Cognitive and Affective Changes in Mild to Moderate Alzheimer’s Disease Patients Undergoing Switch of Cholinesterase Inhibitors: A 6-Month Observational Study
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{"title"=>"Cognitive and affective changes in mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease patients undergoing switch of cholinesterase inhibitors: A 6-month observational study", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Gianfranco", "last_name"=>"Spalletta", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004157010"}, {"first_name"=>"Carlo", "last_name"=>"Caltagirone", "scopus_author_id"=>"35228717800"}, {"first_name"=>"Alessandro", "last_name"=>"Padovani", "scopus_author_id"=>"55996824100"}, {"first_name"=>"Sandro", "last_name"=>"Sorbi", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004417453"}, {"first_name"=>"Mahmood", "last_name"=>"Attar", "scopus_author_id"=>"55932262400"}, {"first_name"=>"Delia", "last_name"=>"Colombo", "scopus_author_id"=>"57192090992"}, {"first_name"=>"Luca", "last_name"=>"Cravello", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005513919"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"372580013", "sgr"=>"84896757411", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"24586603", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84896757411", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0089216"}, "id"=>"fd1a2eaa-930c-30a6-b7f2-3a63a1a695a5", "abstract"=>"Patients with Alzheimer's disease after an initial response to cholinesterase inhibitors may complain a later lack of efficacy. This, in association with incident neuropsychiatric symptoms, may worsen patient quality of life. Thus, the switch to another cholinesterase inhibitor could represent a valid therapeutic strategy. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of the switch from one to another cholinesterase inhibitor on cognitive and affective symptoms in mild to moderate Alzheimer disease patients. Four hundred twenty-three subjects were included from the EVOLUTION study, an observational, longitudinal, multicentre study conducted on Alzheimer disease patients who switched to different cholinesterase inhibitor due either to lack/loss of efficacy or response, reduced tolerability or poor compliance. All patients underwent cognitive and neuropsychiatric assessments, carried out before the switch (baseline), and at 3 and 6-month follow-up. A significant effect of the different switch types was found on Mini-Mental State Examination score during time, with best effectiveness on mild Alzheimer's disease patients switching from oral cholinesterase inhibitors to rivastigmine patch. Depressive symptoms, when measured using continuous Neuropsychiatric Inventory values, decreased significantly, while apathy symptoms remained stable over the 6 months after the switch. However, frequency of both depression and apathy, when measured categorically using Neuropsychiatric Inventory cut-off scores, did not change significantly during time. In mild to moderate Alzheimer disease patients with loss of efficacy and tolerability during cholinesterase inhibitor treatment, the switch to another cholinesterase inhibitor may represent an important option for slowing cognitive deterioration. The evidence of apathy stabilization and the positive tendency of depressive symptom improvement should definitively be confirmed in double-blind controlled studies.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/cognitive-affective-changes-mild-moderate-alzheimers-disease-patients-undergoing-switch-cholinestera-3", "reader_count"=>36, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>6, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>6, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Student > Master"=>7, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>6, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>6, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Student > Master"=>7, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>11, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>12, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1, "Psychology"=>5, "Computer Science"=>1, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>11}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>5}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>12}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>6}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1391690"], "description"=>"<p>No symptoms: NPI = 0; Mild symptoms: NPI = 1–3; Clinically relevant symptoms: NPI≥4. AD = Alzheimer’s disease; ChEI = cholinesterase inhibitor; NPI = Neuropsychiatric Inventory.</p><p>Chi-square analyses indicated no statistical significance differences between baseline and 6-month follow-up (p>0.1 for all comparisons).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Clinical research design", "Longitudinal studies", "Observational studies", "Diagnostic medicine", "Test evaluation", "Drugs and devices", "Drug interactions", "Drug research and development", "neurology", "dementia", "Alzheimer disease", "Cognitive neurology", "Neurodegenerative diseases", "categorized", "neuropsychiatric", "cut-off", "423", "patients", "undergoing", "chei"], "article_id"=>939070, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Gianfranco Spalletta", "Carlo Caltagirone", "Alessandro Padovani", "Sandro Sorbi", "Mahmood Attar", "Delia Colombo", "Luca Cravello"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0089216.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Frequency_of_depression_and_apathy_as_categorized_using_Neuropsychiatric_Inventory_8805_4_cut_off_scores_in_423_patients_with_AD_undergoing_switch_ChEI_therapy_/939070", "title"=>"Frequency of depression and apathy, as categorized using Neuropsychiatric Inventory ≥4 cut-off scores, in 423 patients with AD undergoing switch ChEI therapy.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-02-19 03:27:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1391687"], "description"=>"<p>An analysis of variance with repeated measures indicates that the longitudinal course of apathy symptoms (i.e. NPI apathy score changes during a 6-momth period) in mild to moderate AD patients performing for the first time a switch to another ChEI due to lack of response/reduced compliance, do not change over time (see the results section for statistic details). SE = Standard Error; NPI = Neuropsychiatric Inventory.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Clinical research design", "Longitudinal studies", "Observational studies", "Diagnostic medicine", "Test evaluation", "Drugs and devices", "Drug interactions", "Drug research and development", "neurology", "dementia", "Alzheimer disease", "Cognitive neurology", "Neurodegenerative diseases", "npi", "apathy", "chei"], "article_id"=>939067, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Gianfranco Spalletta", "Carlo Caltagirone", "Alessandro Padovani", "Sandro Sorbi", "Mahmood Attar", "Delia Colombo", "Luca Cravello"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0089216.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Changes_of_NPI_apathy_score_during_ChEI_switch_/939067", "title"=>"Changes of NPI apathy score during ChEI switch.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-02-19 03:27:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1391688"], "description"=>"<p>AD = Alzheimer’s disease; ChEI = cholinesterase inhibitor; MMSE = Mini-Mental State Examination; NPI = Neuropsychiatric Inventory; SE = standard error.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Clinical research design", "Longitudinal studies", "Observational studies", "Diagnostic medicine", "Test evaluation", "Drugs and devices", "Drug interactions", "Drug research and development", "neurology", "dementia", "Alzheimer disease", "Cognitive neurology", "Neurodegenerative diseases"], "article_id"=>939068, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Gianfranco Spalletta", "Carlo Caltagirone", "Alessandro Padovani", "Sandro Sorbi", "Mahmood Attar", "Delia Colombo", "Luca Cravello"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0089216.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Sociodemographic_and_clinical_characteristics_of_the_four_switch_subtypes_/939068", "title"=>"Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of the four switch subtypes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-02-19 03:27:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1391686"], "description"=>"<p>An analysis of variance with repeated measures indicates that the longitudinal course of depressive symptoms (i.e. NPI depression score changes during a 6-momth period) in mild to moderate AD patients performing for the first time a switch to another ChEI due to lack of response/reduced compliance, improves independently from AD severity and switch type (see the results section for statistic details). SE = Standard Error; NPI = Neuropsychiatric Inventory.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Clinical research design", "Longitudinal studies", "Observational studies", "Diagnostic medicine", "Test evaluation", "Drugs and devices", "Drug interactions", "Drug research and development", "neurology", "dementia", "Alzheimer disease", "Cognitive neurology", "Neurodegenerative diseases", "npi", "chei"], "article_id"=>939066, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Gianfranco Spalletta", "Carlo Caltagirone", "Alessandro Padovani", "Sandro Sorbi", "Mahmood Attar", "Delia Colombo", "Luca Cravello"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0089216.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Changes_of_NPI_depression_dysphoria_score_during_ChEI_switch_/939066", "title"=>"Changes of NPI depression/dysphoria score during ChEI switch.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-02-19 03:27:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1391683"], "description"=>"<p>An analysis of variance with repeated measures indicates that the longitudinal course of global cognitive level (i.e. MMSE score changes during a 6-month period) in mild to moderate AD patients performing for the first time a switch to another ChEI due to lack of response/reduced compliance, is more favourable when switching from oral ChEIs to rivastigmine patch, with best effectiveness in mild AD patients (see the results section for statistic details). SE = Standard Error; MMSE = Mini-Mental State Examination.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Clinical research design", "Longitudinal studies", "Observational studies", "Diagnostic medicine", "Test evaluation", "Drugs and devices", "Drug interactions", "Drug research and development", "neurology", "dementia", "Alzheimer disease", "Cognitive neurology", "Neurodegenerative diseases", "chei"], "article_id"=>939063, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Gianfranco Spalletta", "Carlo Caltagirone", "Alessandro Padovani", "Sandro Sorbi", "Mahmood Attar", "Delia Colombo", "Luca Cravello"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0089216.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Changes_of_global_cognitive_level_during_ChEI_switch_/939063", "title"=>"Changes of global cognitive level during ChEI switch.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-02-19 03:27:24"}

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Relative Metric

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