The Musicality of Non-Musicians: An Index for Assessing Musical Sophistication in the General Population
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{"title"=>"The musicality of non-musicians: An index for assessing musical sophistication in the general population", "type"=>"generic", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Daniel", "last_name"=>"Müllensiefen", "scopus_author_id"=>"23019169400"}, {"first_name"=>"Bruno", "last_name"=>"Gingras", "scopus_author_id"=>"43861203600"}, {"first_name"=>"Jason", "last_name"=>"Musil", "scopus_author_id"=>"55900683100"}, {"first_name"=>"Lauren", "last_name"=>"Stewart", "scopus_author_id"=>"7202187064"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84896295745", "sgr"=>"84896295745", "issn"=>"19326203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0089642", "pmid"=>"24586929", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pui"=>"372616934"}, "id"=>"1d5f8b2b-fc88-3ceb-a490-ac5aa52b2763", "abstract"=>"Musical skills and expertise vary greatly in Western societies. Individuals can differ in their repertoire of musical behaviours as well as in the level of skill they display for any single musical behaviour. The types of musical behaviours we refer to here are broad, ranging from performance on an instrument and listening expertise, to the ability to employ music in functional settings or to communicate about music. In this paper, we first describe the concept of 'musical sophistication' which can be used to describe the multi-faceted nature of musical expertise. Next, we develop a novel measurement instrument, the Goldsmiths Musical Sophistication Index (Gold-MSI) to assess self-reported musical skills and behaviours on multiple dimensions in the general population using a large Internet sample (n = 147,636). Thirdly, we report results from several lab studies, demonstrating that the Gold-MSI possesses good psychometric properties, and that self-reported musical sophistication is associated with performance on two listening tasks. Finally, we identify occupation, occupational status, age, gender, and wealth as the main socio-demographic factors associated with musical sophistication. Results are discussed in terms of theoretical accounts of implicit and statistical music learning and with regard to social conditions of sophisticated musical engagement.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/musicality-nonmusicians-index-assessing-musical-sophistication-general-population", "reader_count"=>260, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>8, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>9, "Researcher"=>33, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>15, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>73, "Student > Postgraduate"=>12, "Student > Master"=>49, "Other"=>7, "Student > Bachelor"=>34, "Lecturer"=>4, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>14}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>8, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>9, "Researcher"=>33, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>15, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>73, "Student > Postgraduate"=>12, "Student > Master"=>49, "Other"=>7, "Student > Bachelor"=>34, "Lecturer"=>4, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>14}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>16, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>16, "Arts and Humanities"=>31, "Philosophy"=>1, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>2, "Computer Science"=>18, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1, "Engineering"=>10, "Mathematics"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>12, "Neuroscience"=>23, "Psychology"=>117, "Social Sciences"=>9, "Linguistics"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>12}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>9}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>117}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>16}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>31}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>10}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>23}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>16}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>18}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>2}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>3}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "Netherlands"=>1, "Austria"=>1, "United States"=>2, "Norway"=>1, "Luxembourg"=>1, "Japan"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>6, "Ghana"=>1, "Portugal"=>1, "Germany"=>3, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>13}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1399945"], "description"=>"<p>Values for all four variables were each split into 9 quantiles with approximately equal numbers of local authorities.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["psychology", "Cognitive psychology", "Experimental psychology", "Psychometrics", "Sensory perception", "Social psychology", "Sociology", "culture", "Cultural resources", "Social stratification", "median", "2011", "hours", "379", "authorities"], "article_id"=>945731, "categories"=>["Sociology"], "users"=>["Daniel Müllensiefen", "Bruno Gingras", "Jason Musil", "Lauren Stewart"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0089642.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Distribution_of_median_weekly_gross_income_according_to_the_2011_Annual_Survey_of_Hours_and_Earnings_survey_Office_for_National_Statistics_2012_and_general_musical_sophistication_musical_training_and_active_engagement_across_379_local_authorities_of_Grea/945731", "title"=>"Distribution of median weekly gross income according to the 2011 Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings survey (Office for National Statistics, 2012) and general musical sophistication, musical training and active engagement across 379 local authorities of Great Britain.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-02-26 04:12:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1399946"], "description"=>"<p>Footnote. BIC = Bayesian Information Criterion, TLI = Tucker-Lewis Index, CFI = Bentler’s Comparative Fit Index, RMSEA = Root Mean Square Error of Approximation, SPMR = Standardized Root Mean Square Residual.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["psychology", "Cognitive psychology", "Experimental psychology", "Psychometrics", "Sensory perception", "Social psychology", "Sociology", "culture", "Cultural resources", "Social stratification", "confirming", "self-report"], "article_id"=>945732, "categories"=>["Sociology"], "users"=>["Daniel Müllensiefen", "Bruno Gingras", "Jason Musil", "Lauren Stewart"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0089642.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_fit_statistics_of_the_four_structural_equation_models_confirming_the_factor_structure_of_the_self_report_inventory_on_the_data_test_set_n_8202_8202_73_739_/945732", "title"=>"The fit statistics of the four structural equation models confirming the factor structure of the self-report inventory on the data test set (n = 73,739).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-02-26 04:12:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1399947"], "description"=>"<p>Footnote. Values of Pearson’s correlation coefficient are reported for test-retest reliability and correlations with the Advanced Measures of Musical Audiation (AMMA). *indicates a p-level of <.05 and ** a level of <.01.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["psychology", "Cognitive psychology", "Experimental psychology", "Psychometrics", "Sensory perception", "Social psychology", "Sociology", "culture", "Cultural resources", "Social stratification", "subscales", "gold-msi", "self-report"], "article_id"=>945733, "categories"=>["Sociology"], "users"=>["Daniel Müllensiefen", "Bruno Gingras", "Jason Musil", "Lauren Stewart"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0089642.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>49, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Test_retest_correlation_for_subscales_of_the_Gold_MSI_self_report_inventory_/945733", "title"=>"Test-retest correlation for subscales of the Gold-MSI self-report inventory.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-02-26 04:12:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1399948"], "description"=>"<p>Summary statistics and indicators of reliability for Gold-MSI subscales and general musical sophistication factor (n = 147,633).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["psychology", "Cognitive psychology", "Experimental psychology", "Psychometrics", "Sensory perception", "Social psychology", "Sociology", "culture", "Cultural resources", "Social stratification", "indicators", "gold-msi", "subscales", "sophistication"], "article_id"=>945734, "categories"=>["Sociology"], "users"=>["Daniel Müllensiefen", "Bruno Gingras", "Jason Musil", "Lauren Stewart"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0089642.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_statistics_and_indicators_of_reliability_for_Gold_MSI_subscales_and_general_musical_sophistication_factor_n_8202_8202_147_633_/945734", "title"=>"Summary statistics and indicators of reliability for Gold-MSI subscales and general musical sophistication factor (n = 147,633).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-02-26 04:12:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1399949"], "description"=>"<p>Footnote. For all correlations n = 224, except for those involving Singing Abilities, where n = 161 due to a technical error. Means and standard deviations of the summed personality scores (range TIPI: 2–14, range Eysenck: 0–12) are also given. * indicates a p-level of <.05 and ** a level of <.01.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["psychology", "Cognitive psychology", "Experimental psychology", "Psychometrics", "Sensory perception", "Social psychology", "Sociology", "culture", "Cultural resources", "Social stratification", "tipi", "extraversion", "subscales", "gold-msi", "self-report"], "article_id"=>945735, "categories"=>["Sociology"], "users"=>["Daniel Müllensiefen", "Bruno Gingras", "Jason Musil", "Lauren Stewart"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0089642.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Correlations_between_8216_Big_Five_8217_personality_traits_as_measured_by_the_TIPI_and_Eysenck_8217_s_Extraversion_scale_and_the_subscales_of_the_Gold_MSI_self_report_inventory_/945735", "title"=>"Correlations between ‘Big Five’ personality traits as measured by the TIPI and Eysenck’s Extraversion scale and the subscales of the Gold-MSI self-report inventory.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-02-26 04:12:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1399950"], "description"=>"<p>Footnote. Values of Pearson’s correlation coefficient are reported for correlations between the six dimensions (rows) of the Music Experience Questionnaire (MEQ) and the 5+1 dimensions of the Gold-MSI. * indicates a p-level of <.05 and ** a level of <.01.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["psychology", "Cognitive psychology", "Experimental psychology", "Psychometrics", "Sensory perception", "Social psychology", "Sociology", "culture", "Cultural resources", "Social stratification", "subscales", "meq"], "article_id"=>945736, "categories"=>["Sociology"], "users"=>["Daniel Müllensiefen", "Bruno Gingras", "Jason Musil", "Lauren Stewart"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0089642.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Correlations_between_subscales_from_MEQ_and_Gold_MSI_/945736", "title"=>"Correlations between subscales from MEQ and Gold-MSI.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-02-26 04:12:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1399951"], "description"=>"<p><i>Footnote.</i> Numerical values represent % increase in mean squared error if variable is omitted from model and hence higher values mean greater importance. Note that the model predicting general musical sophistication did not use the subscale scores for music training and active engagement.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["psychology", "Cognitive psychology", "Experimental psychology", "Psychometrics", "Sensory perception", "Social psychology", "Sociology", "culture", "Cultural resources", "Social stratification"], "article_id"=>945737, "categories"=>["Sociology"], "users"=>["Daniel Müllensiefen", "Bruno Gingras", "Jason Musil", "Lauren Stewart"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0089642.t007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>34, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Variable_importance_according_to_random_forest_model_/945737", "title"=>"Variable importance according to random forest model.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-02-26 04:12:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1399952"], "description"=>"<p>Footnote. Sample sizes differed slightly between bivariate correlations from the online sample and ranged from n = 136,924 to n = 139,062. Sample size for the test-retest sample was n = 34.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["psychology", "Cognitive psychology", "Experimental psychology", "Psychometrics", "Sensory perception", "Social psychology", "Sociology", "culture", "Cultural resources", "Social stratification", "sub-scales", "self-report", "listening"], "article_id"=>945738, "categories"=>["Sociology"], "users"=>["Daniel Müllensiefen", "Bruno Gingras", "Jason Musil", "Lauren Stewart"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0089642.t006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>23, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Correlations_between_sub_scales_of_the_self_report_inventory_and_performance_on_the_two_listening_tests_/945738", "title"=>"Correlations between sub-scales of the self-report inventory and performance on the two listening tests.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-02-26 04:12:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1399953"], "description"=>"<p><i>Footnote</i>. Pearson’s correlation coefficients and adjusted R<sup>2</sup> values from a linear regression model having only weekly income (in addition to an intercept) as predictor. *indicates a p-level of <.05 and ** a level of <.01.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["psychology", "Cognitive psychology", "Experimental psychology", "Psychometrics", "Sensory perception", "Social psychology", "Sociology", "culture", "Cultural resources", "Social stratification", "correlations", "379", "authorities", "median", "subscales", "self-report", "scores", "listening"], "article_id"=>945739, "categories"=>["Sociology"], "users"=>["Daniel Müllensiefen", "Bruno Gingras", "Jason Musil", "Lauren Stewart"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0089642.t008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Pearson_correlations_across_379_local_authorities_between_median_weekly_gross_income_and_the_subscales_of_the_self_report_inventory_as_well_as_the_performance_scores_from_the_listening_tests_/945739", "title"=>"Pearson correlations across 379 local authorities between median weekly gross income and the subscales of the self-report inventory as well as the performance scores from the listening tests.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-02-26 04:12:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1399954", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1399955"], "description"=>"<div><p>Musical skills and expertise vary greatly in Western societies. Individuals can differ in their repertoire of musical behaviours as well as in the level of skill they display for any single musical behaviour. The types of musical behaviours we refer to here are broad, ranging from performance on an instrument and listening expertise, to the ability to employ music in functional settings or to communicate about music. In this paper, we first describe the concept of ‘musical sophistication’ which can be used to describe the multi-faceted nature of musical expertise. Next, we develop a novel measurement instrument, the Goldsmiths Musical Sophistication Index (Gold-MSI) to assess self-reported musical skills and behaviours on multiple dimensions in the general population using a large Internet sample (n = 147,636). Thirdly, we report results from several lab studies, demonstrating that the Gold-MSI possesses good psychometric properties, and that self-reported musical sophistication is associated with performance on two listening tasks. Finally, we identify occupation, occupational status, age, gender, and wealth as the main socio-demographic factors associated with musical sophistication. Results are discussed in terms of theoretical accounts of implicit and statistical music learning and with regard to social conditions of sophisticated musical engagement.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["psychology", "Cognitive psychology", "Experimental psychology", "Psychometrics", "Sensory perception", "Social psychology", "Sociology", "culture", "Cultural resources", "Social stratification", "musicality", "sophistication"], "article_id"=>945740, "categories"=>["Sociology"], "users"=>["Daniel Müllensiefen", "Bruno Gingras", "Jason Musil", "Lauren Stewart"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0089642.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0089642.s002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>11, "page_views"=>29, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_Musicality_of_Non_Musicians_An_Index_for_Assessing_Musical_Sophistication_in_the_General_Population_/945740", "title"=>"The Musicality of Non-Musicians: An Index for Assessing Musical Sophistication in the General Population", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2014-02-26 04:12:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1399928"], "description"=>"<p>Factor structure of reduced self-report inventory as formalised by model 2, the Schmid-Leiman variant of the confirmatory factor model.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["psychology", "Cognitive psychology", "Experimental psychology", "Psychometrics", "Sensory perception", "Social psychology", "Sociology", "culture", "Cultural resources", "Social stratification", "reduced", "self-report", "formalised", "schmid-leiman", "variant", "confirmatory"], "article_id"=>945716, "categories"=>["Sociology"], "users"=>["Daniel Müllensiefen", "Bruno Gingras", "Jason Musil", "Lauren Stewart"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0089642.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>38, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Factor_structure_of_reduced_self_report_inventory_as_formalised_by_model_2_the_Schmid_Leiman_variant_of_the_confirmatory_factor_model_/945716", "title"=>"Factor structure of reduced self-report inventory as formalised by model 2, the Schmid-Leiman variant of the confirmatory factor model.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-02-26 04:12:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1399932"], "description"=>"<p>Structural equation model relating subscales of the self-report inventory to performance scores on the two listening tests.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["psychology", "Cognitive psychology", "Experimental psychology", "Psychometrics", "Sensory perception", "Social psychology", "Sociology", "culture", "Cultural resources", "Social stratification", "relating", "subscales", "self-report", "scores", "listening"], "article_id"=>945718, "categories"=>["Sociology"], "users"=>["Daniel Müllensiefen", "Bruno Gingras", "Jason Musil", "Lauren Stewart"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0089642.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Structural_equation_model_relating_subscales_of_the_self_report_inventory_to_performance_scores_on_the_two_listening_tests_/945718", "title"=>"Structural equation model relating subscales of the self-report inventory to performance scores on the two listening tests.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-02-26 04:12:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1399933"], "description"=>"<p>Structural equation model demonstrating the influence of self-reported general musical sophistication on the performance on the objective listening tasks.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["psychology", "Cognitive psychology", "Experimental psychology", "Psychometrics", "Sensory perception", "Social psychology", "Sociology", "culture", "Cultural resources", "Social stratification", "demonstrating", "self-reported", "sophistication", "listening"], "article_id"=>945719, "categories"=>["Sociology"], "users"=>["Daniel Müllensiefen", "Bruno Gingras", "Jason Musil", "Lauren Stewart"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0089642.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>42, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Structural_equation_model_demonstrating_the_influence_of_self_reported_general_musical_sophistication_on_the_performance_on_the_objective_listening_tasks_/945719", "title"=>"Structural equation model demonstrating the influence of self-reported general musical sophistication on the performance on the objective listening tasks.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-02-26 04:12:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1399939"], "description"=>"<p>The tree model is interpreted by starting at the top of the tree, following each branch down from each node, to arrive at a terminal node with the average scores given inside the squares on the graph. For example, descending to the right from node 1 (‘Occupation’) down the ‘Finance, Medical, Engineering, Administration, etc.’ branch, then descending to the right at node 9 (‘Age’) down the ‘>38’ branch, and finally descending the right branch (‘Administration, Customer Service, etc’) going off node 13 (‘Occupation’) to arrive at terminal node 15, this can be interpreted as follows: People working in administrative or customer service occupation and being older than 38 years will obtain on average a general musical sophistication score of 73.4. Technically, the logical combinations of these two conditions can be regarded as an interaction of the two predictor variables. The significance values for each split are given within the oval nodes and are derived from a Monte Carlo resampling procedure that adjusts for multiple testing.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["psychology", "Cognitive psychology", "Experimental psychology", "Psychometrics", "Sensory perception", "Social psychology", "Sociology", "culture", "Cultural resources", "Social stratification", "inference", "regression", "sophistication", "variables", "socio-economic"], "article_id"=>945725, "categories"=>["Sociology"], "users"=>["Daniel Müllensiefen", "Bruno Gingras", "Jason Musil", "Lauren Stewart"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0089642.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Conditional_inference_regression_tree_modelling_general_musical_sophistication_with_variables_of_socio_economic_status_/945725", "title"=>"Conditional inference regression tree modelling general musical sophistication with variables of socio-economic status.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-02-26 04:12:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1399940"], "description"=>"<p>Conditional inference regression tree modelling accuracy scores (percentage scale from 0 to 100 where 50 indicates chance level) in the melody memory task using self-reported musical training and variables of socio-economic status as predictors.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["psychology", "Cognitive psychology", "Experimental psychology", "Psychometrics", "Sensory perception", "Social psychology", "Sociology", "culture", "Cultural resources", "Social stratification", "inference", "regression", "scores", "100", "50", "indicates", "melody", "self-reported", "variables", "socio-economic"], "article_id"=>945726, "categories"=>["Sociology"], "users"=>["Daniel Müllensiefen", "Bruno Gingras", "Jason Musil", "Lauren Stewart"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0089642.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Conditional_inference_regression_tree_modelling_accuracy_scores_percentage_scale_from_0_to_100_where_50_indicates_chance_level_in_the_melody_memory_task_using_self_reported_musical_training_and_variables_of_socio_economic_status_as_predictors_/945726", "title"=>"Conditional inference regression tree modelling accuracy scores (percentage scale from 0 to 100 where 50 indicates chance level) in the melody memory task using self-reported musical training and variables of socio-economic status as predictors.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-02-26 04:12:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1399941"], "description"=>"<p>Conditional inference regression tree modelling accuracy scores (percentage scale from 0 to 100 where 50 indicates chance level) in the beat perception task using self-reported musical training, active engagement, and variables of socio-economic status as predictors.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["psychology", "Cognitive psychology", "Experimental psychology", "Psychometrics", "Sensory perception", "Social psychology", "Sociology", "culture", "Cultural resources", "Social stratification", "inference", "regression", "scores", "100", "50", "indicates", "self-reported", "variables", "socio-economic"], "article_id"=>945727, "categories"=>["Sociology"], "users"=>["Daniel Müllensiefen", "Bruno Gingras", "Jason Musil", "Lauren Stewart"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0089642.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>25, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Conditional_inference_regression_tree_modelling_accuracy_scores_percentage_scale_from_0_to_100_where_50_indicates_chance_level_in_the_beat_perception_task_using_self_reported_musical_training_active_engagement_and_variables_of_socio_economic_status_as_pr/945727", "title"=>"Conditional inference regression tree modelling accuracy scores (percentage scale from 0 to 100 where 50 indicates chance level) in the beat perception task using self-reported musical training, active engagement, and variables of socio-economic status as predictors.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-02-26 04:12:36"}

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Relative Metric

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