) and some chondrichthyans with reliable body size estimates in the Early Triassic and the Anisian (early Middle Triassic). The upper two columns in (B) depict the pooled data, whereas in (C) the Early Triassic is split into the respective sub-stages. Based on data taken from the literature for 111 and 107 species for the Early Triassic and the Anisian respectively (see Table S1 in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0088987#pone.0088987.s001\" target=\"_blank\">File S1</a>). The boxes represent the 25–75 percent quartiles (bold horizontal lines indicate the medians) and the width of the tails the whole spread of data.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Comparative anatomy", "ecology", "ecosystems", "Evolutionary ecology", "paleoecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary processes", "Forms of evolution", "Organismal evolution", "Paleontology", "paleobiology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "tetrapod", "lengths", "non-tetrapod", "vertebrates"], "article_id"=>966831, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Torsten M. Scheyer", "Carlo Romano", "Jim Jenks", "Hugo Bucher"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0088987.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Boxplots_showing_maximum_size_8202_8202_total_body_length_of_marine_tetrapod_8216_amphibians_8217_reptiles_and_maximum_standard_lengths_of_marine_non_tetrapod_vertebrates_osteichthyans_chondrichthyians_/966831", "title"=>"Boxplots showing maximum size ( =  total body length) of marine tetrapod (‘amphibians’, reptiles) and maximum standard lengths of marine non-tetrapod vertebrates (osteichthyans, chondrichthyians).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-03-19 02:51:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1426302", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1426303"], "description"=>"<div><p>Examining the geological past of our planet allows us to study periods of severe climatic and biological crises and recoveries, biotic and abiotic ecosystem fluctuations, and faunal and floral turnovers through time. Furthermore, the recovery dynamics of large predators provide a key for evaluation of the pattern and tempo of ecosystem recovery because predators are interpreted to react most sensitively to environmental turbulences. The end-Permian mass extinction was the most severe crisis experienced by life on Earth, and the common paradigm persists that the biotic recovery from the extinction event was unusually slow and occurred in a step-wise manner, lasting up to eight to nine million years well into the early Middle Triassic (Anisian) in the oceans, and even longer in the terrestrial realm. Here we survey the global distribution and size spectra of Early Triassic and Anisian marine predatory vertebrates (fishes, amphibians and reptiles) to elucidate the height of trophic pyramids in the aftermath of the end-Permian event. The survey of body size was done by compiling maximum standard lengths for the bony fishes and some cartilaginous fishes, and total size (estimates) for the tetrapods. The distribution and size spectra of the latter are difficult to assess because of preservation artifacts and are thus mostly discussed qualitatively. The data nevertheless demonstrate that no significant size increase of predators is observable from the Early Triassic to the Anisian, as would be expected from the prolonged and stepwise trophic recovery model. The data further indicate that marine ecosystems characterized by multiple trophic levels existed from the earliest Early Triassic onwards. However, a major change in the taxonomic composition of predatory guilds occurred less than two million years after the end-Permian extinction event, in which a transition from fish/amphibian to fish/reptile-dominated higher trophic levels within ecosystems became apparent.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Comparative anatomy", "ecology", "ecosystems", "Evolutionary ecology", "paleoecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary processes", "Forms of evolution", "Organismal evolution", "Paleontology", "paleobiology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "triassic", "biotic"], "article_id"=>966858, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Torsten M. Scheyer", "Carlo Romano", "Jim Jenks", "Hugo Bucher"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0088987.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0088987.s002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>15, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Early_Triassic_Marine_Biotic_Recovery_The_Predators_Perspective_/966858", "title"=>"Early Triassic Marine Biotic Recovery: The Predators' Perspective", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2014-03-19 02:51:11"}

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Relative Metric

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