Efficiency of Lift Production in Flapping and Gliding Flight of Swifts
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{"title"=>"Efficiency of lift production in flapping and gliding flight of swifts", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Per", "last_name"=>"Henningsson", "scopus_author_id"=>"16244469000"}, {"first_name"=>"Anders", "last_name"=>"Hedenström", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005169745"}, {"first_name"=>"Richard J.", "last_name"=>"Bomphrey", "scopus_author_id"=>"8370081400"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"24587260", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84896512712", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0090170", "sgr"=>"84896512712", "pui"=>"372643288"}, "id"=>"542631fb-5b11-316d-848b-cadd980108c5", "abstract"=>"Many flying animals use both flapping and gliding flight as part of their routine behaviour. These two kinematic patterns impose conflicting requirements on wing design for aerodynamic efficiency and, in the absence of extreme morphing, wings cannot be optimised for both flight modes. In gliding flight, the wing experiences uniform incident flow and the optimal shape is a high aspect ratio wing with an elliptical planform. In flapping flight, on the other hand, the wing tip travels faster than the root, creating a spanwise velocity gradient. To compensate, the optimal wing shape should taper towards the tip (reducing the local chord) and/or twist from root to tip (reducing local angle of attack). We hypothesised that, if a bird is limited in its ability to morph its wings and adapt its wing shape to suit both flight modes, then a preference towards flapping flight optimization will be expected since this is the most energetically demanding flight mode. We tested this by studying a well-known flap-gliding species, the common swift, by measuring the wakes generated by two birds, one in gliding and one in flapping flight in a wind tunnel. We calculated span efficiency, the efficiency of lift production, and found that the flapping swift had consistently higher span efficiency than the gliding swift. This supports our hypothesis and suggests that even though swifts have been shown previously to increase their lift-to-drag ratio substantially when gliding, the wing morphology is tuned to be more aerodynamically efficient in generating lift during flapping. Since body drag can be assumed to be similar for both flapping and gliding, it follows that the higher total drag in flapping flight compared with gliding flight is primarily a consequence of an increase in wing profile drag due to the flapping motion, exceeding the reduction in induced drag.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/efficiency-lift-production-flapping-gliding-flight-swifts", "reader_count"=>57, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>9, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>17, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>9, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>8, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>9, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>17, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>9, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>8, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>25, "Unspecified"=>2, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Materials Science"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>23, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Computer Science"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>25}, "Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>1}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>23}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Sweden"=>2, "United States"=>1, "Brazil"=>1, "South Africa"=>1, "Israel"=>1, "Germany"=>1, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>4}

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1403422"], "description"=>"<p>This downwash resulted in an average <i>e</i><sub>i</sub> of 0.36.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Musculoskeletal system", "biomechanics", "Flight mechanics", "biophysics", "Zoology", "Ornithology", "induced", "gliding"], "article_id"=>948562, "categories"=>["Physics", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Per Henningsson", "Anders Hedenström", "Richard J. Bomphrey"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0090170.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Example_showing_the_influence_by_the_tail_in_the_induced_flow_track_behind_the_gliding_swift_/948562", "title"=>"Example showing the influence by the tail in the induced flow track behind the gliding swift.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-02-28 03:37:09"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1403424"], "description"=>"<p>Circles correspond to flapping flight and squares correspond to gliding flight. Error bars show standard error of the mean between sequences. Span efficiency is consistently higher in flapping flight than in gliding.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Musculoskeletal system", "biomechanics", "Flight mechanics", "biophysics", "Zoology", "Ornithology", "span", "speeds"], "article_id"=>948563, "categories"=>["Physics", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Per Henningsson", "Anders Hedenström", "Richard J. Bomphrey"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0090170.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Average_span_efficiency_across_the_range_of_flight_speeds_measured_/948563", "title"=>"Average span efficiency across the range of flight speeds measured.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-02-28 03:37:09"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1403426"], "description"=>"<p>Top row (A–B) shows span efficiency and lift at 5.9 m/s, middle row (C–D) for 7.8 m/s and bottom row (E–F) for 10.0 m/s. Solid curves show average and dashed curves show standard error of the mean. Vertical dashed lines mark the instance of supination. White areas correspond to the downstroke part of the wing stroke and grey-shaded areas correspond to upstroke.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Musculoskeletal system", "biomechanics", "Flight mechanics", "biophysics", "Zoology", "Ornithology", "span", "normalised", "speeds", "flapping", "plotted", "standardized", "wingbeat"], "article_id"=>948565, "categories"=>["Physics", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Per Henningsson", "Anders Hedenström", "Richard J. Bomphrey"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0090170.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>29, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Phase_averaged_span_efficiency_and_normalised_lift_for_the_three_speeds_of_flapping_flight_plotted_over_standardized_wingbeat_duration_/948565", "title"=>"Phase-averaged span efficiency and normalised lift for the three speeds of flapping flight plotted over standardized wingbeat duration.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-02-28 03:37:09"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1403427"], "description"=>"<p>Morphological details of the two birds used in the experiments.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Musculoskeletal system", "biomechanics", "Flight mechanics", "biophysics", "Zoology", "Ornithology", "details", "birds"], "article_id"=>948566, "categories"=>["Physics", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Per Henningsson", "Anders Hedenström", "Richard J. Bomphrey"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0090170.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Morphological_details_of_the_two_birds_used_in_the_experiments_/948566", "title"=>"Morphological details of the two birds used in the experiments.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-02-28 03:37:09"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1403420"], "description"=>"<p>Colour and relief both show magnitude of induced flow, with shades of blue showing downward velocities corresponding to positive lift and shades of red/yellow showing upward velocities corresponding to negative lift. Both panels show the same colour range and the solid line plotted on the far side of the graphs shows the vertical position of the wingtip vortex throughout the sequence; in the flapping case showing the flapping motion and in the gliding case indicating how steadily the bird was gliding. A) Three consecutive wingbeats behind the swift in flapping flight. Average <i>e</i><sub>i</sub> over the sequence was 0.67. B) An example of a gliding sequence cut to equal length as the flapping example. Average <i>e</i><sub>i</sub> was 0.56 for this sequence.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Musculoskeletal system", "biomechanics", "Flight mechanics", "biophysics", "Zoology", "Ornithology", "induced", "tracks", "swifts"], "article_id"=>948559, "categories"=>["Physics", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Per Henningsson", "Anders Hedenström", "Richard J. Bomphrey"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0090170.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Examples_of_induced_flow_tracks_behind_the_swifts_at_8_m_s_/948559", "title"=>"Examples of induced flow tracks behind the swifts at 8 m/s.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-02-28 03:37:09"}

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