Benchmarking Successional Progress in a Quantitative Food Web
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{"title"=>"Benchmarking successional progress in a quantitative food web", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Alice", "last_name"=>"Boit", "scopus_author_id"=>"35304742900"}, {"first_name"=>"Ursula", "last_name"=>"Gaedke", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701317546"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"24587353", "sgr"=>"84896355488", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0090404", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84896355488", "pui"=>"372630028", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "issn"=>"19326203"}, "id"=>"c9e23766-818e-3a7f-9a3c-57da2744b4e1", "abstract"=>"Central to ecology and ecosystem management, succession theory aims to mechanistically explain and predict the assembly and development of ecological communities. Yet processes at lower hierarchical levels, e.g. at the species and functional group level, are rarely mechanistically linked to the under-investigated system-level processes which drive changes in ecosystem properties and functioning and are comparable across ecosystems. As a model system for secondary succession, seasonal plankton succession during the growing season is readily observable and largely driven autogenically. We used a long-term dataset from large, deep Lake Constance comprising biomasses, auto- and heterotrophic production, food quality, functional diversity, and mass-balanced food webs of the energy and nutrient flows between functional guilds of plankton and partly fish. Extracting population- and system-level indices from this dataset, we tested current hypotheses about the directionality of successional progress which are rooted in ecosystem theory, the metabolic theory of ecology, quantitative food web theory, thermodynamics, and information theory. Our results indicate that successional progress in Lake Constance is quantifiable, passing through predictable stages. Mean body mass, functional diversity, predator-prey weight ratios, trophic positions, system residence times of carbon and nutrients, and the complexity of the energy flow patterns increased during succession. In contrast, both the mass-specific metabolic activity and the system export decreased, while the succession rate exhibited a bimodal pattern. The weighted connectance introduced here represents a suitable index for assessing the evenness and interconnectedness of energy flows during succession. Diverging from earlier predictions, ascendency and eco-exergy did not increase during succession. Linking aspects of functional diversity to metabolic theory and food web complexity, we reconcile previously disjoint bodies of ecological theory to form a complete picture of successional progress within a pelagic food web. This comprehensive synthesis may be used as a benchmark for quantifying successional progress in other ecosystems.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/benchmarking-successional-progress-quantitative-food-web", "reader_count"=>31, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>6, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>6, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Environmental Science"=>6, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>18, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>18}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>6}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Greece"=>1, "Canada"=>1, "Argentina"=>1, "Brazil"=>1, "Mexico"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1401466"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Absolute biomass of the 7 major plankton groups in reference to concentrations of Soluble Reactive Phosphorus (SRP, dashed line, data from 1995, see Methods) and cellular levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, dotted line, avg. 2008–2009, see Methods) within the plankton of size fraction <140 μm in µg/l. (B) Relative biomass of all 20 planktonic guilds (cf. <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0090404#pone-0090404-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a>). (C) Temporal course of the absolute and (D) relative production.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Community Ecology", "Community assembly", "Energy flow", "Food web structure", "Ecological metrics", "Biomass (ecology)", "ecosystems", "ecosystem functioning", "Limnetic ecology", "theoretical ecology", "Population biology", "Population Dynamics", "Predator-prey dynamics"], "article_id"=>946984, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Alice Boit", "Ursula Gaedke"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0090404.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Biomass_A_8211_B_and_production_development_C_8211_D_during_succession_/946984", "title"=>"Biomass (A–B) and production development (C–D) during succession.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-02-27 03:28:37"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1401468"], "description"=>"<p>(A–D) In-going flows of carbon between major compartments in winter (A), spring (B), CWP (C), and summer to autumn (D). Data from winter (phases 1+7) and summer and autumn (phases 5+6) were pooled to summarize similar flow schemes. Functional guilds aggregated into trophic compartments (see Methods). Auto.  =  Autotrophs, Herb  =  Herbivores, Carn  =  Carnivores, Bac  =  Heterotrophic Bacteria, Bactv  =  Bacterivores. Excretion summarizes the release of dead particulate and dissolved organic matter (PDOM) by phytoplankton exudation, the consumers' feeding and metabolic activities (including sloppy feeding and non-grazing mortality). Arrows widths (compartment areas) are scaled relatively to the square root of the strength of the C-flows in µgC m<sup>-2</sup> d<sup>−1</sup>(C-content of biomass in µgC m<sup>−2</sup>). (E–H) Phosphorus (P) flows between major compartments in winter, late spring, CWP, and late summer to autumn. Seasonal scaling for P is analogous to C.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Community Ecology", "Community assembly", "Energy flow", "Food web structure", "Ecological metrics", "Biomass (ecology)", "ecosystems", "ecosystem functioning", "Limnetic ecology", "theoretical ecology", "Population biology", "Population Dynamics", "Predator-prey dynamics"], "article_id"=>946986, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Alice Boit", "Ursula Gaedke"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0090404.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Energy_carbon_and_nutrient_phosphorus_flows_/946986", "title"=>"Energy (carbon) and nutrient (phosphorus) flows.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-02-27 03:28:37"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1401469"], "description"=>"<p>(A) The biomass pyramids of the grazing chain and (B) the detritus chain on ascending trophic levels for the 8 major functional groups in units of carbon. Summer and autumn data were pooled to summarize similar distributions. (C) The production pyramids of the grazing chain and d) the detritus chain. Autotrophic biomass and primary production (<i>PP</i>) in (A, C) and bacterial biomass and production (<i>BP</i>) in (B, D) was set to 100% in each phase. Without this standardization, the ratio between <i>PP</i> and <i>BP</i> is approximately 9:1 (cf. Fig. 1D). Seasons and groups in (B–D) same as in (A–B). The detritus chain only shows two trophic levels because consumers partly feeding on bacterivores were assigned to the grazing chain. Arrows indicate that fish biomass and production were underestimated because fish biomass is reduced by commercial fisheries in LC (cf. Methods).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Community Ecology", "Community assembly", "Energy flow", "Food web structure", "Ecological metrics", "Biomass (ecology)", "ecosystems", "ecosystem functioning", "Limnetic ecology", "theoretical ecology", "Population biology", "Population Dynamics", "Predator-prey dynamics", "trophic"], "article_id"=>946987, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Alice Boit", "Ursula Gaedke"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0090404.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Seasonal_changes_in_trophic_structure_/946987", "title"=>"Seasonal changes in trophic structure.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-02-27 03:28:37"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1401471"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Functional diversity within four major plankton groups: phytoplankton (Phy), ciliates (Cil), rotifers (Rot), and all crustaceans (HerbCru + CarnCru), and system functional diversity <i>H<sub>bio</sub></i> of all 20 plankton guilds (cf. <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0090404#pone-0090404-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a>). Functional diversity of Rot is only shown when Rot biomass exceeded 1% of total biomass. (B) Succession rate <i>σ</i> of the 20 functional plankton guilds peaked twice shortly before and after the CWP. (C) C:P ratios of algal and bacterial biomass and food quality of the food ingested by different consumer groups (average across 1987–1993) in relation to phosphorus concentrations (SRP from 1995, dashed line) and cellular levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA average 2008–2009, dotted line) within the sestonic size fraction <140 µm <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0090404#pone.0090404-Hartwich1\" target=\"_blank\">[92]</a>. Food quality for herbivores decreased with increasing C:P ratios during succession. (D) System residence times for carbon (<i>SRT<sub>C</sub></i>) and phosphorus (<i>SRT<sub>P</sub></i>). <i>SRT<sub>C</sub></i> and <i>SRT<sub>P</sub></i> were maximal during the CWP due to the dominance of larger crustaceans with slower metabolism and in autumn-winter due to decreasing temperature and on average lower metabolic activity (Fig. 5D).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Community Ecology", "Community assembly", "Energy flow", "Food web structure", "Ecological metrics", "Biomass (ecology)", "ecosystems", "ecosystem functioning", "Limnetic ecology", "theoretical ecology", "Population biology", "Population Dynamics", "Predator-prey dynamics", "Succession", "times"], "article_id"=>946989, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Alice Boit", "Ursula Gaedke"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0090404.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Functional_diversity_A_succession_rate_B_food_quality_C_and_system_residence_times_D_/946989", "title"=>"Functional diversity (A), succession rate (B), food quality (C), and system residence times (D).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-02-27 03:28:37"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1401514", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1401515", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1401516"], "description"=>"<div><p>Central to ecology and ecosystem management, succession theory aims to mechanistically explain and predict the assembly and development of ecological communities. Yet processes at lower hierarchical levels, e.g. at the species and functional group level, are rarely mechanistically linked to the under-investigated system-level processes which drive changes in ecosystem properties and functioning and are comparable across ecosystems. As a model system for secondary succession, seasonal plankton succession during the growing season is readily observable and largely driven autogenically. We used a long-term dataset from large, deep Lake Constance comprising biomasses, auto- and heterotrophic production, food quality, functional diversity, and mass-balanced food webs of the energy and nutrient flows between functional guilds of plankton and partly fish. Extracting population- and system-level indices from this dataset, we tested current hypotheses about the directionality of successional progress which are rooted in ecosystem theory, the metabolic theory of ecology, quantitative food web theory, thermodynamics, and information theory. Our results indicate that successional progress in Lake Constance is quantifiable, passing through predictable stages. Mean body mass, functional diversity, predator-prey weight ratios, trophic positions, system residence times of carbon and nutrients, and the complexity of the energy flow patterns increased during succession. In contrast, both the mass-specific metabolic activity and the system export decreased, while the succession rate exhibited a bimodal pattern. The weighted connectance introduced here represents a suitable index for assessing the evenness and interconnectedness of energy flows during succession. Diverging from earlier predictions, ascendency and eco-exergy did not increase during succession. Linking aspects of functional diversity to metabolic theory and food web complexity, we reconcile previously disjoint bodies of ecological theory to form a complete picture of successional progress within a pelagic food web. This comprehensive synthesis may be used as a benchmark for quantifying successional progress in other ecosystems.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Community Ecology", "Community assembly", "Energy flow", "Food web structure", "Ecological metrics", "Biomass (ecology)", "ecosystems", "ecosystem functioning", "Limnetic ecology", "theoretical ecology", "Population biology", "Population Dynamics", "Predator-prey dynamics", "successional", "quantitative"], "article_id"=>947022, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Alice Boit", "Ursula Gaedke"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0090404.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0090404.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0090404.s003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>10, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Benchmarking_Successional_Progress_in_a_Quantitative_Food_Web_/947022", "title"=>"Benchmarking Successional Progress in a Quantitative Food Web", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2014-02-27 03:28:37"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1401476"], "description"=>"<p>(A–C) Body mass, predator-prey body mass ratio (<i>PPMR</i>), and trophic position increased during succession. (A) The biomass-weighted, average body mass of dietary groups changed seasonally due to species shifts within groups. The body mass of large carnivorous crustaceans (<i>Leptodora & Bythothrephes</i>) remained constant. Lines in (A) and (B) were drawn only if the group's biomass was >5% of its annual maximum. (B) The increase in herbivore-phytoplankton <i>PPMR</i> led to an increase in average <i>PPMR</i> by an order of magnitude from spring to summer. <i>PPMR</i> was maximal during the CWP due to herbivorous crustaceans' dominance. (C) The average consumers' trophic position established from fractional dietary flows for each group increased with body mass and more carnivorous diets in summer. Bac remained at trophic position 1 and HNF at trophic position 2. (D) Mass-specific metabolic activity (<i>P<sub>tot</sub>/B<sub>tot</sub></i>) of major functional groups and at system level in comparison with total biomass (in µgCm<sup>−2</sup>) and total production (in µgCm<sup>−2</sup>d<sup>−1</sup>). Total production and metabolic activity peaked in early stages of succession before total biomass. (E) The trophic transfer efficiency (<i>TE</i>) in units of C within the grazing chain (avg. across trophic level 1–3, cf. Methods) correlated positively (Table S2 in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0090404#pone.0090404.s001\" target=\"_blank\">Text S1</a>) with the plankton community's size spectrum slope (<i>SSS</i>) and was maximal during the CWP.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Community Ecology", "Community assembly", "Energy flow", "Food web structure", "Ecological metrics", "Biomass (ecology)", "ecosystems", "ecosystem functioning", "Limnetic ecology", "theoretical ecology", "Population biology", "Population Dynamics", "Predator-prey dynamics", "metabolic"], "article_id"=>946994, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Alice Boit", "Ursula Gaedke"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0090404.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Body_mass_and_metabolic_indices_/946994", "title"=>"Body mass and metabolic indices.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-02-27 03:28:37"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1401477"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Weighted connectance <i>C<sub>w</sub></i> increased during succession. <i>C<sub>w</sub></i> was positively correlated with the flow diversity of the trophic flows between the 8 major groups and the detritus pool (Fig. S8 in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0090404#pone.0090404.s001\" target=\"_blank\">Text S1</a>). (B) The small-world properties weighted average cluster coefficient <i>Q<sub>norm</sub></i> and characteristic path length <i>D<sub>norm</sub></i>. <i>Q<sub>norm</sub></i>. <i>Q<sub>norm</sub></i> (primary axis) was maximal during times when the keystone consumer (daphnids) dominated the community. Changes in <i>D<sub>norm</sub></i> (secondary axis) were small and opposite to <i>Q<sub>norm</sub></i>. (C) Ascendancy (<i>Asc</i>) and Total system throughput (<i>TST</i>) peaked during early stages of succession. (D) Relative ascendancy (<i>Asc<sub>rel</sub></i>) peaked in early spring when the average mutual information (<i>AMI</i>) (c) was maximal. Development capacity (<i>K<sub>dev</sub>  =  TST * H<sub>flow</sub></i>) was dominated by <i>TST</i> and also maximal in spring. (E) <i>AMI</i> decreased during succession while its upper bound, the flow diversity (<i>H<sub>flow</sub></i>) calculated from all flows considered in <i>TST</i> (including detrital flows, external in- and outputs, biomass storage flows and respiration, see Methods), increased during succession and exceeded <i>AMI</i> during late succession. The difference <i>H<sub>flow</sub></i> − <i>AMI</i> is the system's relative (normalized by <i>TST</i>) overhead which measures the residual uncertainty in the energy flow pattern (see Methods). (F) Total exergy (<i>Ex</i> in g detritus equivalents/m<sup>2</sup>, cf. Methods) and specific exergy (<i>Ex<sub>sp</sub></i> in units of <i>Ex</i> per unit of biomass in gC/m<sup>2</sup>) peaked during the CWP due to the high biomass of herbivorous crustaceans.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Community Ecology", "Community assembly", "Energy flow", "Food web structure", "Ecological metrics", "Biomass (ecology)", "ecosystems", "ecosystem functioning", "Limnetic ecology", "theoretical ecology", "Population biology", "Population Dynamics", "Predator-prey dynamics", "derived", "thermodynamic"], "article_id"=>946995, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Alice Boit", "Ursula Gaedke"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0090404.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Indices_derived_from_structural_food_web_theory_A_8211_B_and_from_thermodynamic_and_information_theory_C_8211_F_/946995", "title"=>"Indices derived from structural food web theory (A–B) and from thermodynamic and information theory (C–F).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-02-27 03:28:37"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1401478"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Correlogram of four system-level key indices: <i>P<sub>tot</sub>/B<sub>tot</sub></i>  =  system's mass-specific metabolic activity, <i>H<sub>bio</sub></i>  =  functional diversity, <i>C<sub>w</sub></i>  =  weighted connectance, <i>SSS</i>  =  Slope of the normalized biomass size spectrum. Blue (red) ellipsoids indicate positive (negative), and narrow (wide) ones indicate strong (weak) Spearman correlation coefficients. Note that the correlation coefficients between <i>P<sub>tot</sub>/B<sub>tot</sub></i> and <i>H<sub>bio</sub></i> (corr.  = −0.17) as well as between <i>SSS</i> and <i>H<sub>bio</sub></i> (corr.  = −0.07) were comparatively weak. B–E) Detailed trajectory of pairs of indices with comparatively strong correlations shown in (A). The dashed arrows indicate the direction of the successional trajectory. The distance between the data points increases with the rate of change of the dynamics (approx. 1 data point per week). (B) During early succession, <i>P<sub>tot</sub>/B<sub>tot</sub></i> was maximal and <i>SSS</i> minimal due to the fast and density-independent growth of small producers and grazers. Towards intermediate succession, <i>P<sub>tot</sub>/B<sub>tot</sub></i> decreased with increasing body mass, leading to the maximal (shallowest) <i>SSS</i>. In late succession, <i>SSS</i> decreased again with more evenly distributed biomasses along the size gradient, accompanied by decreasing P/B due to aggravating abiotic conditions. (C) The correlation between <i>H<sub>bio</sub></i> and <i>C<sub>w</sub></i> was mostly positive along sections of the successional trajectory, but temporarily interrupted by a short phase of low functional diversity during intermediate succession (clear water phase). (D) <i>C<sub>w</sub></i> increased while <i>SSS</i> became shallower (less negative) with the enhanced energy transfer from small to large organisms during succession. Note that <i>C<sub>w</sub></i> continued to increase in summer and autumn when the slope approached −1 due to the more evenly distributed size classes along the size gradient.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Community Ecology", "Community assembly", "Energy flow", "Food web structure", "Ecological metrics", "Biomass (ecology)", "ecosystems", "ecosystem functioning", "Limnetic ecology", "theoretical ecology", "Population biology", "Population Dynamics", "Predator-prey dynamics", "correlations", "indices"], "article_id"=>946996, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Alice Boit", "Ursula Gaedke"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0090404.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Pair_wise_correlations_of_key_indices_relevant_for_H1_H3_/946996", "title"=>"Pair-wise correlations of key indices relevant for H1-H3.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-02-27 03:28:37"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1401479"], "description"=>"<p>Several drivers of successional progress induce changes in community composition during succession in LC. Higher average body size entails lower system metabolic activity and respiration, while the feeding activities of the more diverse and more specialized consumer community combined with lower non-grazing mortality result in a more efficient exploitation of food resources. These changes in size, diet, and trophic structure enhance the efficiency of the energy transfer towards higher trophic levels and along the size gradient. With more energy reaching larger consumers and the higher trophic levels, biomass becomes more evenly distributed along the size gradient in a functionally more diverse and more complex food web with more closed energy and nutrient cycles. Four key indices (i.e. the transfer efficiency across trophic levels <i>TE,</i> the system metabolic activity <i>P<sub>tot</sub>/B<sub>tot</sub></i>, the functional diversity <i>H<sub>bio</sub></i>, and the weighted connectance <i>C<sub>w</sub></i>) are marked in red and combined to a composite index of successional progress (Fig. 9).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Community Ecology", "Community assembly", "Energy flow", "Food web structure", "Ecological metrics", "Biomass (ecology)", "ecosystems", "ecosystem functioning", "Limnetic ecology", "theoretical ecology", "Population biology", "Population Dynamics", "Predator-prey dynamics", "linking", "indices", "successional"], "article_id"=>946997, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Alice Boit", "Ursula Gaedke"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0090404.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Conceptual_scheme_linking_indices_of_successional_progress_/946997", "title"=>"Conceptual scheme linking indices of successional progress.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-02-27 03:28:37"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1401480"], "description"=>"<p>The composite index based on the average of the four normalized indices <i>TE, P<sub>tot</sub>/B<sub>tot</sub></i>, <i>H<sub>bio</sub></i>, and <i>C<sub>w</sub></i> (black line) increases approximately linearly during the growing season from phase 2–6. The result is similar if <i>C<sub>w</sub></i> is excluded from the calculation (gray line). Higher values during the winter phases (dashed/dotted part of the lines) are caused by the very low <i>P<sub>tot</sub>/B<sub>tot</sub></i> values which are due to the influence of abiotic forcing rather than biotic processes.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Community Ecology", "Community assembly", "Energy flow", "Food web structure", "Ecological metrics", "Biomass (ecology)", "ecosystems", "ecosystem functioning", "Limnetic ecology", "theoretical ecology", "Population biology", "Population Dynamics", "Predator-prey dynamics", "successional"], "article_id"=>946998, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Alice Boit", "Ursula Gaedke"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0090404.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Composite_index_of_successional_progress_/946998", "title"=>"Composite index of successional progress.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-02-27 03:28:37"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1401481"], "description"=>"<p>System-level indices used to test H1–H3.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Community Ecology", "Community assembly", "Energy flow", "Food web structure", "Ecological metrics", "Biomass (ecology)", "ecosystems", "ecosystem functioning", "Limnetic ecology", "theoretical ecology", "Population biology", "Population Dynamics", "Predator-prey dynamics", "indices"], "article_id"=>946999, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Alice Boit", "Ursula Gaedke"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0090404.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>7, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_System_level_indices_used_to_test_H1_8211_H3_/946999", "title"=>"System-level indices used to test H1–H3.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-02-27 03:28:37"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1401482"], "description"=>"1<p>The 7 detrital flows link the dead organic matter of each functional group except of the bacteria back to PDOM which is then taken up by bacteria.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Community Ecology", "Community assembly", "Energy flow", "Food web structure", "Ecological metrics", "Biomass (ecology)", "ecosystems", "ecosystem functioning", "Limnetic ecology", "theoretical ecology", "Population biology", "Population Dynamics", "Predator-prey dynamics", "lc", "8-groups", "mass-balanced"], "article_id"=>947000, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Alice Boit", "Ursula Gaedke"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0090404.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_LC_food_web_model_in_the_8_groups_resolution_as_the_basis_of_the_mass_balanced_flow_networks_/947000", "title"=>"The LC food web model in the 8-groups resolution as the basis of the mass-balanced flow networks.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-02-27 03:28:37"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1401483"], "description"=>"<p>The 24 functional guilds and 8 groups are: Phytoplankton (guild ID: 1–6), Bacteria (ID: 7), Heterotrophic Nanoflagellates (ID: 8), Ciliates (ID: 9–13), Rotifers (ID: 14–17), Herbivorous Crustaceans (ID: 18), Carnivorous Crustaceans (ID: 19–20), Fish (ID: 21–24). <sup>1</sup>Guild ID. <sup>2</sup>Size class is log2 (avg. body mass in pgC). <sup>3</sup>ID of prey guilds. <sup>4</sup>edibility (++: well-edible, +: less edible, –: edible only for specialists). <sup>5</sup>Dead particulate and dissolved organic matter. <sup>6</sup>Links 18→19 and 19→19 describe adult Cyclopoids feeding on juvenile herbivorous Cladocerans (18) and juvenile Cyclopoids (19), respectively. <sup>7</sup>general diet description (B  =  bacterivorous, H  =  herbivorous, C  =  carnivorous, O  =  omnivorous). For details, please refer to the Methods section.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Community Ecology", "Community assembly", "Energy flow", "Food web structure", "Ecological metrics", "Biomass (ecology)", "ecosystems", "ecosystem functioning", "Limnetic ecology", "theoretical ecology", "Population biology", "Population Dynamics", "Predator-prey dynamics", "lc", "comprises", "24", "guilds", "aggregated"], "article_id"=>947001, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Alice Boit", "Ursula Gaedke"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0090404.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_LC_food_web_model_comprises_24_functional_guilds_aggregated_to_8_major_functional_groups_/947001", "title"=>"The LC food web model comprises 24 functional guilds aggregated to 8 major functional groups.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-02-27 03:28:37"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1401484"], "description"=>"<p>Summary of system-level indices describing successional progress in LC. Indices for early (phases 2/3: early/late spring), intermediate (phase 4: CWP), and late (phases 5/6: summer/autumn) succession are averages across the respective phase. Annual avg. is the arithmetic average across phases 1–7. The standard deviation indicates the seasonal variability. Indices 1–5 apply to hypothesis H1, 6–9 to H2, 10–15 to H3. <sup>1</sup>uni  =  unimodal curve, bi  =  bimodal curve, up  =  upward trend, down  =  downward trend, const  =  constant trend. <sup>2</sup>Hypo  =  Hypothesis. A “+” (“−“) indicates that the trend of the index supported (opposed) the respective hypothesis. <sup>3</sup>g detritus equivalents/gC.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Community Ecology", "Community assembly", "Energy flow", "Food web structure", "Ecological metrics", "Biomass (ecology)", "ecosystems", "ecosystem functioning", "Limnetic ecology", "theoretical ecology", "Population biology", "Population Dynamics", "Predator-prey dynamics", "trends", "system-level", "indices", "successional"], "article_id"=>947002, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Alice Boit", "Ursula Gaedke"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0090404.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Temporal_trends_in_system_level_indices_of_successional_progress_in_LC_/947002", "title"=>"Temporal trends in system-level indices of successional progress in LC.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-02-27 03:28:37"}

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Relative Metric

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