Regulatory Specialization of Xyloglucan (XG) and Glucuronoarabinoxylan (GAX) in Pericarp Cell Walls during Fruit Ripening in Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum)
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{"title"=>"Regulatory specialization of xyloglucan (XG) and glucuronoarabinoxylan (gax) in pericarp cell walls during fruit ripening in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum)", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Ayami", "last_name"=>"Takizawa", "scopus_author_id"=>"56070930500"}, {"first_name"=>"Hiromi", "last_name"=>"Hyodo", "scopus_author_id"=>"55607514000"}, {"first_name"=>"Kanako", "last_name"=>"Wada", "scopus_author_id"=>"56071311200"}, {"first_name"=>"Tadashi", "last_name"=>"Ishii", "scopus_author_id"=>"35355343700"}, {"first_name"=>"Shinobu", "last_name"=>"Satoh", "scopus_author_id"=>"55443447800"}, {"first_name"=>"Hiroaki", "last_name"=>"Iwai", "scopus_author_id"=>"7202008671"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84896384808", "sgr"=>"84896384808", "pui"=>"372630142", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pmid"=>"24587088", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0089871"}, "id"=>"eac023f0-2ba1-3960-ba15-bfac45cdd074", "abstract"=>"Disassembly of cell wall polysaccharides by various cell wall hydrolases during fruit softening causes structural changes in hemicellulose and pectin that affect the physical properties and softening of tomato fruit. In a previous study, we showed that the changes in pectin during tomato fruit ripening were unique in each fruit tissue. In this study, to clarify the changes in hemicellulose in tissues during tomato fruit ripening, we focused on glucuronoarabinoxylan (GAX) and xyloglucan (XG). GAX was detected only in the skin and inner epidermis of the pericarp using LM11 antibodies, whereas a large increase in XG was detected in all fruit tissues using LM15 antibodies. The activity of hemicellulose degradation enzymes, such as β-xylosidase and α-arabinofuranosidase, decreased gradually during fruit ripening, although the tomato fruits continued to soften. In contrast, GAX and XG biosynthesis-related genes were expressed in all tomato fruit tissues even during ripening, indicating that XG was synthesized throughout the fruit and that GAX may be synthesized only in the vascular bundles and the inner epidermis. Our results suggest that changes in the cell wall architecture and tissue-specific distribution of XG and GAX might be required for the regulation of fruit softening and the maintenance of fruit shape.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/regulatory-specialization-xyloglucan-xg-glucuronoarabinoxylan-gax-pericarp-cell-walls-during-fruit-r", "reader_count"=>31, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>5, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>3, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>5, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>3, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>4, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>19, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>3, "Chemistry"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>3}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>19}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>4}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1398756"], "description"=>"<p>The permeability and integrity of the inner epidermal lipid membrane was tested with a Toluidine Blue O dye penetration test. The lower panels are shown at greater magnification. The test was applied to fruit at four ripening stages: MG, B, T, and R. Although the pericarp and locular tissues were stained, the inner epidermis of the pericarp was not stained in any stage. M, mature green; B, breaker; T, turning; R, red ripe.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["crops", "fruits", "Computational biology", "Molecular genetics", "gene expression", "genetics", "Molecular cell biology", "Plant science", "plants", "Botany", "Plant physiology", "pericarp", "toluidine", "dye"], "article_id"=>944781, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Ayami Takizawa", "Hiromi Hyodo", "Kanako Wada", "Tadashi Ishii", "Shinobu Satoh", "Hiroaki Iwai"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0089871.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>39, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Inner_surface_of_the_inner_fruit_pericarp_following_Toluidine_Blue_dye_staining_/944781", "title"=>"Inner surface of the inner fruit pericarp following Toluidine Blue dye staining.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-02-26 02:56:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1398755"], "description"=>"<p>A, Immunolocalization of XG and GAX in fruit sections. Top panels: Negative control (treated with only secondary antibodies). Middle panels: Xyloglucan immunolabeled with LM15 antibody. Bottom panels: Glucuronoarabinoxylan immunolabeled with LM11 antibody. Bars represent 1 mm. B, Immunolocalization of XG and GAX in pericarp. Top panels: Negative control. Middle panels: Immunolabeled with LM15 antibody. Bottom panels: Immunolabeled with LM11 antibody. Bars represent 0.2 mm. C, Immunolocalization of XTH in pericarp. Top panels: Negative control. Bottom panels; immunolabeled with anti-XTH antibody. Bars represent 0.2 mm. Ripening stage: M, mature green; T, turning; R, red ripe.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["crops", "fruits", "Computational biology", "Molecular genetics", "gene expression", "genetics", "Molecular cell biology", "Plant science", "plants", "Botany", "Plant physiology", "xth", "epitopes", "longitudinal"], "article_id"=>944780, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Ayami Takizawa", "Hiromi Hyodo", "Kanako Wada", "Tadashi Ishii", "Shinobu Satoh", "Hiroaki Iwai"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0089871.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Immunolocalization_of_XG_GAX_and_XTH_epitopes_in_tomato_fruit_longitudinal_and_cross_sections_/944780", "title"=>"Immunolocalization of XG, GAX, and XTH epitopes in tomato fruit longitudinal and cross sections.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-02-26 02:56:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1398752"], "description"=>"<p>Gene expression was analyzed by RT-PCR. A, α-1,6-xylosyltransferase involved in XG biosynthesis, SlXXT-L: SGN-U581426 (27 cycles); B, arabinosyltransferase involved in XG biosynthesis, SlXST1: Sl07g044960 (35 cycles); C, SlXST2: Sl07g049610 (30 cycles), D, β-1,4-xylosyltransferase involved in GAX biosynthesis, SlIRX9-L1: SGN-U583344 (35 cycles); E, SlIRX9-L2: SGN-U568972 (30 cycles); D, 17S rRNA, as a control (17 cycles). Expression levels were compared to <i>rRNA</i> in the same assay. The four tissues analyzed in these assays included skin, mesocarp/endocarp, septum, and locular tissue. Ripening stages were as follows: I, immature green; M, mature green; B, breaker; T, turning; R, red ripe; O, overripe.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["crops", "fruits", "Computational biology", "Molecular genetics", "gene expression", "genetics", "Molecular cell biology", "Plant science", "plants", "Botany", "Plant physiology", "gax", "biosynthesis-related", "patterns", "differed"], "article_id"=>944777, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Ayami Takizawa", "Hiromi Hyodo", "Kanako Wada", "Tadashi Ishii", "Shinobu Satoh", "Hiroaki Iwai"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0089871.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_XG_and_GAX_biosynthesis_related_gene_expression_patterns_differed_among_tissues_/944777", "title"=>"XG and GAX biosynthesis-related gene expression patterns differed among tissues.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-02-26 02:56:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1398750"], "description"=>"<p>A, The fruit ripening stages of cv. Micro Tom. The six stages included immature green (I), mature green (M), breaker (B), turning (T), red ripe (R), and overripe (O). B, The fruit tissues of cv. Micro Tom. The eight tissues included skin, mesocarp, endocarp, septum, locular tissue, seed, placenta. and core. These were separated by hand-sectioning.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["crops", "fruits", "Computational biology", "Molecular genetics", "gene expression", "genetics", "Molecular cell biology", "Plant science", "plants", "Botany", "Plant physiology", "tissue-specific"], "article_id"=>944775, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Ayami Takizawa", "Hiromi Hyodo", "Kanako Wada", "Tadashi Ishii", "Shinobu Satoh", "Hiroaki Iwai"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0089871.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Preparation_for_tissue_specific_analysis_/944775", "title"=>"Preparation for tissue-specific analysis.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-02-26 02:56:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1398751"], "description"=>"<p>A, β-Xylosidase activity. B, α-Arabinofuranosidase activity. Total protein in the cell wall was extracted from each fruit tissue and assayed for β-xylosidase and α-arabinofuranosidase activity. The five tissues analyzed in these assays included skin, mesocarp/endocarp, septum, locular tissue, and seed. Ripening stage: I, immature green; M, mature green; B, breaker; T, turning; R, red ripe; O, overripe. ±SD of three independent replicates.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["crops", "fruits", "Computational biology", "Molecular genetics", "gene expression", "genetics", "Molecular cell biology", "Plant science", "plants", "Botany", "Plant physiology", "activities", "tissues"], "article_id"=>944776, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Ayami Takizawa", "Hiromi Hyodo", "Kanako Wada", "Tadashi Ishii", "Shinobu Satoh", "Hiroaki Iwai"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0089871.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_946_Xylosidase_and_945_arabinofuranosidase_activities_gradually_decreased_in_fruit_tissues_during_ripening_/944776", "title"=>"β-Xylosidase and α-arabinofuranosidase activities gradually decreased in fruit tissues during ripening.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-02-26 02:56:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1398757"], "description"=>"<div><p>Disassembly of cell wall polysaccharides by various cell wall hydrolases during fruit softening causes structural changes in hemicellulose and pectin that affect the physical properties and softening of tomato fruit. In a previous study, we showed that the changes in pectin during tomato fruit ripening were unique in each fruit tissue. In this study, to clarify the changes in hemicellulose in tissues during tomato fruit ripening, we focused on glucuronoarabinoxylan (GAX) and xyloglucan (XG). GAX was detected only in the skin and inner epidermis of the pericarp using LM11 antibodies, whereas a large increase in XG was detected in all fruit tissues using LM15 antibodies. The activity of hemicellulose degradation enzymes, such as β-xylosidase and α-arabinofuranosidase, decreased gradually during fruit ripening, although the tomato fruits continued to soften. In contrast, GAX and XG biosynthesis-related genes were expressed in all tomato fruit tissues even during ripening, indicating that XG was synthesized throughout the fruit and that GAX may be synthesized only in the vascular bundles and the inner epidermis. Our results suggest that changes in the cell wall architecture and tissue-specific distribution of XG and GAX might be required for the regulation of fruit softening and the maintenance of fruit shape.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["crops", "fruits", "Computational biology", "Molecular genetics", "gene expression", "genetics", "Molecular cell biology", "Plant science", "plants", "Botany", "Plant physiology", "specialization", "xyloglucan", "glucuronoarabinoxylan", "pericarp", "walls", "ripening"], "article_id"=>944782, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Ayami Takizawa", "Hiromi Hyodo", "Kanako Wada", "Tadashi Ishii", "Shinobu Satoh", "Hiroaki Iwai"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0089871", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Regulatory_Specialization_of_Xyloglucan_XG_and_Glucuronoarabinoxylan_GAX_in_Pericarp_Cell_Walls_during_Fruit_Ripening_in_Tomato_Solanum_lycopersicum_/944782", "title"=>"Regulatory Specialization of Xyloglucan (XG) and Glucuronoarabinoxylan (GAX) in Pericarp Cell Walls during Fruit Ripening in Tomato (<i>Solanum lycopersicum</i>)", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-02-26 02:56:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1398753"], "description"=>"<p>A, Xylose content per 1/endocarp, septum, and locular tissue. Ripening stage: I, immature green; M, mature green; B, breaker; T, turning; R, red ripe; O, overripe. ±SD of three independent replicates.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["crops", "fruits", "Computational biology", "Molecular genetics", "gene expression", "genetics", "Molecular cell biology", "Plant science", "plants", "Botany", "Plant physiology", "xylose", "arabinose", "differed", "tissues"], "article_id"=>944778, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Ayami Takizawa", "Hiromi Hyodo", "Kanako Wada", "Tadashi Ishii", "Shinobu Satoh", "Hiroaki Iwai"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0089871.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>43, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Changes_in_xylose_and_arabinose_content_differed_in_fruit_tissues_during_ripening_/944778", "title"=>"Changes in xylose and arabinose content differed in fruit tissues during ripening.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-02-26 02:56:15"}

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Relative Metric

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